# Tagged Questions

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### Tunnelling from a normal metal into a superconductor

a similar question has already been asked in the forum but unfortunately I cannot yet comment and still think that some things left unanswered. My question is in general concerning the tunnelling ...
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### What was the largest object/particle tunneling observed?

What is a current record? Reference to that would be nice. and what can be expected in near future? what are the theoretical limits?
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### How can I understand the tunneling problem by Euclidean path integral where the quadratic fluctuation has a negative eigenvalue?

I came across the S. Coleman's seminal papers 'Fate of the false vacuum' (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.15.2929, http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.16.1762) where he describes the tunneling ...
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### Refraction: Energy flow, tunneling and Evanescent EM waves

In the full internal reflection case where we have a refracted evanescent wave, If another object is nearby, then we could have wave tunneling phenomenon(frustrated total internal reflection). I am ...
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### Does tunneling transmission probability depend on the density of states or velocity?

In some quantum text books [1], the tunneling transmission formula depends only on the density of states of 2 regions (DOS) involved in tunneling. ($T(E) = C \times DOS_1(E) \times DOS_2(E)$, where C ...
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### Does quantum tunnelling drill holes in solid state drives?

The solid state drive (SSD) consists of numerous data storage elements. Each element (NAND flash memory element) reminds me of a microscopic battery. An electron is supposed to enter the element ...
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### Why do wider double wells have a lower $\Delta E$ than thinner ones?

In this diagram, in which an $n=1 (E_{1})$ and $n=2 (E_{2})$ wave have been superimposed, the probability density of the new, combined wave changes with time. The period of its shifting density is ...
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### Extra energy in quantum tunneling

In quantum tunneling, the probability of finding an electron inside the potential barrier is non zero . So we can actually find an electron which had an energy $E$ in a place where classically it ...
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### Can the internal energy of a system change by itself?

Thermodynamically it is not possible. Internal energy of a system can not change until and unless an external work is done on the system or by the system. But I came across a very strange process of ...
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### Can a particle tunnel from inside a black hole?

Event horizon isn’t special from GTR standpoint, and at least in AdS/CFT correspondence gravity can be “removed” from consideration entirely. So can a particle whose wave function is completely inside ...
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### Dimensional Analysis of tunnelling current expression

I have been racking my head trying to get the units to work on an expression for 1D tunnel current through a potential barrier. This expression is straight from S. Sze's "Physics of Semiconductor ...
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### What is the electron barrier tunneling mass, and why it is necessary? What is the ebarrier tunneling mass of AlGaAs?

I am doing solar cell simulations in synopsys software. I am getting a persistent error saying ebarrier tunneling mass has not been defined. Is anyone familiar with this error? What is this ...
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### Why is there an energy gap in superconductors?

I'm a little out of my depth here... I'm trying to understand quasiparticle tunnelling in superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions. Many books use the "semiconductor model" to explain this: ...
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### Where does particle borrow energy from to tunnel?

Where does particle borrow energy from to tunnel? It is implied that particle can borrow energy and leaped over to the other side wherever that is, the shorter the gap the more energy it borrows my ...
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### Tunneling of alpha particles

Consider this explanation of the alpha decay: It says The Coulomb barrier faced by an alpha particle with this energy is about 26 MeV, so by classical physics it cannot escape at all. ...
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### Tunneling v. Hopping

Can someone explain the difference between hopping and tunneling? The context I'm considering is conduction in semiconductors, specifically between impurity states within the bandgap. It's always ...
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### Why does transmission probability decrease, increase, then decrease again?

We did a quantum tunneling lab online. We used a Java program to model the electron wave function and show what happens when there is a step potential (U is less than E). Our value for the ...
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### Probability conservation in WKB tunneling

Suppose we have quantum mechanical plane waves of energy $E$ incident upon a one-dimensional potential barrier $V(x)$ with sloping sides. One can compare the WKB solutions in the three relevant ...
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### How are resistivity and tunneling related?

