Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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1answer
204 views

Thermodynamics, PV diagrams?

My teacher told me that the total amount of work done on or by a gas can be represented by the area enclosed in the process in a PV diagram. This is only valid for non isothermic processes, right?
5
votes
1answer
320 views

First law of thermodynamics?

The first law says that the change in internal energy is equal to the work done on the system (W) minus the work done by the system (Q). However, can $Q$ be any kind of work, such as mechanical work? ...
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4answers
678 views

The Preference for Low Energy States

The idea that systems will achieve the lowest energy state they can because they are more "stable" is clear enough. My question is, what causes this tendency? I've researched the question and been ...
2
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2answers
55 views

Gas Circulation Using Pressure Difference

Dear all, see attached picture Please, is it possible to have the gas recirculated from the gas phase to the liquid as described in the diagram assuming the gas is not soluble in the water. These ...
1
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0answers
430 views

Explain to me how this water cooler works?

Goodday all, I was recently reading up on a few projects that might be of interest to me when I found "CPU Bong water coolers", there isn't much online on them so I figure I would ask y'all. If you ...
6
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1answer
200 views

Reflectivity of a glowing-hot metal surface

When a polished piece of metal (or steel in particular) is heated to incandescence, how do its reflective properties change? Given a mirror-like surface, would the object temporarily cease to act ...
2
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4answers
9k views

What is the effect of an increase in pressure on latent heat of vaporization?

What is latent heat of vaporization ($L_v$) in the first place? Wikipedia seems to indicate that it is the energy used in overcoming intermolecular interactions, without taking into account at all any ...
3
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1answer
491 views

Error in Sear's and Zemansky's University Physics with Modern Physics 13th Edition (Young and Freeman)?

I was reading up on the Ideal Gas Equation in University Physics with Modern Physics by Young and Freeman when I chanced upon a seemingly illogical mathematical equation. Can anyone rectify this ...
0
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4answers
8k views

How do you determine the heat transfer from a P-V diagram?

I doubt this question has been addressed properly before, but if there are similar answers, do direct them to me. I am currently studying the First Law of Thermodynamics, which includes the p-V ...
0
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2answers
12k views

Does more reflective aluminum foil make a room cooler compared to less reflective foil?

Aluminum foil is said to be not absorbing light at all. It reflects light. So, does it mean that a more shiny aluminum foil will reflect more light and thus make the room more cooler as compared to ...
1
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1answer
498 views

What is tricritical point?

Critical point is the transition temperature of a second order phase transition. But what does tricritical point mean? WIki says that a tricritical point is a point in the phase diagram of a system at ...
8
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4answers
2k views

How can I understand a Vortex Tube and its efficiency?

A Vortex Tube takes a pressurized input stream, most typically of a gas, and creates two output streams with a temperature differential. Apparently, it has been described as a Maxwell's Demon. Both ...
5
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1answer
4k views

Why does compressing a piston increase the internal energy?

When we compress a piston, its total internal energy increases, however I don't understand why. As the piston compresses, the temperature should change, as the total energy density increases. As a ...
-2
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1answer
416 views

Michaelis-Menten derivation for 2 enzyme substrates

We know that the Michaelis-Menten derivation for the following reaction: $E + S \rightleftharpoons ES \rightarrow E + P$ However, what if the reaction took place in a different scenario whereby: $E ...
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3answers
551 views

Mathematical proof of non-negative change of entropy $\Delta S\geq0$

I understand that we can prove that for any process that occurs in an isolated and closed system it must hold that $$\Delta S\geq0$$ via Clausius' theorem. My question is, how can I prove this in a ...
2
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0answers
133 views

Calculate how hot PLA will become

I am trying to attach the shaft of a brass heating tip to a PLA component. My problem is that the tip will have to reach a temperature of about 200°C and the PLA can only handle a temperature of about ...
4
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2answers
258 views

Does it make a sense to speak about age of electron or atom?

It's possible that this question is too soft or even quite senseless for this forum, but I will ask nevertheless. Everyday (macroscopic) things, like a grandfather's pendulum clock or the grandfather ...
25
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6answers
10k views

How do whisky stones keep your drink cold?

