Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Thermodynamics phase change question

why is specific volume of Saturated water greater at 1 MPA than at 0.1 MPA during the phase change process check out the T-V diagram here in the link. ...
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429 views

What happens to ice cream when you stir it?

I hope this is the appropriate forum for my question. I also considered posting it in the chemistry forum. When I eat ice cream I often stir it into a texture similar to that of soft serve. During ...
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37 views

Can you choose the variables of a state function?

I'm confused. I was first introduced to entropy as a state function of internal energy and volume $$S(U,V) \Rightarrow dS = C_v\frac{\mathrm{d}T}{T} - p\frac{\mathrm{d}V}{T} $$ wich is the ...
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24 views

Are Maxwell Relations valid only out of saturation?

My thermodynamics book suggests that the Maxwell Relations must be used when dealing with a single-phase system. The equations come right after the section Mathematical Relations for the Homogeneous ...
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2answers
139 views

Inconsistency between Helmholtz and Gibbs Free Energies

I know that if the Helmholtz free energy, $A$, is expressed as a function $A\sim A(N,V,T)$, then this function contains all thermodynamic information about the system. For instance, the pressure of ...
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42 views

How to calculate the buoyant force on a balloon at different altitudes [duplicate]

For a project into balloon simulation I'd like to know how the force on a balloon changes with altitude: I know that the Buoyant force on a balloon is: $F = (\rho_{air} - \rho_{helium})gV$ Using ...
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21 views

Estimating the effect of radiant barrier on the radiant and conductive heat transfer through a metal roof

The basic question is -- Will a radiant reflective coating be more effective applied to the upper surface or the lower surface of a metal? Case 1: Imagine a metal roof subject to solar heating. The ...
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61 views

Formation of atoms question

Could you please, explain to me the logic of the folllowing process as you would do to your 8 y/o sister: Ubiquitousness and stability of atoms relies on their binding energy, which means that ...
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40 views

How can entropic effects be prevalent at low temperatures?

I read in a book that at low temperature the hydrophobic effect (for example) is entropic but at high temperatures it is enthalpic. I thought that entropy should decrease at very low temperatures. ...
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64 views

Helmholtz free energy from a relation for entropy

The Legendre transformation defines the helmholtz free energy (at least according to my lectures) as: $F(T,V,N)=E-TS$ It also says to start with $E(S,V,N)$ and $T=\frac{\partial{E}}{\partial{S}}$ ...
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69 views

Definition of pressure in Thermodynamics

In Mechanics we define pressure as "the amount of force acting per unit area". It appears naturally in fluid mechanics where we consider a volume of fluid $W$ contained in a region filled with fluid ...
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49 views

Monte carlo simulation for continuous spin model (e.g. XY or Heisenberg model)

Unlike the Ising model, the XY model and the Heisenberg model have a continuous spectrum. So one need discretize them for a numerical simulation. But how to make sure the discretization procedure ...
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62 views

What determines how much energy a stone can hold?

Imagine you have a stone that is being hit by focused sunlight from a magnifying glass. Later you will place the stone into water to heat it. What type of stone will transfer the most energy into the ...
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46 views

Internal energy and photon absorption

I just wish to confirm whether my understanding is correct. I know that photon absorption/emission brings about quantised changes in electron energy levels. Photons (infrared) also interact with ...
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55 views

What really is a thermodynamic system?

I'm starting to study Thermodynamics and I'm pretty confused about what a thermodynamic system really is. When studying mechanics we focus our attention on systems of particles. So when we talk about ...
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111 views

Propagation/generation of sound is an isentropic process

Is the propagation and generation of sound an isentropic process? Is it because it is a reversible adiabatic process? Why would it be adiabatic? Does it happen so fast that there is no time to ...
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351 views

Why sound does not heat up the air?

Both thermal energy and air are propagated through vibration of particles so why sound does not heat up the air e.g loud musical instrument does not generate much heat ?
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67 views

Steady-state adiabatic nozzle, unknown exit velocity & temperature [closed]

The question is 2.10 taken from: Introductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 2E by Elliot,Lira Air at 30ºC and 2MPa flows ata steady state in a horizontal pipeline with a velocity of 25m/s. ...
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91 views

Difference between sound and heat at particle level

If heat (or thermal energy) are vibrations of particles and sound is a wave that is propagated through medium e.g vibration of air particles, what indicates if vibration of particles will be perceived ...
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41 views

Temperature change: boiling pasta in a lot of water or a little

SeriousEats gives a not-very-scientific representation of what looks like a thermodynamics calculation: Want to hear something even more interesting? Folks will occasionally say that "using a ...
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211 views

Difference between heat capacity and entropy?

Heat capacity $C$ of an object is the proportionality constant between the heat $Q$ that the object absorbs or loses & the resulting temperature change $\delta T$ of the object. Entropy change is ...
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41 views

Woodstove coppertubing heat exchanger [closed]

I am trying to use the excess temperature of my wood stove's stack to heat a copper tube heat exchanger with water running through it. The water is piped through my concrete floor for radiant floor ...
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1answer
69 views

Definition of entropy in nonequilibrium states

Thermodynamical definition of entropy $$S(p)=-\int p\ln p~dx$$ is defined only on equilibrium system. But why can't we use it for non-equilibrium system? Is there a well-accepted definition for it?
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Paradox while Cooling & Heating in Air? [duplicate]

I was thinking about how asteroids get "burned" up in the upper atmosphere as they approach the earth surface due to the atmosphere of earth heating the asteroids immensely as a result of air ...
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37 views

How to calculate the heat transfer rate between the liquid and the gas?

