Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Can energy be extracted indefinitely from a mass dipole/mass negative mass pair in perpetual motion?

Some days ago I have read this short piece of article by Hammond which caused me to revisit the theoretical properties of negative mass. It is known that a pair consists of ordinary mass and negative ...
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36 views

Is the system in equilibrium?

If the time derivative of the Liapunov functional related to free energy of my system is zero, can I say my system is in chemical equilibrium?
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42 views

Thermodynamics vs Kinetics

As a chemical reaction approaches equilibrium, one of forward or backward reactions dominate the other. According to thermodynamics, this is because the gibbs free energy change for one is negative. ...
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50 views

Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy

I've been struggling with the notion of entropy and gibbs free energy for almost three days now. Different sources on and off the internet say different things about entropy. Gibbs Free Energy is ...
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30 views

What are the units in the heat equation?

If we write the heat equation as: $$ \frac{\partial}{\partial t}u-\alpha \nabla \cdot (\nabla u) = f $$ Then, Temperature of the material: $u: m^3\times s\rightarrow K$ Thermal diffusivity: ...
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96 views

How does a radiometric infrared camera estimate an objects temperature?

Say we have an infrared camera which measures some amount of radiation, in a spectral bandwidth which is given, between wavelength $\lambda_1$ and $\lambda_2$ from a perfect black body. How is it ...
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48 views

Calculating the heat transfer into CO$_2$ gas at a constant pressure

I am having trouble with a homework question and I am just not sure how to attack it. We have not covered how to deal with non-ideal gases yet, and we are expected to answer this question without that ...
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53 views

Accessible system where specific heat and thermal conductivity vary in different ways?

I'm teaching undergrad thermo this semester and to my surprise several students are having trouble conceptualizing heat capacity and thermal conductivity as different properties; they can apply them ...
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29 views

reflecting foil on window

Assumptions: A house window acts as a cavity resonator, and so can be treated as a blackbody. If the room temperature is 20 C then the outgoing radiation is 418 W/m2 If the outside temperature is ...
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32 views

Rankine Cycle pressure

I don't understand why in (Ideal) Rankine Cycle we assume that pressure remains constant at the boiler and the condenser. Shouldn't water pressure change, when water goes from liquid to vapor (boiler) ...
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49 views

Decrease in system pressure do to gas dissolution?

A system of fixed volume contains two fluids as illustrated in the figure below, in equal volumes. Their pressures are both equal and high (much greater than atmospheric pressure). Initially the ...
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35 views

Why is work done on the system considered when calculating the work output?

The thermodynamic efficiency $\eta$ is calculated by $\eta= \frac{W_{out}}{Q_{in}}$ Using the first law of thermodynamics we usually say that $W_{out}$ is $Q_c+Q_h$, where $Q_c$ is the heat ...
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What happens to running water in sub-zero environment?

Many rivers in sub-zero winter temperatures don't freeze (photo). For simplicity let's discuss a (small) water pipe/canal with uniform cross section, inclined by an angle $\theta$. It seems that: ...
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What is thermal radiation? How does it move through space?

Assume that by some mysterious(at the lack of a better word) way I was able to make a bonfire on the moon and was able to sit next to it without a space suit. I will not be able to feel the heat form ...
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48 views

Adiabatic processes and the First Law

The first law of thermodynamics in my notes is : $\Delta E=\Delta Q +\Delta W $. Then later in my notes for an adiabatic process: $\Delta Q \implies dE=-pdV$. Then for a monatomic gas ...
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28 views

Necessity of infinitesimal steps for reversible processes

Is there a mathematical proof for why a reversible process is one that has many infinitesimal equilibrium steps, rather than fewer large steps? Maybe something along the lines of this?: ...
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37 views

What are the Fermi and Debye temperature constants?

What are the Fermi temperature and Debye temperature constants? We were discussing these in class and I don't fully understand what these constants are or why we have them. Can anyone explain?
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144 views

Confusing Chemical potential of mixtures

I feel that there are very few textbook that treat the chemical potential of mixtures in an understandable clear way, which is why I wanted to ask here about certain things? Although I do not have a ...
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67 views

Can I manually speed up convection?

Let's say, I have half bucket of boiling water and I have added equal amount of freeze cold water to it. I want to have equilibrium temperature reached as quick as possible. Can I speed up the ...
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123 views

For $N$ particles acting under gravity, how long until they settle into a virial equilibrium?

As the title says, if I have a system of particles interacting only due to gravity, over what timescale do we expect them to fall into a virial equilibrium? By virial equilibrium I mean a system that ...
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79 views
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Ising Model with All Spins Interacting with All Other Spins

I am studying the Ising model with all spins interacting with all other spins and have formulated $Z$. I am trying to understand what it means to study at large N but not infinite N. I know that at ...
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Why does a Pewter mug keep a beverage hot better than a foam cup?

I know my subject sounds improbable and that's why I posted it. I helped my daughter with a science project for school. We tested five different materials to determine which would keep hot water ...
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22 views

Can a gas be modelled as a low density blackbody, if we want to consider how detectable it will be in space?

The answer to this question taught me about the sort of parameters I need to consider if I want to consider how "detectable" an object in space is. I want to consider the detectability of a ...
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39 views

first law of thermodynamics change in internal energy

Change in state {for example from liquid to gas} is an isothermal process but the change in internal energy is not zero in this process isn't this contradictory?
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122 views

Boundaries of holes in a toast burn faster?

