Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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9 views

finding change in internal energy for gas+thermodynamics problem [on hold]

So I'm given this problem, and for some reason when I solve for Q and delta U my answer is off, should be delta U = 249.3J and Q = 415.5J ...
4
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7answers
3k views

Why the breath sometimes warm and sometimes cold? (2 different explanations!)

If you blow air against your hand with your mouth open, you feel warm breath. If you do with with your lips closed except for a small opening, you feel cold breath. One explanation from here says "...
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1answer
32 views

Does the shape of a meteor make any difference during an impact?

Would the shape of the meteor make a difference on the impact? Like a Olympic diver would a spear shaped meteor make less damage to the surface of the Earth while creating more magma movement rather ...
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0answers
19 views

Is there a maximum temperature? [duplicate]

I have read about absolute zero. I understand that it is impossible to cool a system below absolute zero (or to absolute zero for that matter). However, is there a maximum temperature? My intuition ...
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0answers
5 views

Infer geophysical underground structure from thermal photography of the ground

Is it possible to determine (approximately of course) the geophysical structure of the underground under a certain region, using only a thermographic picture of the upper ground of the region ? The ...
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1answer
59 views

What is the temperature of water at the end of the pipe?

I need to solve the following problem for a practical application. Water, initially at temperature $T_0$, flows with a constant speed $v$ through a PVC tube of length $l$ and diameter $D$. The ...
19
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11answers
8k views

What is entropy really?

On this site, change in entropy is defined as the amount of energy dispersed divided by the absolute temperature. But I want to know: What is the definition of entropy? Here, entropy is defined as ...
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1answer
219 views

What causes a heat generating source to stabilize at a certain temperature? (Answered by myself, I think)

For example, we out a heat sink on a microprocessor to keep it cooler. I understand that if we run 100 watts of electricity through the microprocessor, it will generate 100 watts of heat, or 100 ...
4
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1answer
202 views

Thermodynamics, chaperones : How to model polymer fragmentation

Living polymers are well described by equilibrium statistical physics. Now I would like to consider a case were living polymers undergo fragmentation due to chaperones. I can think of a kinetic ...
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1answer
13 views

Why does a soda bottle foam or froth when dropped? [duplicate]

Secondly, if I do drop a soda bottle how long do I have to keep it for it to return to its original state or condition, I.e. safe to open without froth spraying everywhere; or is there some rule of ...
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0answers
33 views

Proving that the Boltzmann entropy is equal to the thermodynamic entropy

I've been trying to understand how we can equate the Boltzmann entropy $k_B \ln \Omega$ and the entropy from thermodynamics. I'm following the approach found in the first chapter in Pathria's ...
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1answer
111 views

How do the human heat sensors work?

I have been wondering about this particular issue for quite some time now. It feels like I should know this as a master's student in physics. The questions are, essentially, the following: What is ...
2
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1answer
111 views

What is the difference between thermodynamic and empirical temperature?

When I've studied Thermodynamics I did so in Callen's book and there the author talks about temperature as a single thing, which mathematically is simply defined as: $$T = \dfrac{\partial U}{\partial ...
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0answers
101 views

Error in mathematics of collision theory

I'm making lecture notes, and I felt that it would be important to explain some of the math behind collision theory. I come up with a problem, however. Here, I'm trying to show that the collision of ...
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1answer
48 views

Proof of ideal gas equation for container of arbitrary shape (kinetic theory)

While deriving ideal gas equation - we take gas molecules to be contained in a cubical container (convenient shape) , but how do we derive it for a gas inside some arbitrarily shaped container ? I ...
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2answers
118 views

Free expansion of an ideal gas

I am having trouble understanding the transient phase of an ideal gas expanding into vacuum. Firstly, the pressure of any gas is defined only when there is an instrument (barometer/ wall/ piston) ...
3
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1answer
48 views

Which temperature does $T$ in Clausius inequality ($\oint \frac{\delta Q}T\le 0$) refer to?