Let water (liquid) be in a chamber (with no heat transfer to the walls). The gas is the residual space above the liquid, meaning that the contact surface is the surface of the water. Given the gas ...
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54 views

Thermodynamics of scattering theory

I have a couple of conceptual questions regarding the thermodynamics of scattering. Any partial answer or argument will be appreciated. For the sake of discussion, consider the scattering of ...
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308 views

How do objects heat up?

If every body emits radiation at a given frequency and temperature exactly as well as it absorbs the same radiation, how do objects heat up?
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106 views

Are pressure and volume not independent properties in liquid water?

Every thermodynamics textbook teaches us that, for a simple compressible substance, any two independent properties will suffice to determine the system state. Those can be pressure and temperature ...
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84 views

Is there a minimum energy content of information, other than 0 Joules?

Lets say I want to send the bit string 010110 to someone. Is there a theoretical lower bound on the energy needed to do this?
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39 views

Spontaneity / Free Energy of Non-Isothermal Process

I'm trying to determine a lower bound for the work input necessary to make an entropy-reducing process "spontaneous" in the sense that the 2nd law is not violated. For a constant temperature and ...
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32 views

Showing the thermal expansion coefficient is the sum of the linear expansion coefficients

Given that the thermal expansion coefficient is defined as: $$ \beta=\frac{\frac{\Delta V}{V}}{\Delta T} $$ and the linear thermal expansion coefficient is defined as: $$ \alpha = \frac{\frac{\Delta ...
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51 views

$\mathrm{CO_2}$ rate of deposition

Parts of Antarctica average -127°F (-83°C). The freezing point of $\mathrm{CO_2}$ is -109.3 °F (-78.5 °C). If one could construct a large container at such a place shielded from the sun, would ...
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765 views

How cold would a bowling ball near absolute zero make a room?

If a bowling ball at absolute zero suddenly appeared in my room, how cold would the room get? Would I die? My initial estimation is that it one bowling ball at 0K (i.e., 300K below room temperature) ...
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38 views

Why do metal surfaces reflect thermal signature?

I recently borrowed a thermal camera from a friend and I tried to observe my palm print over a reflective metallic plate. When I looked at it through the camera, it reflected my thermal signature too. ...
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34 views

How are heat transfer rate and heat capacity constant of a material related?

How are heat transfer rate and heat capacity of a given material is related? When I was a kid I imagined it like "Capacity is like a container or bucket of some sort, if it gets filled easily it can ...
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58 views

How to model an apartment's airconditioning?

Background: This reminds situation reminds be of an episode from the The Big Bang Theory, although it is quite different from it. My roommate and I have similar temperature preferences and also share ...
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Followup to: The relation between energy quanta of an Einstein solid and the equipartition value of heat capacity

As a followup question to this question: The relation between energy quanta of an Einstein solid and the equipartition value of heat capacity and this answer ...
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123 views

Ice and liquid water interacting across a boundary

Imagine we have two thermodynamic systems, one a mass of ice and the other an equal mass of liquid water, with both at 273.16K. Each system is isolated, except that they can interact with each other ...
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The relation between energy quanta of an Einstein solid and the equipartition value of heat capacity

Consider an Einstein solid with quantized energy values $U=q\epsilon$ and $N$ oscillators. I calculated some values of an Einstein solid numerically through a function in R (at the bottom of the ...
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1answer
82 views

What are the contributions of the Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics?

I am very interested in Thermodynamics, but though it is easy to find good books and information about classical thermo, it seems that is not the same for non-equilibrium thermodynamics. I would like ...
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115 views

Why is everything colder nowadays? [duplicate]

I know that when the universe began it was incredibly hot. Ever since, it is been cooling, and nowadays the average temperature of the universe is quite close to 0 K. Is this a consequence of having ...
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152 views

Is the second law of Thermodynamics an immense tautology?

Let's imagine for a second a system that is changing constantly from one microstate to another one. It could be a given volume of a gas with its atoms moving and bouncing around, or a deck of cards ...
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291 views

Axioms behind entropy!

The concept of entropy is very ubiquitous, we learn about its uses starting from Information Theory (Shannon entropy) up to its basic definition in statistical mechanics in terms of number of ...
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22 views

Third principle of Nernst [duplicate]

I wonder how can I prove the fulfillment of the third principle of Nernst of a body that obeys the next expression.
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1answer
40 views

Scale down model of a refrigerator

I am teaching Thermodynamics. For teaching how refrigerators work I am looking for a working model of a scale down refrigerator. This should be as close to real as possible but very small in size. Can ...
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1answer
56 views

Calculating new temperature of an object when air temperature changes

I'm trying to calculate the new temperature of an object when the air temperature around it changes, given a period of time. Basically I get periodic readings from an air temperature sensor in a ...
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53 views

Latent heat of vaporization at non-boiling temperature

The latent heat of vaporization of water is what we normally use to calculate the heat transfer that occurs at 373 K when liquid water transits to vapor phase. But there are curves for latent heat of ...
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What are the thermal properties of a “perfectly rigid” container?

can a "perfectly rigid" container be a diathermal boundary? I checked the wikipedia article for heat and read: Kinetic theory explains transfers of energy as heat as macroscopic manifestations of ...
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1answer
59 views

If you dig a deep tunnel, will the rock sublimate?

If a tunnel is dug deep inside the crust (but before reaching places where the rock is liquid), how will the enormous downwards pressure manifest itself? Will the difference in pressure ...
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83 views

Is Rosehip Syrup boiling in a bottle?

My wife made Rose-hip syrup and the final part was boiling it in a saucepan. While still hot she placed it in a glass bottle. To keep it sterile she plugged it with a wine-saver top and sucked out ...