Based on observations of my own toaster, it seems to me that if a piece of bread contains a hole, then the part of the bread surrounding the hole heats up more quickly then the majority of the rest of ...
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63 views

Proof of the Boltzmann factor

The following derivation of the Boltzmann factor is obviously wrong, or incomplete: $$p(E) \propto \Omega(U-E)$$ Consider the Taylor expansion of $\ln\Omega(x)$: $$\ln\Omega(U-E)\approx \ln ...
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75 views

How powerful would a laser need to be to make a hole in snow?

How strong would a laser beam have to be (and what frequency would be optimal) for it to be able to make a hole in snow? Here I am looking for a laser beam that could make the hole after less than 2 ...
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83 views

What does the net force do with this droplet in magnetic field?

Consider a spherical droplet with radious $R_d$ which is coated with an immiscible ferrofluid with volume equal to $2v_f$. While the droplet is in rest on a surface, if I approach two magnets in ...
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72 views

Difference between Isothermal and Free Expansion

I just don't get the exact difference between isothermal expansion and free expansion: in free expansion there is no work done since there is no external external pressure. As to the case of ...
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44 views

Does a room aerate faster when it's cold outside?

When we open the window and it's cold outside, we feel that the cold air spreads quickly. But at the end, does the cold air propagate faster than if the outside air temperature were warm? In other ...
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31 views

Is entalphy a presence of energy or a change in energy?

I see that the words enthalpy and change in enthalpy are often used interchangibly. Do they mean the same thing? Are change in enthalpy and enthalpy different? What is the true definition of ...
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134 views

How hot is your photon?

This question comes from my answer to the question Can a cubic meter of space at absolute zero have any object with mass inside? and the related discussion under it. To summarize, I stated that the ...
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How numbers of being stretched effects on the internal pressure of a balloon

When you blow a balloon, the shell would become thinner. By according to mulins effect, when a rubber material is stretched, its stress-strain diagram changes and of course also its internal pressure. ...
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57 views

How much energy is required to compress one engine cylinder full of air?

I was recently wondering how much energy would be required to start a car engine by manually cranking it. I was talking to someone who said the largest load you would have to deal with in the ideal ...
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51 views

Relation between work and internal energy in an Isothermal expansion

I don't understand why the change in internal energy in an isothermal expansion is considered to be 0. In an isothermal process is done work, so, shouldn't that imply that the internal energy changed? ...
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64 views

What material can achieve the highest temperature before failing when being heated by electricity?

Just as a qualifier, I barely made it through physical science in college, so... Please be detailed in your answers and assume I know nothing. Let's say I wanted to make an electrical coil for the ...
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63 views

Why doesn't oxyhydrogen flame travel through a narrow pipe?

In this video someone filled a syringe with oxyhydrogen (2:1 hydrogen-oxygen mixture obtained with a "brown gas generator", an efficient electrolyzer). The mixture at the tip of the needle was lit ...
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Temperatures reached in arc flashes

Good morning, I have a question regarding the arc flashes. Some papers mention that temperatures of nearly 20000 K can be reached during an arc flash. Could anyone explain how to come up with those ...
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Why can't irreversible process be reversed by infinitesimal steps?

Irreversible process is the one in which the system undergoes rapid change from initial state to the final state. Now, if I want to reverse the state of the system, why can't be it possible? I know ...
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Why does a thermal memory need a thermal bath?

In the article "Thermal Memory: A Storage of Phononic Information Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 267203 – Published 29 December 2008" it's said that a thermal memory need a thermal bath, similar to a power ...
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139 views

Is my conceptual understanding pertaining to heat & temperature correct?

From what I've understood: Heat is the total sum of translational energy possessed by individual atoms in an object. Temperature is the average translational energy possessed by individual atoms ...
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59 views

Why does ice melts faster near the surface of water?

I had a few frozen bottles and while they were melting I saw this: in all of the bootles, the ice seems to get thiner near the surface. I have searched a bit and I've found this video that shows ...
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57 views

How to estimate/calculate pressure on the edges of a metal rod as it is heated up and tries to expand?

Imagine we have placed a metal rod between two face-to-face walls so that the rod is just perpendicular to the surface of both walls and the edges of the rod touches each wall. So the length of the ...
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45 views

What is the optimum elevation angle for my 3000W heater? [closed]

In an empty room shaped like a cube with verticies of length a and at 20C starting temperature (homogeneously distributed), what is the optimum elevation angle, X, of my 3000W heater fan if it is ...
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15 views

Trying to determine transient response of air conditioned room

I have an air conditioned room which intakes airflow at temperature $T_{in}$ at a mass flow rate $\dot m$. The air leaks out of the room at mass flow rate $\dot m$ and temperature $T_{room}$. The room ...
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81 views

Partial derivative of Helmholtz free energy from entropy and internal energy

I want to know how to derive pressure $p$ from a partial differential of Helmholtz free energy $F$. I want to start from $F(T, V, N) = U(S(T,V,N),V, N) - TS(T, V, N)$, where $U$ and $V$ are ...
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41 views

What's wrong with this derivation of pressure-temperature for an ideal gas?

The pressure temperature relationship for an ideal gas, known as Amontons law or Gay Lussac's law should be obtainable from Boyle's and Charles's laws. I did the following. For a given sample ...
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63 views

Expansion of the universe a thermodynamic process or not?

Can the expansion of the universe be thought of as a thermodynamic process? If so, is it a closed system? Is it a reversible system?
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Determining a temperature increase from heat energy [closed]

A 15.0g bullet traveling horizontally at 865 $\frac{m}{s}$ passes through at a tank containing $13.5$kg of water and emerges with a speed of $534\frac{m}{s}$. What is the maximum temperature ...