Time is defined operationally to be that which is measured by clocks. The SI unit of time is the second, which is defined to be

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How do physicists and astronomers handle leap seconds?

I'm confused by the many contradictory descriptions I see about how UTC leap seconds are accounted for. I understand that there are various ways to handle them in common practice, and I've seen a ...
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1answer
102 views

The Effects of Moving Matter Across Light-Year distances

If I were to stand at one end of a light-year long metal pole, and another person were to stand one light-year away at the other end, and then I were to push on my end of the pole. How long would it ...
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1answer
130 views

Imaginary time is to inverse temperature what imaginary entropy is to …?

The Wick-Rotation rotates imaginary time into inverse temperature (as can be seen from its "rotating" the Schrödinger equation into the heat equation). Now since entropy is temperature's conjugate, I ...
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431 views

What does it mean to “convert energy into time”?

In a recent article about creating electron-positron pairs by colliding photons in a laboratory, Andrei Seryi, director of the John Adams Institute at Oxford University, was quoted to said: It's ...
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1answer
2k views

Is time quantized? Is there a fundamental time unit that cannot be divided? [duplicate]

Is the present just a sharp line between the past and the future with no time at all, or is the present a short frozen unit of time? Could time be quantized into a fundamental units? Like Planck ...
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228 views

Does it make a sense to speak about age of electron or atom?

It's possible that this question is too soft or even quite senseless for this forum, but I will ask nevertheless. Everyday (macroscopic) things, like a grandfather's pendulum clock or the grandfather ...
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1answer
94 views

Could a bipolar nebula be produced by a time gradient?

M2-9 is an example of a bipolar nebula that resembles two back-to-back rocket nozzles. Is it possible that this shape (somewhat unusual for an explosion) is the result of a time gradient? A rotating ...
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2answers
298 views

Why do we treat time as parameter in non relativistic QM instead of treating position as parameter?

Why do we treat time as parameter in non relativistic QM instead of treating position as parameter? What is actually a parameter? I have read this Wikipedia page, but could not understand why should ...
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1answer
83 views

How GR, QFT, or string theory address the one-directional feature of time?

It seems to me today's theoretical relativistic physics treat time and space on equal footing, with manifold diffeomorphism structure decoded in metric. However an obvious difference is that time is ...
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107 views

Physics without time

The structure of physical law as we generally recognize it today is firmly held together by the existence of time. Although physical laws can both predict and retrodict (reversible time does not break ...
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133 views

Does the definition of the SI unit “second” require that possible perturbation of primary frequency standards should be measured?

The definition of the SI unit "second" is stated as The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground ...
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How to calculate time dilation in approaching speed of light

If a spaceship travels close to the speed of light (say, at 0.9c), how do I calculate the time as the spaceship pilot experience it? I thought the formula was $$t = \frac{t_0}{\sqrt{1-v^2/c^2}}$$ ...
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526 views

Flight time Toronto to Moscow the same [duplicate]

I have a question. How come that the flight from Toronto to Moscow takes the same time as the flight from Moscow to Toronto. Should it take much longer because of the earth rotation? One direction we ...
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1answer
211 views

Time dilation and the speed of light in the twin paradox

Suppose we look at the twin paradox where the twin traveling at high speed relative to an observer on earth has a clock which counts time by sending photons of light across a distance within the ...
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3answers
1k views

Scale factor and age of the universe

Why is the cosmological scale factor (expansion rate of the universe) not simply the time $t$, i.e. the age of the universe?
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2answers
324 views

Why time is considered a dimension?

Why is time considered to be a dimension? And the other 7 (except the 3 dimensions of space, and the dimension of time) dimensions that string theory suggests, why can't they be realized?
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8answers
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How does velocity cause time dilation?

I've been trying to learn about the speed of light and time dilation, but I'm at an impasse. The presented facts say that if I travel around the solar system at 50% the speed of light and then come ...
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3answers
257 views

How do we know for certain that space is expanding?

How do we know for certain that space is expanding? Let's say that in the year 1950, we observe that galaxy 1 is 5 billion light years away from us and galaxy 2 is 10 billion light years away from ...
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224 views

Twin Paradox in case of two twins that don't meet

If there are two twins. such that one of them goes on a space voyage maintaining a constant velocity, and that one never returns to earth, and the twins decide to never meet but send information about ...
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4answers
217 views

QFT and violation of Heisenberg uncertainty principle

In some QFT books is said that a free electron can emit a virtual photon as long as it reabsorbs the photon and returns to its original state within a time: $$\Delta t<\dfrac{\hbar}{2\Delta E}$$ ...
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194 views

A question about atomic clocks

I have a rather simple question about atomic clocks. I have read that: Microwave radiation with a frequency of exactly 9.192.631.770 cycles per second causes the outermost electron of cesium-133 ...
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1answer
106 views

Can you calculate unix timestamps (universal clock) from any planet?

Given the definition of unix timestamp as the number of seconds elapsed since January 1st, 1970 as GMT+0, without leap seconds, is it possible to create a universal clock that will generate the ...
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4answers
596 views

Time inside a Black hole

If time stops inside a black hole, due to gravitational time dilation, how can it's life end after a very long time? If time doesn't pass inside a black hole, then an event to occur inside a black ...
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1answer
678 views

Universe Expansion as an absolute time reference

Why we call "constant" to the Hubble constant?, if the universe were really expanding then the Hubble "constant" should change, being variable, smaller and smaller..with "time". Other example/view ...
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805 views

Does time expand with space? (or contract)

Einstein's big revelation was that time and space are inseparable components of the same fabric. Physical observation tells us that distant galaxies are moving away from us at an accelerated rate, and ...
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2answers
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If I travel close to the speed of light and come back, why is everyone else dead, and not me? [duplicate]

Consider the following scenario: I get in a spaceship, and travel really close to the speed of light for a while, and then come back. A lot of time has passed on the Earth, but since I was traveling ...
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747 views

Atomic clocks and how to synchronize them

During teaching measurement section in the class, Our teacher told us about atomic clocks. I have two questions: What is exactly an atomic clock? and how do we synchronize two atomic clocks far ...
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1answer
2k views

How to determine day/night based on latitude, longitude and a date/time?

