# Tagged Questions

Time is defined operationally to be that which is measured by clocks. The SI unit of time is the second, which is defined to be

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### What if a light clock travels perpendicular to mirrors that make up the clock?

I'm guessing you're all familiar with the classic intuitive way of explaining time dilation: with a light clock traveling at velocity v directed at a parallel direction to the mirrors that make up the ...
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### Full time-derivative, Poisson brackets and Hamilton's equations (classical mechanics)

While studying Poisson brackets in classical mechanics and the derivation of $\dot{q_j}=\{q_j,H\}$ and $\dot{p_j}=\{p_j,H\}$ form of Hamilton's equations I encountered a surpsing identity, which led ...
1k views

### What is considered now over astronomical distances?

For the sake of discussion, let's say that Mars is exactly 5 light-minutes away and that Earth and Mars are moving with the exact same velocity so that special relativistic effects are irrelevant. Let'...
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### Twin paradox in special relativity [duplicate]

The Twin Paradox involves 2 observers, usually twins. Let them be named A and B. A remains at rest in the same reference frame as Earth while B is in a separate reference frame moving at velocity v, ...
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### Coordinate Time and Proper Time/Simultaneity [closed]

At close to the speed of light, clock A is running slower than "stationary" clock B. Does clock A enter the future time reference of clock B as it slows down? Trying to understand where the forward ...
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### Range of a mediating particle

My book describes the derivation of the formula $R\approx\hbar/2mc$ by: $$(\Delta E)(\Delta t)\geq\hbar/2$$ The violation of energy conservation is $\Delta E=mc^2$ to create the particle’s mass. Also, ...
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### Relativistic Commutation relation for momentum and position

We all know that the canonical commutation relation give you $$[x_i,p_j]=i\hbar\delta_ij,$$ is there a relativistic version such as $$[x^a,p_b]=i\hbar\delta_a^b?$$ If so what is the time ...
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### Difference between $dM/dt = 0$ and $\partial M/\partial t=0$ [duplicate]

$\frac{dM}{dt} = 0$ represents a constant of motion $M.$ Why not $\frac{\partial M}{\partial t}$ represent a constant of motion $M$?
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### Deriving proper time invariance from first principles

I'm trying to learn special relativity right now, and for various reasons I'd like to start by getting the invariance of proper time, rather than starting with the Lorentz transformations - if you can ...
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### Do clocks near the centre of the galaxy run slower than clocks at the edge? [duplicate]

Does an astronaut floating in space near the center of the galaxy, where the mass density is higher (let's ignore the dark matter halo for this example) have a clock that runs slower than an astronaut ...
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### Significance of Time constants in LR and RC circuits [closed]

What is the significance of a time constant in a circuit? Is there any use of knowing the time at which the charge in a capacitor is 1-1/e times its total charge? What is special about the capacitor ...
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### Gravity vs. Velocity time-dilation [duplicate]

Is there any difference in effects from time dilation of that due to gravity vs. that due to velocity?
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### How does time stoppage inside a blackhole affect physics? [duplicate]

From the gravitational time dilation theory we know that at event horizon of a black hole the time should stop completely. However all the physics phenomenon we know (at macro level) e.g laws of ...
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### Time dilation: linear or exponential or other?

As you near the speed of light, time slows for you relative to the world around you. So you would be traveling at more than one hour per hour. Is the rate of time slowing for you linear or exponential ...
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### Could time have tertiary directions?

This is a late night thought, but it seems interesting enough to ask: Has anyone considered the possibility that time might have more directions that forward and backward? Could time go sideways?
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### Gravitational Time Dilation and Schwarzschild Coordinates

So I'm trying to use this equation for the time dilation of an object, but I don't know how to get the distance that I have (in meters) to a radial coordinate in terms of schwarzschild coordinates. ...
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### Why does the light beam moves diagonally?

In almost all articles that explains Relativity or Time dilation. They start by saying the the Light is absolute and isn't affected by the inertial frames of reference yet when they start to explain ...
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### Is each succeeding dimension time? [closed]

I have been researching but I have found nothing on this topic (at least after basic google searching and some deeper searching on this site), I'm not sure if this is a common sense thing or it is ...
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### What does the zero in the differential operator $\partial_0$ mean?

I have noticed the differential operator $\partial_0$ in a lot of equations whilst studying quantum field theory. I am used to the notation $\partial_x$ meaning $\frac{d}{dx} \\\\$ etc. but just a ...
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### What is time measured against? [duplicate]

Today I was observing a clock and its movement, every second is an exact second on every clock. I was making a comparison between a second and a meter. I know in France there is a metal stick one ...
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### Relativistic time dilation on Mars compared to Earth?

What is the time dilation in Mars, compared to earth? Can we accurately calculate it? What information is needed to do these calculations?
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### Time dilation and reference frame in an orbiting context [closed]

I have looked for other answers, but most confused me more than clarified and did not provide specific calculations. So I am still struggling with this simple question. Consider two persons, $P_a$ ...
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### If the Universe is going to last infinitely long, what is the type of this infinity?

Let's say we've built a machine, that prints a sequence of all natural numbers from 0 to $\infty$. We "could" do this in a Universe with an infinite amount time (if we also make many other assumptions ...
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### A Confusion About Energy-Time Uncertainty Relations

In all the textbooks that I have seen, energy-time relation is written in the following way:$$\Delta E \cdot \Delta t \geqslant \frac{\hbar}{2}$$ Here is my interpretation of this principle: The ...
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### Could a flat battery make a watch run fast?