I got a little confused about the temperature in Clausius inequality. As you can see in this answer of Luboš Motl, it seems that temperature is the temperature of the system. But in some answers of ...
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4answers
1k views

Hot water freezing faster than cold water

This question has puzzled me for a long time. There is already a question like this on Physics.SE. John's answer to the question seems quite satisfying. But when I googled the cause I found this and ...
24
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4answers
1k views

What is the status of Mpemba effect investigations?

There is this puzzling thing that is called Mpemba effect: paradoxically, warm (35°C) water freezes faster than cold (5°C) water. As a physisist, I've been asked about it several times already. And I ...
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0answers
34 views

Is the universe inside some huge black body? [on hold]

I've been reading about the black body radiation. A perfect black body can absorb all possible wavelengths- which can be put from zero to infinity. But that will depend on the size of the black body ...
3
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1answer
174 views

How to compute this change of Gibbs energy for a Van der Waals gas?

The change of Gibbs energy at constant temperature and species numbers, $\Delta G$, is given by an integral $\int_{p_1}^{p_2}V\,{\mathrm d}p$. For the ideal gas law $$p\,V=n\,RT,$$ this comes down to ...
0
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4answers
62 views

Is perfect thermal insulation possible?

Supposing someone says they have a sample of insulanium with the following properties: If you make a thermos out of insulanium, it will keep a drink hot or cold forever. If you put your hand on a ...
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2answers
106 views

Flow from higher potential region to lower potential region

In Thermodynamics, it is said that heat transfer takes place from higher temperature to lower temperature. Things having higher temperature have higher potential energy because of more vibratory ...
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1answer
36 views

Calculation of temperature distribution in bulk glass due to laser heating

I'm trying to figure out how to simplify the problem where laser pulses are focused to a small spot in bulk glass. The waist of the beam is about 20 microns. At the wavelength used there is only two-...
0
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2answers
35 views

Thermodynamics- $PVT$ adiabatic system

In thermodynamics, what is a phase? Imagine a container full of air where the walls of this container are adiabatic and there is a piston on the top of it. If we push the piston downwards, the ...
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2answers
63 views

How does viscosity cause dissipation? [closed]

I am not a physicist so bear with me. I'm trying to understand the mechanism through which energy is dissipated in a fluid or solid. Often the explanation is that it happens due to viscosity or ...
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2answers
288 views

Modelling multiple heat sources?

I am working on a project to model heat transfer in a data center. I have basic models for a one dimensional heat transfer using conduction and convection. Such as, taking a server and modelling the ...
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2answers
63 views

What happens to gold under immense pressure? [on hold]

What would happen to gold if you put it under immense atmospheric pressures? For example 2M atmospheres.
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2answers
228 views

Work done in adiabatic reversible process

I was solving a problem on turbine.the steam works on turbine adiabatic reversibly .Is change in enthalpy or is it change in internal energy which equal this work?
2
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0answers
22 views

Is the free energy density analytic in temperature at the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition?

I know that the KT transition is infinite-order so the free energy density is a smooth (i.e. infinitely differentiable) function of temperature, but is the function actually analytic at the critical ...
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1answer
58 views

Proper definition of Internal energy

In Internal energy of a gas ($U$), we have to include ALL types of energies possible like $KE$, bond energies, nuclear interaction energies, etc.., However we have derived that $U = (f/2)nRT$ from ...
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0answers
25 views

What variables affect a Heat engine's efficiency? (and more)

I'm writing a Minecraft mod and I'm trying to create the equations for the engines players can build. I'm a highschool sophomore, so my knowledge of physics and mathematics is limited. I asked first a ...
0
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1answer
83 views

When is ${d}\,Q=T\,dS$ not true? [closed]

Why is the first T differentiated from the second in $T\,\frac{{\rm d}\,Q}{T}$ ? So why do we use a product to express this and not just ${d}\,Q$ , which goes hand in hand with the cases where $dS&...
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3answers
1k views

Thermo - Plotting constant pressure and temperature on a Pv and Ts diagram

I was just curious what the saturation curve for water (plotting pressure versus specific volume) would look like if you drew both a line of constant pressure as well as constant temperature. I am ...
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2answers
36 views