From a discussion in the DMZ (security stack exchange's chat room - a place where food and drink are important topics) we began to question the difference between how ice and whisky stones work to ...
2
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2answers
1k views

Calculating the change in entropy in a melting process

I have a homework question that I'm completely stumped on and need help solving it. I have a $50\, \mathrm{g}$ ice cube at $-15\, \mathrm{C}$ that is in a container of $200\, \mathrm{g}$ of water at ...
9
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1answer
655 views

Is there a relativity-compatible thermodynamics?

I am just wondering that laws in thermodynamics are not Lorentz invariant, it only involves the $T^{00}$ component. Tolman gave a formalism in his book. For example, the first law is replaced by the ...
0
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1answer
2k views

Calculating the coefficient of thermal expansion in liquid

I am trying to write a matlab function that calculates the coefficient of thermal expansion of water from a given temperature. From what I understand the thermal expansion coefficient is calculated as ...
3
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1answer
505 views

What defines the adiabatic flame temperature?

What defines the adiabatic flame temperature? In a case I have to solve, I need to describe the combustion of natural gas (Groningen natural gas, to be specific). However, I am having some problems ...
0
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0answers
64 views

Lambda transition data points of $\require{mhchem}\ce{^4He}$

I'm looking to get some data on the lambda transition of $\require{mhchem}\ce{^4He}$. I need the data points of the specific heat vs. temperature graph, if that makes sense.
0
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1answer
192 views

If a balloon is continuously filled with air and stays at a constant shape and size will there be any empty space in the balloon?

If a container like a balloon but with constant volume is filled, is it possible to pack air molecules so closely together that they don't have any empty space between them? If so, what would this ...
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1answer
543 views

What is the work done by an ideal gas?

What is the work done by an ideal gas when final pressure and volume are both different from its initial pressure and volume or when both pressure and volume changes ?
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1answer
74 views

Heisenberg's uncertainty and $0 K$ temperature

when a body is subjected to $0 K$ temperature, it becomes rigid. hence if we see in terms of quantum the lattice vibration decreases, resulting in no change in the direction of the Random velocity, ...
-2
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1answer
2k views

How do I calculate the heat lost or gained by surroundings? [closed]

How do I calculate the heat lost or gained by surroundings (Q surr) given mass ($m$), change in temp ($\Delta T$), and specific heat ($c$)? What equation would I use? How can I tell whether it's lost ...
2
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3answers
705 views

How can anything be hotter than the Sun?

I've heard that if a space shuttle enters the atmosphere from a bad angle its surface will become so hot that it will be hotter than the surface of the Sun. How can that be? It seems to an uneducated ...
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0answers
54 views

Negative temperature [duplicate]

How can we prove that if a negative-temperature system is in contact with a positive-temperature system, then the heat flow from the first to the second (and finally, the temperature of the second ...
-1
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1answer
178 views

The effects of heat on gravitational fields

In boiling soapy water, globs of soap coalesce as the temperature increases to boiling. Does this mean that temperature increases the gravitational pull of bodies?
0
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1answer
65k views

Conduction, convection, & radiation examples (besides vacuum flask)

I am studying heat transfer And understanding the vacuum flask example that involves conduction, convection, and radiation Do you know other example that involves these 3 phases? we can name some by ...
0
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1answer
2k views

Finding equation of state from thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility

I'm stuck on a problem that I found in a book (Modern Thermodynamic with Statistical Mechanics, Helrich S., problem 5.2). The text of the problem is that: Consider a solid material for which: ...
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3answers
2k views

How is it possible to equate the internal energy at constant volume with the internal energy of an adiabatic process?

