Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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35 views

Passively moving air

I'm interested in channeling air into an underground condenser to generate water. Which of these approaches would be most appropriate, and is there a better approach I haven't considered? A: A ...
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0answers
19 views

Tethered vs Liquid membrane [on hold]

Can anyone answer me what is a difference between an LIQUID MEMBRANE and a TETHERED MEMBRANE. I read a lot about it in different textbook, but it seems that I cannot pinpoint the exact difference. ...
-3
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1answer
31 views

Is there a calculated limit of temperature before life becomes impossible (besides 0 K)? [on hold]

Is there a calculated temperature when matter becomes impossible to sustain life? We have found life forms existing at extremely high temperatures, like that of an oven. Where is the limit, if there ...
0
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1answer
146 views

Was Joule's experiment able to show: thermal energy = $mgh$

Is my understanding of this experiment correct? There is the quantity $MC\delta \theta$ associated to the heat which I think is not an absolute value to be compared with $mgh$ since the $\delta ...
2
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0answers
23 views

Refined diffusion/heat models

I'm a math student myself, but as is natural I encounter some physics along the way too. My question concerns the heat/diffusion model. As the reader will recall this is that the heat function ...
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0answers
62 views

Simple thermodynamic proof that light from a source cannot be focused to heat an object above the source's temperature

I was thinking about the question in the title. I found the following thread, and some of the answers are making my head spin! Is it possible to focus the radiation from a black body to make ...
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1answer
802 views

Comparison between isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic expansion

Please check if my understandings of these terms are right because they are a bit confusing to me. For all three types of expansions, a change in volume means work is done by the system to the ...
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1answer
13 views

A problem based on Joule's law and specific heat [on hold]

If a wire of resistance $20\Omega$ is covered with ice and a voltage of $210V$ is applied across the wire, then rate of melting of ice will be? I calculated heat produced by the wire by using ...
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1answer
201 views

What is the fastest way to heat my car?

During the winter months I often have to drive in a cold car and I want to warm up as fast as possible. What is the best setting to put the air on in order to warm up the entire cabin in the least ...
2
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1answer
98 views

Why does Air Pressure not Matter in Phase Equilibrium?

So long as we are in the ideal gas range, the presence of air does not affect the liquid/solid-vapour equilibrium in any way (such as equilibrium vapour pressure, melting point etc.). Is there a ...
5
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4answers
193 views

Thermodynamics thought experiment

There is some ideal gas in a container moving with some velocity on a smooth surface and you suddenly stop it( say by using your hands) , will the temperature of the gas increase? It seems to me that ...
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0answers
25 views

Question on Thermodynamics andThe bigbang theory [on hold]

The third law of Thermodynamics states that 'the entropy of a perfectly crystalline substance at absolute zero is null' When you consider the state of the universe before the bigbang which holds ...
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1answer
518 views

Whenever we fill a bottle with cold water and close it, why is it that after a few seconds we notice cold water droplets outside the bottle?

Whenever we fill a bottle with cold water and place back the cap tightly closing it, why is it that after a few seconds we notice cold water droplets outside the bottle as if the water is coming out ...
2
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1answer
42 views

Planck's postulate for oscillators or for light?

I know that Planck originally postulated that the energy of an oscillator in a black body was quantised to $E=nh\nu$ but did he know at the time that this meant the energy of light was also quantised ...
0
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1answer
66 views

How can i turn home gas from liquid to gas [closed]

I hope i am not too off topic, couldn't find a more suitable stack-exchange forum for this, if there is a better one, please point me to it, Well my question is the following, I am working on a ...
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0answers
14 views

Why do some materials have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion in all directions?

Those materials are especially ceramic-glasses. I've found some studies about how does it happens in one dimension (for example a nanocrystalline has a silica helix that works like twisting spring, ...
5
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1answer
57 views

Why does aluminium-on-glass mirror work without distortion?

