Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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What could be the effects of accidentally spilling supercooled water/liquid on an unprotected body surface?

Will the body rapidly start losing heat or will the water find a seed and solidify around it ?
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85 views

Classifying regions of Van der Waal like gas

Given the equation of state $$p+a\left(\frac{N}{V}\right)=\frac{Nk_BT}{V-bN} \tag 1$$ Taking into account of the fact that a realistic model requires $p \geq 0, V \geq Nb, N>0$ classify the ...
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34 views

what is the supercritical state?

is the supercritical state of matter a separate state of matter or is it a combination of a liquid and a gas? could someone give me an overview of this state and its properties. i have seen some ...
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68 views

Heat capacity of solids vs liquids $s_{liquid} = 2\ s_{solid}$

I heard that specific heat capacity if water $s_{\text{water}} = 1\ \frac{\text{cal}}{\text{g}\cdot \text{K}}$ while for ice, $s_{\text{ice}} = \frac{1}{2} \frac{\text{cal}}{\text{g} \cdot \text{K}}$ ...
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67 views

How much heating Earth inner core provide to the surface?

Compare to the energy that the Earth surface receives from the sun, how much power comes from the inner melted core ? How important is this contribution to the surface temperature ?
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34 views

What is characteristic time in Fourier number exactly?

Please tell me What is characteristic time in Fourier number? How can I calculate characteristic time? Suppose I started heating water in a closed container by immersion rod. And temperature increases ...
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52 views

Why is there steam in a hot shower even though the water is not boiling?

When I take a hot shower, there is normally a fair amount of steam. However, I don't think the water coming out of the shower-head is actually boiling (unless I am mistaken). Why is there water ...
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1answer
44 views

Meaning of solutions of an equation of state [closed]

Question Let $p \geq 0, V \geq Nb, N > 0$. Now we are given the equation of state $$p+a\left(\frac{N}{V}\right)=\frac{Nk_BT}{V-b} \tag 1$$ Classify the solutions of the equation of ...
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1answer
31 views

Problem with indistinguishability in partition function

Consider an ideal gas of classical particles of mass $m$ in uniform potential $\xi$ in 3d. The gas $N$ molecules, volume $V$ and is at temperature $T$. I believe that the Hamiltonian of this system is ...
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1answer
76 views

Finding $p(z), \rho(z)$ of an ideal classical gas in a box

We have a classical ideal gas of particles of mass $m$ at fixed chemical potential $\mu$ and fixed temperature $T$. We have a potential energy $U(z)=mgz$ and the gas is in a rectangular box of height ...
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40 views

Deriving pressure from a given partition function

If the partition function for some system is given as $e^{\text{$\alpha $T}^3V}$; please note note that $\alpha$ is a constant. I have computed $$\left[\frac{\text{$\delta $Z}}{\text{$\delta ...
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47 views

Finding the equation of state from a thermodynamical potential

Given a themrmodynamical potential eg, the helmholtz free energy, $$F=-Nk_BT \ln(V-bN)+aN\ln V + k_BTN\left( \ln N! -\frac{3}{2}\ln T\right)$$ $a,b$ positive constants and $V \geq Nb$ and ...
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1answer
100 views

The energy contribution of a frequency at finite temperature

This is from a paper I'm reading: Since each frequency contributes $\hbar \omega/2$ of energy (or at finite temperature, $\hbar \omega /2 \coth(\hbar\omega/2kT)$), we can find the energies for the ...
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44 views

Temperature change in adiabatic free expansion

Consider a gas with fixed number of particles $N$ undergoing adiabatic free expansion from $V_1$ to $V_2$. Apparently we have the following relation $$\Delta ...
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1answer
47 views

Rain system movements and highways?

