Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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472 views

Density as a derivative of the Helmholtz energy

The equation of state for nitrogen has been formulated using the Helmholtz energy as the fundamental property with independent variables of density and temperature. The equation of state in ...
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37 views

Nonlinear constitutive state equation

Between the Tait equation, and the B/A type of equation, which one is better suited to approximate the isentropic equation of state? Why B/A type is mostly used in nonlinear acoustics?
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1answer
52 views

Is every imaginable quasi-static locus (with non-decreasing entropy) physically realisable?

If I have an isolated composite system which is dependent on several extensive properties (say $U_i, V_i$ and $N_i$ for each subsystem $i$) then a quasi-static locus is just a continuous curve through ...
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1answer
126 views

Shock-waves, Bangs and the Speed of Sound

I was watching this video of an erupting volcano. Some Guys in the comments tried to estimate how far away the volcano is by using the delay until the "shock-wave" hits the camera and the speed of ...
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1answer
780 views

List of known universality classes

I am working with RG and have a pretty good idea of how it works. However I have noticed that even though the idea of universality class is very general and makes it possible to classify critical ...
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3answers
435 views

Why does the air pressure at the surface of the earth exactly equal the weight of the entire air column above it

Why does the air pressure at the surface of the earth (resulting from collisions of molecules on the surface of the earth which has to do with the velocity of the particles) exactly equal the weight ...
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1answer
435 views

Is the Gibbs-Duhem equation always valid?

The derivation of the Gibbs-Duhem equation from Wikpedia uses: As shown in the Gibbs free energy article, the chemical potential is just another name for the partial molar (or just partial, ...
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1answer
324 views

Thermodynamic Internal Energy Reference States

The internal energy, $U$, of a given thermodynamic state, $\boldsymbol{R}$, as introduced in thermodynamics textbooks like Callen seems to be defined as: $U (\boldsymbol{R}) = \Delta U ...
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1answer
155 views

Why does Air Pressure not Matter in Phase Equilibrium?

So long as we are in the ideal gas range, the presence of air does not affect the liquid/solid-vapour equilibrium in any way (such as equilibrium vapour pressure, melting point etc.). Is there a ...
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1answer
5k views

Work Done in a Thermodynamic System (Cylinder with Piston) [closed]

Heated Piston A cylinder of cross-sectional area 0.0314m^2, filled with argon (a monatomic ideal gas), is sealed with a piston of mass M=25kg that is free to move up and down. The piston is ...
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1answer
406 views

Expectation value of $a_i^\dagger a_i$ for thermal density matrix

Suppose we have some heat bath with Hamiltonian, $$H=\sum_n \left(a^{\dagger}_na_n+\frac{1}{2}\right)\hbar\omega_n$$ and a density matrix $\rho=Z\exp(-\beta H)$ for some normalisation $Z$. ...
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2answers
119 views

Does turning a light off save electricity in a room heated by an electric space heater?

Suppose I've got a basement that kept heated to 20 degrees Celsius using an electric space heater with thermostat. There are no windows in this basement (light is not escaping the room in any ...
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2answers
581 views

Violation of the second law of thermodynamics? [closed]

Here is a machine which seems to violate the second law of thermodynamics: $A$ and $B$ are point black bodies of the same temperature (initially). everything is rotationally symmetric around the ...
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0answers
310 views

gibbs free energy and maximum work

I'm getting confused between two important results.... Gibbs free energy G = H-TS where h is the enthalpy and S is the entropy. This relation indicates only when the temperature and pressure are ...
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0answers
232 views

What is the minimum volume in which, for a given temperature difference $\Delta T$, natural convection would occur?

