Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Does radiating heat to outer space through the atmospheric transparency window have any impact on heat loss?

I was reading this article: Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight The authors are improving upon the age-old idea of reflecting incoming sunlight while ...
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21 views

Is the ratio of heat transfers always given by the same function?

In deriving the thermodynamic temperature scale, it uses the concept that heat transfer between two reservoirs is the function of the reservoirs' temperatures. i.e. $\frac{Q_1}{Q_2}=Φ(T_1,T_2)$. And ...
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165 views

What is the fastest way to heat my car?

During the winter months I often have to drive in a cold car and I want to warm up as fast as possible. What is the best setting to put the air on in order to warm up the entire cabin in the least ...
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32 views

efficiency of a stirling engine with spring

I have used the concept of stirling engine with a spring instead of any gas to make an engine....i want to calculate the efficiency of it...here's a pic:
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102 views

Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy

Some hot water radiators have a single pipe connected to them. The steam comes to the radiator and the water leaves in the same pipe. The steam and the water are both at a temperature of 100°C. Where ...
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184 views

Calculating rate of vaporization of water

Let there be a cylindrical vessel with diameter D that only has liquid water and water vapor as the picture below shows (The water vapor is the grey portion and the liquid water is the blue portion). ...
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47 views

Best airflow stategy for cooling a confined area?

I am working on a machine which has an upper side which processes a product. On the lower side of the machine there are a couple of motors with built in inverters and there is a laser unit. There are ...
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111 views

Heat Equation with In-Depth Radiation Exact Solution

I am looking to solve the heat conduction equation in a semi-infinite solid with in-depth radiation on the domain $-\infty < x < 0$. The governing equation of this problem is: $$\rho c ...
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33 views

Is every imaginable quasi-static locus (with non-decreasing entropy) physically realisable?

If I have an isolated composite system which is dependent on several extensive properties (say $U_i, V_i$ and $N_i$ for each subsystem $i$) then a quasi-static locus is just a continuous curve through ...
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131 views

Is the Gibbs-Duhem equation always valid?

The derivation of the Gibbs-Duhem equation from Wikpedia uses: As shown in the Gibbs free energy article, the chemical potential is just another name for the partial molar (or just partial, ...
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79 views

Why does Air Pressure not Matter in Phase Equilibrium?

So long as we are in the ideal gas range, the presence of air does not affect the liquid/solid-vapour equilibrium in any way (such as equilibrium vapour pressure, melting point etc.). Is there a ...
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32 views

How do I set up the tridiagonal matrix for a heat diffusion with layers of different thermal diffusivity?

I have Scala code that recreates the Crank-Nicolson solutions for the diffusion equations, and matches 'Excel for Scientists and Engineers' (Joe Billo, Wiley). However, I would like to be able to ...
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42 views

Does no variables change in an adiabatic + isothermal system?

Adiabatic + isothermal = no heat and temperature change. Does that mean the system will remain as it is? If it is adiabatic + isovolumetric or adiabatic + isobaric , is it as well no change in any ...
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511 views

Comparison between isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic expansion

Please check if my understandings of these terms are right because they are a bit confusing to me. For all three types of expansions, a change in volume means work is done by the system to the ...
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69 views

Spontaneity / Free Energy of Non-Isothermal Process

I'm trying to determine a lower bound for the work input necessary to make an entropy-reducing process "spontaneous" in the sense that the 2nd law is not violated. For a constant temperature and ...
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151 views

What are the contributions of the Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics?

I am very interested in Thermodynamics, but though it is easy to find good books and information about classical thermo, it seems that is not the same for non-equilibrium thermodynamics. I would like ...
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64 views

Chemical potentials for multicomponent solids

I have a problem understanding how to deal with the chemical potential when two thermodynamic systems are in contact. For simplicity, let us consider $T=0\ K$. We have a system that is composed of two ...
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51 views

Spherical Shaped Electrical Leads for Thermal Conductivity Mitigation?

I am designing a thermionic converter and one of the biggest inefficiencies is the thermal conductivity and limited electrical conductivity of the leads. I'm trying to mitigate the loss of heat ...
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69 views

Why is the outside run of high presure line on a ductless mini-split airconditioner insulated?

On every ductless mini-split air conditioner I've ever seen, both the high and low pressure lines are insulated between the compressor and the building. It seems like the liquid refrigerant coming ...
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143 views

Problem about thermodynamic relations

We know that for constant pressure thermodynamic processes, $dH=dQ_p$. My question is, does it implies that only reversible work is possible in this processes so that $dw=0$ because $dv$ is zero? In ...
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96 views

What causes a heat generating source to stabilize at a certain temperature? (Answered by myself, I think)

For example, we out a heat sink on a microprocessor to keep it cooler. I understand that if we run 100 watts of electricity through the microprocessor, it will generate 100 watts of heat, or 100 ...
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390 views

Otto cycle efficiency described in pressure ratio (instead of compression ratio)

The Otto cycle's thermodynamic efficiency is often described using the compression ratio: $$\eta_{th} = 1 - \left( \tfrac{1}{CR} \right ) ^ {k-1},$$ (where CR is the compression ratio, and k the ...
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30 views

Is using water in a charcoal smoker less efficient than not using water?

I have a charcoal smoker that uses water. My understanding is that the water serves as a buffer and as a way to add moisture to the cooking environment. Some say that using water wastes fuel because ...
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127 views

How does enthalpy help us to find the state of equilibrium?