In my free time I sometimes enjoy watching the weather or radar and trying to predict how a rain system will move. Pretty often I notice that a small rain system or even a large one will congregate or ...
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1answer
84 views

2nd law of thermodynamics - thought experiment

I have designed this simple thought experiment that seems to contradict 2nd law of thermodynamics. Could you please find a mistake in my reasoning? ...
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1answer
23 views

Understanding view-/formfactor for radiation with a specific example

There is radiation coming from a point source (black body). How much of the total emitted energy (from the point source) hits a spherical surface given by $\phi = 0 - \pi $ and $\theta = 0 - \pi/2 $? ...
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Vertical wall at 3 different temperatures - do the same natural convection coefficient correlations apply?

I have an vertical enclosure that consists of 3 shelves, each with its own temperature and are thermally isolated from each other. We will call the shelves A, B, and C with A being the base shelf. The ...
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35 views

Does heating an electromagnet cause change in its magnetic field?

Does heating an electromagnet cause change in its magnetic field as well and vice versa?
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47 views

Can we determine what happened in every event of the past?

All movement in our universe produces heat from collisions with molecules (correct me if I'm wrong). If you had a super-powerful heat sensor/detector, could you use it to detect where heat is and use ...
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57 views

Is refraction of light a thermodynamic process?

Is refraction of light a thermodynamic process? Can it be explained by conservation of energy? If so, does temperature has an effect on refraction of light?
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1answer
75 views

Mechanical equilibrium : thermodynamics and classical mechanics

A similar question was asked here but mine is a bit different. In thermodynamics, a mechanical equilibrium is defined as a uniform pressure (for a fluid). In classical mechanics, equilibrium is ...
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1answer
65 views

Passively moving air [closed]

I'm interested in channeling air into an underground condenser to generate water. Which of these approaches would be most appropriate, and is there a better approach I haven't considered? A: A ...
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0answers
39 views

Refined diffusion/heat models [duplicate]

I'm a math student myself, but as is natural I encounter some physics along the way too. My question concerns the heat/diffusion model. As the reader will recall this is that the heat function ...
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1answer
53 views

Planck's postulate for oscillators or for light?

I know that Planck originally postulated that the energy of an oscillator in a black body was quantised to $E=nh\nu$ but did he know at the time that this meant the energy of light was also quantised ...
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29 views

Why do some materials have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion in all directions?

Those materials are especially ceramic-glasses. I've found some studies about how does it happens in one dimension (for example a nanocrystalline has a silica helix that works like twisting spring, ...
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1answer
81 views

Why does aluminium-on-glass mirror work without distortion?

I have read an article about glass (zerodur) with low thermal expansion coefficient. It is mentioned that large casts of such glass are covered with reflective layer of Aluminium and used as mirrors ...
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2answers
100 views

Why is $c_p$ higher than $c_v$?

why is heat capacity at constant pressure higher than heat capacity at constant volume? It is supposed to be this way, since if you increase $C_p$ in volume work is being done, in other case not. This ...
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1answer
52 views

Does a closed system with fixed entropy imply an isolated system?

Just first to clarify, my university notation is $$\text{change in entropy} = \text{entropy flow} + \text{internal production of entropy}$$ I am confused with the term fixed entropy. Does that mean ...
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1answer
32 views

Electrical conductivity of metals on heating

What effect does heating have on metals (to be specific, on the electrical conductivity) ? And why does it have that effect?
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1answer
43 views

Paramagnetic/ferromagnetic transition under a magnetic field

The paramagnetic/ferromagnetic phase transition is an archetypal example of a continuous (or second-order) phase transition. When the temperature $T$ approaches the Curie temperature $T_c$, the ...
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12 views

Why is the cloth cooled to a temperature below that of the hot wind? [duplicate]

When a wet cloth is hung up in a hot wind in the desert, it is cooled by evaporation to a temperature that may be or so below that of the air. Discuss this process in light of the second law of ...
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2answers
128 views

Why is it impossible to build an air filter that lowers the average velocity of the air molecules in a house?