If we consider a sandwich with three nanometric layers: conductor-insulator-conductor and apply voltage (lower than breakdown voltage) from both sides tunneling will occur. Is tunneling dependent on ...
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### Layman's explanation of the mysterious occurrence of quantum tunneling?

I see much talk about probability and functions, quantum states and ball-in-a-pit analogies. Bah. I would like an easy summary about the principles behind, demonstrations of, and application from ...
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### The Tunnelling Man [closed]

What's the probability that I will tunnel through a solid wall? By "tunnel" I mean, the probability of finding me on the other side of the wall. Assumptions Wall thickness = $d$ Clearly state any ...
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### How to derive the Gamow factor in the simplest way?

I want to know how to derive the Gamow factor (how to solve the integral and which approximation I have to do) without the centrifugal correction. $$V(r) = V_N(r)+V_c(r).$$ The Gamow factor is ...
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### Can you communicate future information through the event horizon?

According to Hawking on "Particle Creation by Black Holes", there exists a relationship between the entropy outside of an event horizon, flux within the event horizon, and the area of that same event ...
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### What really happen with resonance inductive coupling

I can't figure out the picture of resonance inductive coupling I can image how magnetic inductive coupling works, It scatter magnetic around one coil and if second coil being near it then induce ...
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### If an electron tunnels and loses amplitude, but maintains energy; where does the rest of the amplitude go?

I'm assuming the 'amplitude' is kind of like the MeV it has on it, so could be seen as a product of the voltage applied to that electron in a field. But how can it 'lose' volts when passing the ...
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### Quantum mechanical tunneling

Keeping extraneous ideas and postulates to a minimum, How can we explain the process of quantum-mechanical tunneling?
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### Effective Coulomb barrier for deuteron

What is the effective Coulomb barrier for a Deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction? I am seeing temperatures of about $40 \times 10^7 K$ online, but have no idea how they are getting this. If we have ...
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### In principle, can energy “tunnel” directly out of a black hole? If not, why not?

Energy seems to quantum tunnel through normally impenetrable barriers, so I wonder why not the back side of an event horizon?
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### Funny relation with Quantum Tunneling and Newtonian Simulation [closed]

I just finished my first QM class, and have also been working on a 2d game engine for a while now. I learned about Quantum Tunneling, and the equations involved in calculating the odds of that ...
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### What are the conditions of wave function continuity when solving for Dirac Spinors as done in “Klein paradox” paper by Novoselov?

In the paper "Chiral tunneling and Klein paradox" paper by Katsnelson, Novoselov, and Geim, they use the wave function for Dirac spinors. What are the conditions for continuity of the wave function ...
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### What can tunnel through a graphene sheet?

In popularizations, people tunnel through walls or doors. But what can really tunnel through a graphene sheet without tearing it? According to Wikipedia, a single layer of graphene absorbs 2.3 % ...
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### What is the connection between negative kinetic energy and tunneling?

In my QM lecture today prof showed that a particle going through a potential step for which the energy of the particle is $0 < E < V_0$ There exists a non-zero transmission coefficient into ...
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### Strong force and quantum tunnelling

I am well aware of how quantum tunnelling works and how it is responsible (among other things) for the alpha decay. Inside a nucleon, there are two quarks with the same charge, so they will repel ...
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### Calculating probability of finding the particle using Dirac notation

An electron can be in one of two potential wells that are so close that it can ‘tunnel’ from one to the other. Its state vector can be written $|ψ\rangle = a|A\rangle + b|B\rangle$, where ...
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### Why is quantum tunneling most significant between states of equal energy?

Why is it, that quantum tunneling is only significant between states of nearly equal energy (as claimed here: 'Since tunnelling is significant only between states of nearly equal energy, tunnelling is ...
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### Virtual particles/quantum tunneling - conservation of energy?

I'm confused as to how the above phenomena can take place since arent they breaking the law of conservation of energy (even, if temporarily)?