# Tagged Questions

Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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### Expectation value of $a_i^\dagger a_i$ for thermal density matrix

Suppose we have some heat bath with Hamiltonian, $$H=\sum_n \left(a^{\dagger}_na_n+\frac{1}{2}\right)\hbar\omega_n$$ and a density matrix $\rho=Z\exp(-\beta H)$ for some normalisation $Z$. ...
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### Does turning a light off save electricity in a room heated by an electric space heater?

Suppose I've got a basement that kept heated to 20 degrees Celsius using an electric space heater with thermostat. There are no windows in this basement (light is not escaping the room in any ...
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### Violation of the second law of thermodynamics? [closed]

Here is a machine which seems to violate the second law of thermodynamics: $A$ and $B$ are point black bodies of the same temperature (initially). everything is rotationally symmetric around the ...
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### gibbs free energy and maximum work

I'm getting confused between two important results.... Gibbs free energy G = H-TS where h is the enthalpy and S is the entropy. This relation indicates only when the temperature and pressure are ...
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### What is the minimum volume in which, for a given temperature difference $\Delta T$, natural convection would occur?

I'm trying to figure out if convection will occur in a plastic bottle slice and what length of slice would be optimal to achieve high R value transparent insulation on the cheap. The bottle slice is ...
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### Confusion in the pressure-volume work in an irreversible process

Let there be a certain amount of gaseous substance kept in a cylinder fitted with a weightless & frictionless piston. The initial volume and pressure of the gas are $V_1$ & $P_1$ respectively. ...
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### Why radiant heat only travels as infra-red waves and not as other types of em waves like UV rays

Heat is a form of energy and em waves carry energy as momentum of photons. So, I think, radiant heat can travel at any frequency. Please correct me.
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### Glass tends to be cold?

In winter, our glass window serves as a separator of coldness outside and warmth inside our room. We know that the window feels cold when we touch it. Since the air temperature is different in ...
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### Isentropic and Isothermal Compressibility

Why isentropic compressibility is greater than isothermal compressibility ? While deriving $C_p$ and $C_v$ relation, I got $\frac{Cp}{Cv}$ as $\frac{ke}{Kt}$. Which tells us that $Ke > Kt$. But ...
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### Simple estimation of the critical temperature of water

I'm trying to develop fermi estimation skills and I came up with a question for which I don't even know where to start from. Here goes: Is it possible to estimate the critical temperature (say in ...
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### Is the stability matrix of a linearised RG flow always diagonalisable?

This is a follow up on "Why are the eigenvalues of a linearized RG transformation real?". My question is simple: Is there some physical (or mathematical) reason for the stability matrix of ...
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### Disequilibrium during infinitesimal steps of a thermodynamic reversible process & cause of maximum work to be achieved during reversible process?

In almost every sites and even in my book,it is written that "Reversible process is the process which is carried out infinitesimally slowly so that in each step thermodynamic equilibrium is maintained ...
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### Will 5 pizzas in the same Hot Bag stay warmer than 5 pizzas in 5 separate Hot Bags?

For example, say I am delivering 5 pepperoni pizzas to 5 different addresses. In one scenario, I Keep all 5 in the same insulated Hot Bag, I carry that bag to the door, and I quickly remove one of the ...
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### Does the relation between entropy and temperature depend on the ensemble?

If we change the temperature of a given system, there will be a relation between its entropy and temperature S(T). Is S(T) the same in a canonical ensemble and a grand canonical ensemble? If not, is ...
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### Alternative liquid for Galileo thermometer

So a friend of mine broke my Galileo thermometer recently. The glass tube and the liquid inside were lost, but the bulbs survived. I've cleaned out an old tall glass candle, and tried filling it with ...
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### Difference between irreversible and entropy?

Cedric Villani recently wrote an article on Landau damping, where at least one topic discussed confused me. Besides discussing the issue of how a process can be microscopically reversible and ...
The ideal Carnot engine works between two heat reservoir with two temperatures $t_h$ and $t_l$. Its efficiency is then $1-\frac{t_l}{t_h}$ . If the low temperture reservoir is the Ising model with ...