Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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84 views

Why does hot water freezes faster than normal water? [duplicate]

What is the reason behind hot water gets Freezes faster than normal water when we keep both the hot and normal water together in freezer ?
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0answers
31 views

Bose-Einstein condensate effect

Does every boson gas go through the condensate effect? Could there be a boson gas with high energy (photons for example) that would have enough energy to be at different quantum states even at 0 K?
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13answers
9k views

What is entropy really?

On this site, change in entropy is defined as the amount of energy dispersed divided by the absolute temperature. But I want to know: What is the definition of entropy? Here, entropy is defined as ...
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1answer
44 views

Why is energy minimized over the string landscape?

As understand it, the 4D string landscape is a function that assigns an energy to every possible compactification of the 6 small spatial dimensions. We expect our universe to lie in a local energy ...
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1answer
24 views

Fin area and heat transfer direction

So, I was studying some fin design in a heat transfer course , and then came the part where the efficiency is to be calculated, then I noticed that when he calculated the surface area , the sides of a ...
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2answers
24 views

Calculating internal energy of formation

I'm working on some code to simulate combustion at constant volume instead of constant pressure and I need to calculate the internal energy of formation for the species involved because I can only ...
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0answers
17 views

Thermodynamic system, phonon and electron temperature and dissipation

Consider the following system (rudimental bolometer): A material (imagine a metal) A is initially at $25°\mathrm{C}$ and connected through Van der Waals forces to a material B (metal as well), which ...
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0answers
35 views

Why do the handrails in Monaco never get hot in the sun? [on hold]

In every other city I've been in, the handrails around the city grow distressingly hot in the afternoon sun and cannot be leaned on safely. But in Monaco, somehow this doesn't happen; The handrails ...
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4answers
27 views

Are elements of statistical ensemble fixed or dynamic?

I will use the simplest example I can think of to explain what I am trying to understand. Consider a system with ~$10^{23}$ particles in an equilibrium with fixed values of pressure, volume and ...
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3answers
134 views
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Fluids with critical point at ordinary temperature and pressure

Are there any fluids with critical point near STP or that are supercritical at STP? If not would it be feasible to design a molecule for a substance with critical point near STP using theoretical/...
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1answer
344 views

Gas compressed and cooled

If a certain amount of a gas is compressed into a cylinder by the action of a piston that reduces its volume (lets say at a low speed), the kynetic energy of the gas molecules increases, what is ...
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1answer
23 views

Heat transfer direction in fins

I'm unsure of what exactly is changing the heat transfer direction in the triangular fin. $$q_{x} = -kA(x)\frac{dT(x)}{dx} (1)$$ $$q_{x+dx} = -kA(x)\frac{dT(x)}{dx} - k\frac{d}{dx}[A(x)\frac{dT(x)}{...
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2answers
753 views

Hysteresis and dissipation

Hysteretic phenomena are often linked to dissipation. When there is an hysteresis loop, the dissipated energy can usually be computed as the area of the cycle. For example, in ferromagnetic materials,...
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2answers
58 views

Is the relation between expansion of a liquid with temperature linear?

Say I have a liquid with certain volume. If I heat it, will it expand with a constant rate? $$ \frac{T}{V} = k.$$ It is true for gases, is it also true for liquids? And if yes then: is it true for ...
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2answers
156 views

Rankine Cycle pressure

I don't understand why in (Ideal) Rankine Cycle we assume that pressure remains constant at the boiler and the condenser. Shouldn't water pressure change, when water goes from liquid to vapor (boiler) ...
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1answer
130 views

How do the human heat sensors work?