I'm trying to figure out if convection will occur in a plastic bottle slice and what length of slice would be optimal to achieve high R value transparent insulation on the cheap. The bottle slice is ...
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1answer
856 views

Confusion in the pressure-volume work in an irreversible process

Let there be a certain amount of gaseous substance kept in a cylinder fitted with a weightless & frictionless piston. The initial volume and pressure of the gas are $V_1$ & $P_1$ respectively. ...
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3answers
76 views

Why radiant heat only travels as infra-red waves and not as other types of em waves like UV rays

Heat is a form of energy and em waves carry energy as momentum of photons. So, I think, radiant heat can travel at any frequency. Please correct me.
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2answers
1k views

Contradiction on Entropy of the “universe” decreasing

I have hit what seems to be a contradiction concerning entropy. In my class, we measured the entropy change of photosynthesis which is obviously a non-spontaneous process. We used the formula, ...
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0answers
74 views

Evaluate functional integral in partition function of thermal $\phi^4$ theory (Kapusta/Gale p.34-35)

my question is about some steps in the book "Finite Temperature Field Theory" by Kapusta and Gale. To explain the setting, I how to evaluate the functional integrals in the expression $$ \ln ...
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2answers
2k views

Glass tends to be cold?

In winter, our glass window serves as a separator of coldness outside and warmth inside our room. We know that the window feels cold when we touch it. Since the air temperature is different in ...
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0answers
651 views

Isentropic and Isothermal Compressibility

Why isentropic compressibility is greater than isothermal compressibility ? While deriving $C_p$ and $C_v$ relation, I got $\frac{Cp}{Cv}$ as $\frac{ke}{Kt}$. Which tells us that $Ke > Kt$. But ...
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3answers
253 views

Simple estimation of the critical temperature of water

I'm trying to develop fermi estimation skills and I came up with a question for which I don't even know where to start from. Here goes: Is it possible to estimate the critical temperature (say in ...
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1answer
179 views

Is the stability matrix of a linearised RG flow always diagonalisable?

This is a follow up on "Why are the eigenvalues of a linearized RG transformation real?". My question is simple: Is there some physical (or mathematical) reason for the stability matrix of ...
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1answer
56 views

Classical limit of non-interacting, relativistic quantum gas (Kapusta/Gale p.8)

I want to understand two equations in "Finite temperature field theory" by Kapusta and Gale on page 8. The partition function is $$ \ln Z = V\int \frac{d^3 p}{(2\pi)^3}\;\ln\left(1\pm ...
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1answer
130 views

Isentropic process and reversibility [duplicate]

I know that every adiabatic reversible process is an isentropic process. Can a process be isentropic but still not reversible adiabatic? Please provide me some examples.
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74 views

(Chemistry) Dimensionless heat transfer coefficient

I'm trying to reproduce in Matlab the model of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) that I've gotten for a project. The model is written in the state space and uses some dimensionless values, ...
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2answers
2k views

Heat generated by collision

Suppose there are two objects: A = m1 and B = m2 . A is travelling at a constant velocity v toward B and collides inelastically: is there a way in which I could determine the energy which is ...
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3answers
818 views

How do gas molecules constantly bounce without losing energy?

From a related question (How does pressurized gas constantly push?), i asked myself this: How do gas molecules constantly bounce off each other without losing energy? If you drop a ball, it bounces a ...
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1answer
55 views

Explanation for Homogeneous Nucleation Temperature?

What is homogeneous nucleation temperature (for water this is listed as -42C); is it simply the lowest experimental temperature you can go before supercooled liquid turns into solid, or is it that ...
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1answer
229 views

Phase diagram of water v/s other substances

Why for water increase in pressure decreases solidification temperature? The fusion curve of water is not same as that of other substances and for other substances specific volume increases during ...
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0answers
166 views

fugacity of gases and gaseous mixtures

Is fugacity defined only for gases and gaseous solution.? In many books it is given that fugacity is "effective pressure", what does it mean? If it is applicable to liquids and liquid solutions then ...
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2answers
1k views

Why is cooling much harder than heating?

I'm trying to invent a distillation apparatus that runs solely on electricity. Suddenly, I realized that cooling things is really hard, while heating them up is so easy. Actually, it seems that there ...
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2answers
180 views

Thermodynamic equilibrium- mixing of gases

What is the final temperature and pressure after removing diaphragm of a cylinder which divides the cylinder into two equal components each of volume $0.1\,m^3$ and each component contains air at ...
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1answer
208 views

Unmixing of gases: What is the relevant temperature for my Entropy?

This answer to a question about unmixing gases states: However, let us now assume we have to hand a source of mechanical work, and a large heat reservoir at temperature $T$. I'll assume that ...
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4answers
621 views

Why does a bubble take a spherical shape?