Temperature distribution in a column of air

Say there is a sealed cylinder of air that has a height $\mathrm{h}$ and area $\mathrm{A}$ on the ends. The initial temperature throughout the column is $T_0$ and has a uniform initial density $\rho_0$...
27
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5answers
2k views

Why does a critical point exist? [duplicate]

I still cannot fully comprehend the essence of a critical point on phase diagrams. It is usually said in textbooks that the difference between liquid and gaseous state of a substance is quantitative ...
0
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1answer
129 views

Thermal average, thermal fluctuations

I've a doubt concerning the physical meaning of "thermal average" and the "thermal fluctuation" in the canonical ensemble. Let's consider a very simple thermodynamic system: N particles, at fixed ...
3
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3answers
51 views

Theoretical Calculation of Specific Heat of a Gas

I've read that the theoretical specific heat of a monatomic gas (like dissociated hydrogen or oxygen) is $20.8\, \mathrm{\dfrac{J}{mol\cdot K}}$ at constant pressure and $12.5\, \mathrm{\dfrac{J}{mol\...
3
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0answers
19 views

Where does this data comparing the CMB with Eddington's 'temperature of space' come from?

Eddington estimated the temperature of space assuming that star light would be scattered by interstellar dust. He came pretty close to the temperature of the CMB. http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/...
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2answers
427 views

first law of thermodynamics and conservation of energy

The first law of thermodynamics is referred to as a reformulation of the law of conservation of energy. I am not sure to fully understand this relationship. My way of picturing it is the following. ...
3
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0answers
34 views

Why do insulated cooler bags have aluminum on the inside?

I understand that aluminum can partially reflect the sun and other heat radiation if placed on the outside of cooler bags. However, most types of cooler bags only actually have the foil on the inside ...
0
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2answers
342 views

Temperature loss of a moving object

I would like to know how to calculate the temperature change of a moving object. For example if I throw a ball that is warmer than the surrounding air, how much would it lose form it's temperature in ...
5
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2answers
111 views

Wouldn't the thermodynamic cost of creating alternate universes make the Many Worlds interpretation implausible?

I was thinking about the many interpretations of quantum physics, and one thing that never made sense to me was the many world's interpretation. Basically at any given moment for which something ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Approximate formula for the volume of water at a given temperature

Sorry for asking this kind of question. Do you recongnize this formula? $$V(T) = 0.0000679T^3+0.0085043T^2- 0.0624T+999.87$$ when $V$ is volume of water in $\mathrm{ml}$, $T$ is temperature in ...
0
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3answers
903 views

Thermodynamics : Work done on gas inside container by the force due to pressure exerted by external atmosphere

Suppose a container is fitted with a massless and frictionless piston lying on a table such that pressure due to gas is greater than pressure due to external atmosphere. Hence piston will move. Now ...
1
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2answers
119 views

Please explain entropy curve [closed]

I saw this curve at a website, but I didn't understand it. What is the lower point of entropy, and what are the points A, B, and C? Thanks!
3
votes
1answer
212 views

Will heat flow by conduction oscillate until thermodynamic equilibrium is reached in a solid object?

Consider the following thought experiment with $2$ conducting objects $A$ and $B$, where object $A$ is initially at a much higher temperature than object $B$. The objects are now placed in perfect ...
5
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1answer
244 views

energy efficiency - dryer vs hang+dehumidifer

When I have wet clothes coming out of the washing machine, I can either tumble-dry them in an electric clothes-dryer, or I can hang them to dry. But I can only hang them in a basement. The basement ...
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0answers
49 views

Mathematical method of Physics [closed]

Please any one can tell me how to get lecture of mathematical method of physics complete course online download complete lecture series. Which professor best for this subject please guide me how to ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Why don't the less denser steam move up, leaving the more denser water drop to fall on hot pan in Leidenfrost effect?

In Leidenfrost effect, the hot steam suspends water droplets above it and prevent the drop from touching the hot pan. My question is, as the steam is less denser than water, should the steam not ...