I have been wondering about this particular issue for quite some time now. It feels like I should know this as a master's student in physics. The questions are, essentially, the following: What is ...
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2answers
55 views

How is 'Fog' in summer (sea-elevation) possible? [on hold]

I am residing in New Delhi (pardon me for any irrelevant data I might include), and I noticed a really interesting thing. It's an average $30^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ out here, and yet, most/some weather ...
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1answer
2k views

Definitions in thermodynamics: temperature, thermal equilibrium, heat

I'm currently reading Fermi's "Thermodynamics" and I'm trying to grasp the (possibly different) right definitions for temperature, thermal equilibrium, heat. To clarify, I'm looking for definitions ...
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3answers
113 views

Is this explanation for the Universe's low entropy at its origins plausible? [on hold]

I've been thinking about this, and it may sound very ludicrous (and it probably is), but I may have come up with a proto-explanation for it. I hope I won't come across as some misinformed perpetual ...
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0answers
27 views

How to calculate the heating power of a metal plate in nature?

I like to heat up a part of a metal plate to a given temperature. For that I want to use an electric heater. The metal plate is located outside in nature. For that I need to take in account the wind ...
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1answer
106 views

Is refraction of light a thermodynamic process?

Is refraction of light a thermodynamic process? Can it be explained by conservation of energy? If so, does temperature has an effect on refraction of light?
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1answer
69 views

What is meant by a “change in volume of a system”?

I keep getting confused when my professor talks about the change in volume of a system. Sometimes it seems as though he's talking about the volume of the gas and at other times he might be talking ...
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2answers
49 views

Heated and cooled air effects on combustion [duplicate]

In a turbocharged engine, an intercooler is installed to cool down the compressed air (apparently for better combustion). In contrast, in the power plant they use air preheater to heat up the air ...
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6answers
7k views

Why was the universe in an extraordinarily low-entropy state right after the big bang?

Let me start by saying that I have no scientific background whatsoever. I am very interested in science though and I'm currently enjoying Brian Greene's The Fabric of the Cosmos. I'm at chapter 7 and ...
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2answers
902 views

Does fluid speed affect liquid cooling?

If you have a liquid-based cooling system, like the loop in the picture below, does the fluid speed actually matter? I can see how cycling the liquid too slowly would be bad, since the fluid would be ...
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1answer
35 views

Extinction level meteor effects on Earth's crust pending on the surface area upon impact

Would it be possible to have a extinction level meteor hit Earth depending on shape to actually create minimal damage if turned on its thinnest area rather than hitting flat? The meteor would enter ...
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4answers
2k views

Specific heat capacity at constant volume VS constant pressure

For an ideal gas, why is the specific heat capacity at constant volume lower than the specific heat capacity at constant pressure?
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4answers
2k views

Why does water feel cooler than air?

My first assumption was based on "evaporation causes cooling" but I realized that it is not the case as it is cooler even if I am submerged under it. Are all liquids generally cooler than air ? Just ...
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2answers
3k views

Why does friction produce heat?

What causes two objects sliding against each other to produce heat? Why don't they generate visible light or something else?
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2answers
212 views

Is ergodic hypothesis in contradiction with the notion of equilibrium?

From wikipedia: In physics and thermodynamics, the ergodic hypothesis1 says that, over long periods of time, the time spent by a system in some region of the phase space of microstates with the ...
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1answer
53 views

Why is black hole entropy not an extensive quantity?

The Bekenstein entropy for a black hole is proportional to the surface area $A$ of the black hole $$ S_{BH} = \frac{k_B}{4 l_P} A $$ with the Planck length $l_P = \sqrt{\frac{\hbar G}{c^3}}$. The ...
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5answers
91 views

Is perfect thermal insulation possible?

Supposing someone says they have a sample of insulanium with the following properties: If you make a thermos out of insulanium, it will keep a drink hot or cold forever. If you put your hand on a ...
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0answers
32 views

Why does depth and height replace volume in this problem? [on hold]

In the following problem, why does H/𝛿 replace V/V? The two ratios have different units. Is there something I'm missing here?
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2answers
104 views

How much water did I actually drink? [on hold]

Water expands at temperatures over $5^\circ\mathrm C$ strictly monotonic. If you now drink $1~\mathrm{L}$ water ($5^\circ\mathrm C$) which will expand in your body on $37^\circ\mathrm C$, did you ...
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1answer
123 views

What is the difference between thermodynamic and empirical temperature?