My watch used to keep good time but as of about a month ago it runs fast (gains about 5 mins per day). Could a flat battery be responsible, or is this physically impossible? It's a quartz crystal ...
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### How long is a 'sun year'?

I know that a 'sun day' is the time that a sun spot takes to orbit one time across the suns surface (25-30 days dependent on location I think) and what is actually defined as a 'sun year' is how long ...
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### Smallest possible spinning clock?

The earth's rotation acts as a clock and defines a rather precise unit of time called the day. We could go out in outer space and spin a marble and get a reasonable clock. On the other hand, it is my ...
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### Determine time over known distance, constant acceleration and starting speed [closed]

Problem: I have an object covering a specific distance (say 100m) at a starting speed (say 10m/s) and a constant acceleration of 1m/s/s. Which equation can I use determine how long it will take the ...
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### Can less gravity speed up time? [closed]

We know more gravity slows down time per Einsteins Theory of Relativity. However will a significantly less gravitational pull speed up time? Or is "our time" aka earth standard of time the fastest ...
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### Introductory time dilation confusion [duplicate]

I'm a little bit confused about the nature of symmetrical reference frames and how they relate to time dilation. To clarify my question, I've written a scenario. Bob stands on a platform as a train ...
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### What is meant by 'probability of transition per unit time'?

Today I came across a term used by Feynman in his thirteenth lecture: 'probability per unit time' to go from $| 1\rangle$ to $|2\rangle$ while initially being at $|1\rangle$. This is the excerpt fom ...
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### Calibration of a clock [duplicate]

I was inspired by this interesting question on this forum: How do I measure an earth year without a clock? Say you're stranded on an alien planet without any significant tools. How would you ...
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### Does General Relativity espouse “block time”?

Brian Greene talks about spacetime as a loaf of bread. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eR8DYZzmin0 His analogy does seem to imply block time, so I was wondering if the theory of General Relativity ...
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### How does light travel?

How does light travel, does this not contradict the idea that going the speed of light stops time? Because if going the speed of light stops time and light goes the speed of light shouldn't it be dark?...
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### Astronaut travels 16 lightyears and ages 15 years - am I misreading this question?

The astronaut is travelling to a star sixteen lightyears away. During this trip he ages fifteen years. What is the speed u at which the astronaut travels? It's obvious he can't be traveling at \$\...
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### Is there a place in the universe where time doesn't exist?

I've been reading that, all laws of nature and the universe stop existing at a singularity. So where there is a singularity, there cannot be time. A singularity is created when a property of a system ...
298 views

### Communication back in time?

On the wikipedia page for time travel, it mentions that Robert Forward said (theoretically, unknown since we don't have a working theory of quantum gravity) that if a heavy nucleus was subjected to an ...
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### How to literally slow time [closed]

Let's say there is this car in a bubble of some sort. I want to slow time for that car in the bubble, let's say, by half so if the car is going 40 mph, outside of the bubble, people see it as going 80 ...
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### expansion of space and time vs passage of time [closed]

Is passage of time is due to expansion of space and time?And the "dilation of time(by general relativity)" due to the force of gravity held against the expansion itself,like time slows down near ...
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### How is movement possible? [duplicate]

This is a weird question that I wasn't sure where to ask. Say I have two points A and B. I roll a ball from A to B. Between A and B there are an infinite number of points right? Wouldn't it take an ...
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### Time Dilation When In Orbit

Imagine a space ship orbiting the sun at near relativistic speeds, when compared to Earth (say from the reference frame of the sun) there would be x amount of time dilation. This would mean people on ...
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### Pre Big Bang knowledge

I have read that no one knows what preceded the Big Bang, but is this true? The Big Bang process (with or without inflation) followed known rules which “existed” prior to time zero. For example, some ...
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### Is it possible that photons lose a small amount of energy over time to become redshifted instead of being redshifted because of an expanding universe? [duplicate]

Can photons lose a small amount of energy over time when traveling large distances due to either weak interactions with magnetic fields (Faraday Effect) or due to the way all objects cool and give off ...
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### Is time a finite resource? [closed]

I am struggling to find an answer for this question because time as we know it would end when we reach the heat death of a universe. Which would imply that is the end of time. I think I have a ...
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### Is there a difference between 0.18 and 0.180 seconds? [closed]

Q. Is there a difference between 0.18 and 0.180 seconds ? In our databases we are collecting timestamps and there are 2 time instants which are the same for the hour, minute and seconds but the ...
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### Oscillation of Atom

What exactly does it mean when one says 'one atom of Caesium 137 oscillates 9,192,631,770 times'? I do understand the general thing about oscillation but what exactly is the oscillation of atom, what ...
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### Time relativity

Lets say that I am on a spaceship moving with the speed of 0,90c and I am looking on my friend who stayed back on earth. My friend is looking on me. From my perspective, my friend is moving 7 times ...
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### Estimation of the age of Earth

By calculating the ratio of U-238 to Pb - 209 the age of the earth can be estimated. Is it not a possibility that non radioactive lead already there formed during the birth of earth it self alter the ...