For an adiabatic system with constant external (generalized) forces, in a state out of equilibrium we have: $$\delta H\leq 0 $$ If I understand correctly, derivation of this inequality does not rely ...
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151 views

Calculating phase diagrams (Calphad)

I am calculating the phase diagrams for Li-Mg binary alloy with reference to the following text: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=5600701 In the equation used in the above ...
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875 views

Carnot efficiency, coefficient of performance for a refrigerator

I was reading that a new type of refrigerator might reach a coefficient of performance (COP) of 10. This seems quite the achievement and the authors state that their approach might achieve a Carnot ...
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236 views

Maxwell's Demon bug, trapdoor space and time

What about the size of the door (space) and how long has it to be opened (time)? I think Maxwell's demon would have a problem with space, if the door is too wide (more than one particle size), then ...
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38 views

(No need of 2nd law) Adiabatic and isothermal compressibility relation with specific heat

One classical example of thermodynamics is the relation between the Adiabatic and Isothermal Compressibility Relation with the Specific Heats: Compressibilities: ...
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29 views

Is equilibrum condition consequence of second law of thermodynamics?

Equilibrum state is generally stated to be most stable state. Is equilibrium state consequence of second law of thermodynamics at microscopic level. i.e a system tends to reach the equilibrium state ...
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10 views

Energy under constant pressure and temp

Conceptual problem: let A + 2B -> C + 2D be a reaction under constant pressure P and temp T, that goes all the way towards the products. A,B,C,D are ideal gases. let $\Delta H$ be the molar enthalpy ...
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37 views

Efficiency of a real engine

Can anyone tell me what is wrong with the following argument? Consider a Carnot engine and an engine $X$ whose efficiencies are $\eta_c$ and $\eta_x$ respectively. Let us assume that ...
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47 views

Is the gas constant really a constant?

For ideal gases we have $$ C_p-C_v=R $$ now the left hand side of this equation is temperature dependent, so how is it possible that gas constant $R$ is temperature independent?
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31 views

Dielectric heating - does EM field transfer energy to polar molecules?

In AC field, polar molecule are trying to align with external field. At high freguencies, changes of field are so quict, that molecules cannot align with it. This leads to increasing kinetic energy of ...
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32 views

Pressure, Momentum and Energy: A 'Peculiar' Relation

Is the following possible? $$ P = \frac{p^2}{3E} $$ where $P$ is pressure, $p$ is momentum and $E$ is energy. In what convention is the above relation acceptable? EDIT: The source paper can be found ...
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41 views

Thermodynamics vs Kinetics

As a chemical reaction approaches equilibrium, one of forward or backward reactions dominate the other. According to thermodynamics, this is because the gibbs free energy change for one is negative. ...
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42 views

Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy

I've been struggling with the notion of entropy and gibbs free energy for almost three days now. Different sources on and off the internet say different things about entropy. Gibbs Free Energy is ...
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18 views

Rankine Cycle pressure

I don't understand why in (Ideal) Rankine Cycle we assume that pressure remains constant at the boiler and the condenser. Shouldn't water pressure change, when water goes from liquid to vapor (boiler) ...
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45 views

Decrease in system pressure do to gas dissolution?

A system of fixed volume contains two fluids as illustrated in the figure below, in equal volumes. Their pressures are both equal and high (much greater than atmospheric pressure). Initially the ...
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26 views

Gas compressed and cooled

If a certain amount of a gas is compressed into a cylinder by the action of a piston that reduces its volume (lets say at a low speed), the kynetic energy of the gas molecules increases, what is ...
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25 views

time factor of heat increase (specific heat)

It takes 4 joules to bring 1 gram of water up 1 degree, but for how much time - 1 second? If not, how much and how to calculate it?
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32 views

Thermodynamics - mass of gas expelled

Question: An open vessel contains 200 mg of air at 17 degrees Celsius. What percentage of weight of air would be expelled if the vessel is heated to 117 degrees Celsius if the pressure is to ...
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32 views

Is the equilibrium state in thermodynamics a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics?

Is the thermal equilibrium state the state of maximum entropy? Is it a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics?
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68 views

How can I estimate the cooking time of a roast?

I never remember what worked before, or to write it down someplace. In any case the size and starting temperature will vary. The instructions I learned from refuse to give a time at all, and the ...
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106 views

Simplest way to analytically determine whether a claimed heat transfer process obeys the second law of thermodynamics?

I want to find the simplest method to determine whether a proposed heat transfer process violates the second law of thermodynamics. Specifically I am looking for a method that meets the following ...
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25 views

Acceleration of a container in thermodynamics

How will accelerating a container with an ideal gas in it affect the conditions? My initial thoughts are that the ideal gas will collect at the opposite end of acceleration, which means that the ...
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33 views

What is the relationship between liquid-gas expansion pressure and surface area to volume ratio?

If a set volume of liquid is heated above its boiling point, how does the pressure that that volume of gas generates relate to the surface area of the medium in which it is enclosed in. For ...
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26 views

Steady State temperature

Let's say I have two opposite sides of a box with temperature $T_{1}$ and $T_{2}$ respectively. And I have calculated the temperature in the region between the two sides. So, just like the equation ...
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33 views

Difference between solid and gases thermal expansion

The coefficient of linear expansion is $$\Delta L = L \,\alpha \Delta T,$$ where $\Delta t$ can be the difference of any two temperatures. However, in volume expansion of gases, $$\Delta V = V ...
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23 views

Location of heat conversion in heat engines

If I put a large glass dome on a heap of coal, and burn it, I would expect the air to heat up certain amount. But if I put a coal power plant to that dome, and use it to burn the same amount of coal, ...
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38 views

Are there materials with an adiabatic compressibility higher than that of common gases?

Are there materials with an adiabatic compressibility, measured at atmospheric pressure, higher than that of common gases? Is there any fundamental upper limit to the differential compressibility of ...