When I've studied Thermodynamics I did so in Callen's book and there the author talks about temperature as a single thing, which mathematically is simply defined as: $$T = \dfrac{\partial U}{\partial ...
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1answer
426 views

Conservation of energy when focusing black body radiation on another black body

This question about whether or not it is possible to focus black-body radiation to make something hotter than the radiation's source was answered mostly negative: the second law of thermodynamics and/...
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2answers
62 views

If we harvest energy generated by Coriolis Effect of the earth, will the earth slow down?

Coriolis Effect causes strong winds in the upper atmosphere, and it's purely due to differences in the linear velocity of Earth's rotation across latitudes. Now the Earth is spinning with the energy ...
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1answer
208 views

What is the relationship between liquid-gas expansion pressure and surface area to volume ratio?

If a set volume of liquid is heated above its boiling point, how does the pressure that that volume of gas generates relate to the surface area of the medium in which it is enclosed in. For ...
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2answers
251 views

Is the thermal conductivity of metals affected by magnetic fields?

Especially for a ferromagnet a magnetic field should have a field-induced band shift in the density of states but I wonder if this shift is big enough to be significant and affect the thermal ...
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4answers
419 views

Is information entropy the same as thermodynamic entropy?

Context In one of his most popular books Guards! Guards!, Terry Pratchett makes an entropy joke: Knowledge equals Power, which equals Energy, which equals Mass Pratchett is a fantasy comedian ...
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1answer
1k views

Otto cycle efficiency described in pressure ratio (instead of compression ratio)

The Otto cycle's thermodynamic efficiency is often described using the compression ratio: $$\eta_{th} = 1 - \left( \frac{1}{CR} \right ) ^ {k-1},$$ (where CR is the compression ratio, and k the ...
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1answer
138 views

Lindblad equation derivation

I'm reading A simple derivation of the Lindblad equation. It introduces a Hamiltonian for a system consisting of a principal system $S$, a heat bath $B$ and an interaction term: $\hat{H}=\hat{H}_S+\...
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1answer
35 views

Is it possible to quantify the work required to introduce order?

Is there a thermodynamic analysis that allows us to say "in order to introduce this much order into this subsystem, this much work must have been done on it by the rest of the system"? I assume that ...
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1answer
25 views

Heating water in a pot from a constant heat source

What are the equations used to calculate the amount of energy transferred from a constant heat source "like a stove" to a pot which would then transferred energy to water contained in that pot. I don'...
0
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1answer
104 views

Pressure derivative of bulk modulus

Hi all what is the definition of pressure derivative of bulk modulus if it is a pressure derivative of bulk modulus at zero pressure. if the pressure is zero how it is derivative by pressure?
3
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1answer
79 views

What is the temperature of water at the end of the pipe?

I need to solve the following problem for a practical application. Water, initially at temperature $T_0$, flows with a constant speed $v$ through a PVC tube of length $l$ and diameter $D$. The ...
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0answers
25 views

How to find the change in internal energy for a gas? [on hold]

So I'm given this problem, and for some reason when I solve for Q and delta U my answer is off, should be $\Delta U = 249.3J$ and $Q = 415.5J$ ...
6
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2answers
288 views

Rayleigh-Taylor Instability dependence on acceleration direction

I'm trying to bolster my understanding of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and I've gotten stuck on the point of which fluid (more or less dense) is being accelerated into the other. Cases of uniform ...
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7answers
3k views

Why the breath sometimes warm and sometimes cold? (2 different explanations!)

If you blow air against your hand with your mouth open, you feel warm breath. If you do with with your lips closed except for a small opening, you feel cold breath. One explanation from here says "...
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1answer
42 views

Does the shape of a meteor make any difference during an impact? [on hold]

Would the shape of the meteor make a difference on the impact? Like a Olympic diver would a spear shaped meteor make less damage to the surface of the Earth while creating more magma movement rather ...