I have read an article about glass (zerodur) with low thermal expansion coefficient. It is mentioned that large casts of such glass are covered with reflective layer of Aluminium and used as mirrors ...
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2answers
82 views

Why is $c_p$ higher than $c_v$?

why is heat capacity at constant pressure higher than heat capacity at constant volume? It is supposed to be this way, since if you increase $C_p$ in volume work is being done, in other case not. This ...
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3answers
354 views

Energy Analysis of Niagara Falls in Linus Pauling's “General Chemistry”

I just started reading Linus Pauling's "General Chemistry" and the first example confuses me. He writes: Example 1-1. Niagara Falls (Horseshoe) is 160 feet high. How much warmer is the water at ...
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1answer
33 views

Does a closed system with fixed entropy imply an isolated system?

Just first to clarify, my university notation is $$\text{change in entropy} = \text{entropy flow} + \text{internal production of entropy}$$ I am confused with the term fixed entropy. Does that mean ...
0
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1answer
14 views

Electrical conductivity of metals on heating [on hold]

What effect do heating have on metals? And why that effect?
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0answers
20 views

A pipe will withstand heat or not [on hold]

I would like to prove by calculation if a particular pipe will withstand hot cooling medium flowing through it. Any ideas on the formulas I will be needing? So far, I have found the formula to ...
1
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1answer
169 views

Calculating phase diagrams (Calphad)

I am calculating the phase diagrams for Li-Mg binary alloy with reference to the following text: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=5600701 In the equation used in the above ...
5
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2answers
97 views

Why is it impossible to build an air filter that lowers the average velocity of the air molecules in a house?

Imagine a special air filter placed in a window of a house. The tiny holes in the filter allow only air molecules moving faster than a certain speed to exit the house, and allow only air molecules ...
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1answer
25 views

Paramagnetic/ferromagnetic transition under a magnetic field

The paramagnetic/ferromagnetic phase transition is an archetypal example of a continuous (or second-order) phase transition. When the temperature $T$ approaches the Curie temperature $T_c$, the ...
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0answers
11 views

Why is the cloth cooled to a temperature below that of the hot wind? [duplicate]

When a wet cloth is hung up in a hot wind in the desert, it is cooled by evaporation to a temperature that may be or so below that of the air. Discuss this process in light of the second law of ...
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2answers
33 views

Speed of heat / quantification of heat and other magnitudes

Is the speed of heat infinite? When solving the heat equation in a semi-infinite bar, we can see that a pulse in the finite end draws an immediate change in every point of the bar. So, at any given ...
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0answers
44 views

Area under temperature time graph

I have an open desiccant heating system which has a flow rate of $0.7$ litres/sec, I have recorded the temperature profile after the air has been heated and plotted it against time in seconds. My ...
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6answers
9k views

What is the speed of sound in space?

Given that space is not a perfect vacuum, what is the speed of sound therein? Google was not very helpful in this regard, as the only answer I found was 300 km/s, from Astronomy Cafe, which is not a ...
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1answer
94 views

How can I estimate the cooking time of a roast?

I never remember what worked before, or to write it down someplace. In any case the size and starting temperature will vary. The instructions I learned from refuse to give a time at all, and the ...
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1answer
13 views

How to convert the molar attenuation coefficient, ie. molar absorptivity, to heat capacity?

In spectroscopy techniques, such as infrared spectroscopy, light of a certain wavelength is absorbed. I see parallels to the concept of heat capacity, i.e. the heat necessary to change the temperature ...
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1answer
24 views

constructing a Pipe to transfer heat [on hold]

I would like to construct a pipe with water as the cooling medium to transfer heat away from a metal plate. What are the relevant equations that I need in order to design my pipe's dimension? for ...
0
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1answer
99 views

Thermodynamics phase change question

Why is specific volume of saturated water greater at 1 MPA than at 0.1 MPA during the phase change process? check out the T-V diagram here in the link. ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Newton's law of cooling for the heat equation boundary condition

Newton's law of cooling says the temperature of an object satisfies $$ \frac{dT}{dt} = -k(T(t) - T_0),\tag{1} $$ where $T_0$ is the surrounding temperature. See these HTML notes for example. Now if ...
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2answers
37 views

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Flow Hot Cold

Based on sources I referred, I got to know that a double pipe heat exchanger operates in a way where hot water flows in a pipe and comes out as cold water and cold water flows into another pipe and ...
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2answers
35 views

when a steam is being liquified, does its temperature change or not?