I hope my question makes sense. My problem is that, I have read through numerous textbooks that $$nCdT = -PdV$$ (where $NC$ is constant volume) when deriving the relationship between $T$ and $V$ for ...
3
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5answers
567 views

Integrating factor $1/T$ in 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

How would you prove that $1/T$ is the most suitable integrating factor to transform $\delta Q$ to an exact differential in the second law of thermodynamics: $$dS = \frac{\delta Q}{T}$$ Where $dS$ is ...
12
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3answers
1k views

The notion of an adiabatic process in thermodynamics -vs- quantum mechanics

I'm confused about the terminology in the two contexts since I can't figure out if they have a similar motivation. Afaik, the definitions state that quantum processes should be very slow to be called ...
-1
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1answer
599 views

Time constant of ice melt

I'm familiar with problems of "how much ice can you melt given some amount of energy", but I'm writing to get some clarification on the time constant of this event. This question might be somewhat ...
3
votes
1answer
563 views

Perfect fluids in cosmology?

In cosmology, it is often assumed that the equation of state of a cosmological fluid is of the form $p=w\rho$. Why is this? Is it the equation of a perfect fluid? Why does $w=0$ for matter $1/3$ for ...
1
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1answer
837 views

Why does Hydrogen molar heat capacity reach 7/2 R?

If a diatomic gas like Hydrogen has 6 maximum degrees of freedom why its molar heat capacity reaches at high temperatures $C_V = \frac{7}{2} R$ and not $C_V = \frac{6}{2} R= 3R$? molar heat capacity ...
0
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1answer
47 views

Gas transformation for different molar number

When a gas at normal conditions (1atm, 273K, 22.4L) we say like the $$\frac{PV}{T} = 0.0820...$$ And by the know equation: $$PV = nRT$$ Where R is equals to $0.08205...$ and $n$ is the number of mols ...
13
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6answers
3k views

Why does the Boltzmann factor $e^{-E/kT}$ seem to imply that lower energies are more likely?

I'm looking for an intuitive understanding of the factor $$e^{-E/kT}$$ so often discussed. If we interpret this as a kind of probability distribution of phase space, so that $$\rho(E) = ...
0
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1answer
854 views

Does electrically heated water have an adverse effect on hair?

I know I should have asked this question on a different site. but this was the most suitable site available right now for my question. Perhaps after this proposed site goes on Beta, we can move it ...
0
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2answers
2k views

How temperature gradient is a vector?

Everyone knows Temperature gradient is a vector quantity having direction from cold to hot.My confusion: why is temperature gradient vector if its direction is always fixed (as in the case of ...
1
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2answers
699 views

Emissivity and thermal equilibrium

Lets say I enter a closed room with the walls and everything in it (including me and my eyes) at thermal equilibrium. Its a very hot room, but my super-eyes still work at 5000 degrees Kelvin. I have ...
0
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2answers
489 views

phase transition by sublimation

Why do sublime solids sublimate in the first place? Is it that their melting point and their liquid's boiling point are the same so that they manage to magically skip the liquid phase? (if so, why ...
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1answer
59 views

What is the coefficient $\mu_\text{air}$?

I am answering some exercises in thermodynamics, and I am still in trouble with some values and constants. In the exercise, it is given: $\mu_\text{air}=1.8\cdot10^{-5}~\text{kg/m s}$. What for is ...
5
votes
2answers
506 views

Solidification by the application of heat

When you add heat to a liquid (or a fluid), can it be solidified? If not, why in the world does an egg's stuffs become solid (or at least no more a liquid) when you 'boil' it in water?
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1answer
42 views

How can I find the temperature of this system?

A system was given a small amount of thermal energy dE, and its number of states G grew by 25%. How can I find the system temperature? The system contains gas particles, I know that $dE << ...
2
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2answers
286 views

Does the black body emit more than any other type of body?

I found this on Wikipedia article on black bodies: A black body in thermal equilibrium (that is, at a constant temperature) emits electromagnetic radiation called black-body radiation. The ...
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1answer
448 views

What happens to pipe outlet temperature here?

I have a fluid flowing through a pipe in the ocean and there is heat transfer from the ocean to the fluid in the pipe. I prepared a simulation and the results show that if I increase the mass flow ...
16
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7answers
16k views

Does an empty refrigerator require more power to stay cold than a full one?

Given that everything else is equal (model of fridge, temperature settings, external temperature, altitude), over a given duration of having the door closed, does it require more electricity to cool ...