Imagine a special air filter placed in a window of a house. The tiny holes in the filter allow only air molecules moving faster than a certain speed to exit the house, and allow only air molecules ...
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3answers
74 views

Speed of heat / quantification of heat and other magnitudes

Is the speed of heat infinite? When solving the heat equation in a semi-infinite bar, we can see that a pulse in the finite end draws an immediate change in every point of the bar. So, at any given ...
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1answer
84 views

Area under temperature time graph

I have an open desiccant heating system which has a flow rate of $0.7$ litres/sec, I have recorded the temperature profile after the air has been heated and plotted it against time in seconds. My ...
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1answer
20 views

How to convert the molar attenuation coefficient, ie. molar absorptivity, to heat capacity?

In spectroscopy techniques, such as infrared spectroscopy, light of a certain wavelength is absorbed. I see parallels to the concept of heat capacity, i.e. the heat necessary to change the temperature ...
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2answers
68 views

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Flow Hot Cold

Based on sources I referred, I got to know that a double pipe heat exchanger operates in a way where hot water flows in a pipe and comes out as cold water and cold water flows into another pipe and ...
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2answers
36 views

when a steam is being liquified, does its temperature change or not?

Here is a question: When ice is being melted, its temperature doesn't change. So, when a steam is being liquified, does its temperature change or not? And is the heat transferred here calculated by ...
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2answers
64 views

Why is heat transfer better from within circular tubes versus ex. square tubes?

It is claimed that heat exchange, through the tube-suface, is best from within circular tubes versus either (not sure which is correct): from outside of the tube itself other shapes like for example ...
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0answers
54 views

How to relate internal energy to atomic motion?

I am trying to conceptualize how atomic motion leads to the thermodynamically-defined internal energy (denoted as $U$ below) through some broad mathematical relationships. I get that the internal ...
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1answer
24 views

What causes the black shimmering bands on a sun-lit surface?

I can't figure it out. I thought it was the window causing it, but even without it it happened. It seems to be the motion of the air that causes it, but why shimmering black bands? Sometimes this ...
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0answers
35 views

Thermodynamics of a rubber band

I have a streched rubber band and I know that tension f is proportional to the temperature T when the length is constant. How can I proove that internal energy is only a function of temperature? I ...
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0answers
31 views

How complex is an energy balance for this problem?

Let's say I have an enclosed room in the shape of a box with forced airflow on the outer walls at an ambient temperature. Each end of the room (forward and rear) has a vent that ducts in warm air to ...
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1answer
24 views

Measured temperature (thermometre set to emissivity of 1) of smooth surface too high or to low?

We want to measure the temperature of a smooth flat surface with a thermometre based on absorption of thermal rays. The emissivity setting of the thermometre is set to 1 (same as a black surface), ...
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2answers
100 views

Thermo - Plotting constant pressure and temperature on a Pv and Ts diagram

I was just curious what the saturation curve for water (plotting pressure versus specific volume) would look like if you drew both a line of constant pressure as well as constant temperature. I am ...
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1answer
167 views

Newton's law of cooling for the heat equation boundary condition

Newton's law of cooling says the temperature of an object satisfies $$ \frac{dT}{dt} = -k(T(t) - T_0),\tag{1} $$ where $T_0$ is the surrounding temperature. See these HTML notes for example. Now if ...
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1answer
67 views

Second law of thermodynamics (in terms of entropy)

Is the second law of thermodynamics (in terms of entropy) for closed systems or isolated systems? I thought it must be valid for isolated systems, such as the Universe. But the book Fundamentals of ...
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1answer
46 views

Does it mean the molecules of all matter above absolute zero temperature are moving? [duplicate]

According to my knowledge, heat is the energy that is stored in form of kinetic energy of molecules in Brownian motion. However, in a macroscopic view, a rigid body seem to be "stable" but still store ...
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4answers
238 views

Where does air pressure come from?

Where does air pressure come from? I thought it was from gravity or the speed of the gas resulting from its heat. However, analyzing my own hypotheses, I think that my 'heat conjecture' is probably ...
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1answer
55 views

Could you make a system that exchanges matter but no thermodynamic energy?

Normally we distinguish between open, closed and isolated systems, assuming that the 4th possibility does not exist, as an exchange of matter presupposes energy exchange. Could it be nevertheless ...