Here is a question: When ice is being melted, its temperature doesn't change. So, when a steam is being liquified, does its temperature change or not? And is the heat transferred here calculated by ...
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1answer
36 views

Internal reversibility

The concept of reversibility always gives me a hard time.In a reversible process the change of entropy is zero. On the other hand for irreversible process it is not.But there comes another topic which ...
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2answers
136 views

How to use the first law of thermodynamics for simple mechanical systems?

I'm confused about what exactly is $Q$ and $U$ and their signs. Consider a block initially having some kinetic energy which we stop and we want to find by how much amount its temperature increases. ...
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1answer
129 views

Heat Equation with In-Depth Radiation Exact Solution [on hold]

I am looking to solve the heat conduction equation in a semi-infinite solid with in-depth radiation on the domain $-\infty < x < 0$. The governing equation of this problem is: $$\rho c ...
2
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0answers
47 views

Why the non-analyticity of free energy function implies phase transition? And what's its connection with other 'higher level' free energies?

I have seen 'free energy' arising from several contexts in very different forms, and each contains different amount of information. For example free energy is defined as the logarithm of the ...
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0answers
13 views

Why is the heat transferring best from within the tube within a tube-heat exchanger

If you've got gas and cooler fluid, you'd run the gas through the tubes, because the gas has a lower h-value. Inside a tube heat-exchanger it is said that the best heat transfer is from within the ...
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0answers
46 views

How to relate internal energy to atomic motion?

I am trying to conceptualize how atomic motion leads to the thermodynamically-defined internal energy (denoted as $U$ below) through some broad mathematical relationships. I get that the internal ...
0
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1answer
22 views

What causes the black shimmering bands on a sun-lit surface?

I can't figure it out. I thought it was the window causing it, but even without it it happened. It seems to be the motion of the air that causes it, but why shimmering black bands? Sometimes this ...
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0answers
26 views

Thermodynamics of a rubber band

I have a streched rubber band and I know that tension f is proportional to the temperature T when the length is constant. How can I proove that internal energy is only a function of temperature? I ...
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0answers
26 views

How complex is an energy balance for this problem?

Let's say I have an enclosed room in the shape of a box with forced airflow on the outer walls at an ambient temperature. Each end of the room (forward and rear) has a vent that ducts in warm air to ...
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1answer
17 views

Measured temperature (thermometre set to emissivity of 1) of smooth surface too high or to low?

We want to measure the temperature of a smooth flat surface with a thermometre based on absorption of thermal rays. The emissivity setting of the thermometre is set to 1 (same as a black surface), ...
3
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4answers
15k views

Why does a gas get hot when suddenly compressed? What is happening at the molecular level?

My guess is that the molecules of gas all have the same speed as before, but now there are much more collisions per unit area onto the thermometer, thus making the thermometer read a higher ...
0
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1answer
79 views

On Thermodynamics of Spontaneity of the Reduction-Oxidation Chemical Reactions

According to the first and second law for a closed system containing different chemicals we have \begin{align} &\delta Q - \delta W = dU = T dS - p dV +\sum_i \mu_i d N_i\\ ...
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2answers
148 views

Rayleigh-Taylor Instability dependence on acceleration direction

I'm trying to bolster my understanding of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and I've gotten stuck on the point of which fluid (more or less dense) is being accelerated into the other. Cases of uniform ...
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1answer
30 views

Thermo - Plotting constant pressure and temperature on a Pv and Ts diagram

I was just curious what the saturation curve for water (plotting pressure versus specific volume) would look like if you drew both a line of constant pressure as well as constant temperature. I am ...