I suspect this has something to do with thermodynamics and the isoperimetric inequality and I'm interested in a mathematical derivation of this result.
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1answer
40 views

How to calculate heat generated from cosmic dust in space? [duplicate]

Say I have a spaceship, and I'm flying it through space at a constant high velocity V. The spaceship is pretty large (big surface area). In space however, there is cosmic dust scattered throughout ...
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1answer
165 views

Why does the equation for effectiveness of heat exchangers have $C_{\text{min}}$ in the denominator?

For an ideal heat exchanger of infinite length, $$ Q_{max}=m_{h}C_{h}\left[T_{h,i}-T_{o}\right]=m_{c}C_{c}\left[T_{o}-T_{c,i}\right] $$ \begin{eqnarray*} m_{h}C_{h}T_{h,i}+m_{c}C_{c}T_{c,i} & ...
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1answer
48 views

A confusion on Radiations emitted from a body [duplicate]

Suppose an atom is accelerated...Now the protons in its nucleus and the electrons in the orbits are also accelerated...So will they emit the electromagnetic radiations? Basically here the electrons ...
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3answers
140 views

Is the amount of radiation you receive in space constant regardless of velocity?

I'm only in high school, so this will probably have fatal flaws. So basically in space, there is bound to be stray radiation, whether from the stars, or cosmic background, floating around right. And ...
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182 views

How does entropy change when heat is transfer into a system reversibly with constant $T$?

My guess will be $\Delta S_\mathrm{(system)}$ : increase [because heat is flowing into the system] $\Delta S_\mathrm{(surrounding)}$: decrease [because heat is leaving the environment] $\Delta ...
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1answer
221 views

Can you explain why crystals form without thermodynamics?

I know that the basic reason that solid crystals form is because it's the lowest energy configuration (i.e. this). I am looking for an intuitive explanation for this process, one that does not involve ...
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1answer
83 views

How do I set up the tridiagonal matrix for a heat diffusion with layers of different thermal diffusivity?

I have Scala code that recreates the Crank-Nicolson solutions for the diffusion equations, and matches 'Excel for Scientists and Engineers' (Joe Billo, Wiley). However, I would like to be able to ...
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1answer
49 views

Does no variables change in an adiabatic + isothermal system?

Adiabatic + isothermal = no heat and temperature change. Does that mean the system will remain as it is? If it is adiabatic + isovolumetric or adiabatic + isobaric , is it as well no change in any ...
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1answer
4k views

What is the difference between reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion?

What is the difference between reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion? Is it true that the work done by the gas is the same but the pressure applied externally differ between two process? ...
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1answer
36 views

Is it only possible when 600J of heat is exhausted and 400J of heat is converted into work? [closed]

Is it only possible when 600J of heat is exhausted and 400J of heat is converted into work? Is the 600J heat will enter the cold reservoir and available to do work again? q1/T hot + q3 / T cold = 0 ...
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2answers
281 views

Why won't the efficiency of a heat pump increase when $T_\mathrm{cold}$ decreases?

Why won't the efficiency of a heat pump increase when $T_\mathrm{cold}$ decreases? In the carnot cycle, efficiency increases when $T_\mathrm{cold}$ gets colder and $T_\mathrm{hot}$ gets hotter. Are ...
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2answers
4k views

Comparison between isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic expansion

Please check if my understandings of these terms are right because they are a bit confusing to me. For all three types of expansions, a change in volume means work is done by the system to the ...
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2answers
645 views

For change in entropy dS = dq/T, is T the temperature of system or surrounding or both?

For change in entropy dS = dqrev/T, is T the temperature of system or surrounding or both? I am confused about Thot, Tcold, Tsys and Tsurr. If qrev, are we talking about the reversible cycle such as ...
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3answers
1k views

Does entropy have a physical meaning?

Entropy is incredibly useful as a mathematical tool. But what does it actually mean? I understand that the Boltzmann entropy is defined by: $$S=k\ln{\Omega}$$ With $\Omega$ being the multiplicity ...
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4answers
4k views

Why do computers generate heat?

Computers generate heat when they work. Is it a result of information processing or friction (resistance)? Are these just different ways to describe the same thing? Or does some definite part of the ...