Is there a simple method of determining, given a UTC date/time, whether it is day or night at a given lat/long coordinate? I am currently using a formula based on a Sunrise/Sunset Algorithm from the ...
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1answer
659 views

Time evolution in quantum mechanics

We know that an operator A in quantum mechanics has time evolution given by Heisenberg equation: $$ \frac{i}{\hbar}[H,A]+\frac{\partial A}{\partial t}=\frac{d A}{d t} $$ Can we derive from this ...
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1answer
93 views

Nonlinear combination of velocities implies no absolute time?

Landau 1961 begins with a brief presentation of special relativity. This question is about the validity of a certain argument that they use in building up the foundations of the subject from scratch, ...
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1answer
1k views

Finding radius of Earth through observation of Sun's motion

The question I'm about to pose is from a physics book I had recently bought. Since I am very interested in physics I am quite keen in understanding how this question can be solved. Before I present ...
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1answer
123 views

Quantum Field Theory with (2,2) metric

Does someone know some reference which treats QFT in a space with the following non-Lorentzian signature: $g_{\mu\nu}=\text{diag}(-1,-1,1,1)$. I'm interested in basic stuff like the shape of the ...
3
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1answer
482 views

Does time dilation correct for the Doppler effect?

Knowing that a body in motion experiences time dilation, "also" knowing when two objects travel at a great speed away from one an other, both observers experience the others clock as moving slower ...
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1answer
193 views

Would time dilation be too great for the early universe to expand?

I read that one second after the big bang the universe was composed of photons electrons and neutrinos. Wouldn't the density of energy/matter have caused such extreme time dilation that the universe ...
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198 views

Time Slowing Down [duplicate]

I'd like to ask a question if I may about the relativity. When travelling at the speed of light(which is impossible for particles with masses) or very close to it, would it be me, myself, seeing my ...
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2answers
149 views

The heat equation in relation to smoothing algorithm

Recently I learned about a technique in image processing, which has its roots in something called the 'heat equation' from physics. The original creators of this technique were inspired by the physics ...
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1answer
212 views

Is time the rate at which one moves through space

I'll start out with the cliche attempt in a protective shield of my dignity. I am a young highschool kid just eager to learn and understand. If I'm way off or this is already a known idea, or maybe ...
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2answers
842 views

Is there an observable of time? [duplicate]

In Quantum Mechanics, position is an observable, but time may be not. I think that time is simply a classical parameter associated with the act of measurement, but is there an observable of time? And ...
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1answer
179 views

Why isn't sunset time in sync with solstice?

The winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere in 2011 is on December 22. But if I look at the sunset times for a location such as Washington, DC on the USNO site, the sunset time starts reversing ...
3
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1answer
2k views

What is actually meant by 'sun set' and 'sun rise' times, when taking into account the mirage due to light bending in the atmosphere

I’ve heard from the likes of Brian Cox that what we see of the sun during a sunset and sun rise is actually the mirage of the sun. The Sun has actually set/risen and we see it due to the way light is ...
3
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1answer
193 views

Why is cesium used to measure time in atomic clocks?

Seconds are measured by the frequency emission of cesium. Why is a frequency from the emission spectrum of cesium used as the standard in defining a second? Why particularly cesium?
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Is it time or duration? [closed]

Taking this post: "Is there a proof of existence of time?", as a starting point. Therein was mentioned that there is confusion between: "time" and "flow of time". There was a comment (of mine) that ...
3
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1answer
120 views

Decoherence without time?

Decoherence is a phenomenon that provides a part of the explanation of why quantum systems and classical systems behave differently. What I understood from decoherence so far is that it requires ...
3
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1answer
127 views

How is UT1 being computed?

I've recently read up about time standards and now understand that UTC is a second-corrected version of international atomic time so that it is kept within 0.9s from UT1. And then UT1 is defined as ...
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2answers
133 views

Circular motion and time dilation

Einsteins' time paradox was shown when two atomic clocks were synchronized and one was sent in a super sonic plane and the other kept at rest. When the two where then checked it was shown that yes ...
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1answer
386 views

Calculating the length of day at any time of the year? [duplicate]

Is it possible to calculate the length of the day at various location (distances) from the sun? I hear agricultural scientists are able to do that. To make calculations easier assume there is no axis ...
3
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2answers
1k views

When is the right ascension of the mean sun 0?

I understand that the right ascension of the mean sun changes (at least over a specified period) by a constant rate, but where is it zero? I had naively assumed that it would be zero at the most ...
3
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3answers
547 views

What is a clock?

Relationalists love to define time operationally as what clocks measure, but this begs the question of what counts as a clock. Clearly, it's a measuring instrument and what it measures is supposedly ...
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1answer
119 views

Is GPS time measuring the proper time on the mean sea level or the GPS station itself?

LeapSecond.com states: Global Positioning System time is the atomic time scale implemented by the atomic clocks in the GPS ground control stations and the GPS satellites themselves. Does GPS ...
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3answers
796 views

Time in special relativity and quantum mechanics

The time is treated differently in special relativity and quantum mechanics. What is the exact difference and why relativistic quantum mechanics (Dirac equation etc.) works?