Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Dependence of latent heat on pressure

It is known that the latent heat of vaporization increases as external pressure decreases. What is the cause of this phenomenon?
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28 views

Measuring variation of saturated vapour pressure with temperature

Is it possible to measure variation of saturated vapour pressure of water with time.I just hesitate about it.My suggested procedure which is incomplete is given below Procedure that I would like to ...
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52 views

Is a body of gas cooler in its upper portion as a result of gravity? [closed]

I read an article a couple of hours ago named Hydrostatic Lapse which makes the case for a phenomenon that I thought was well and truly confirmed; that gravity is responsible for the cooling of gas ...
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30 views

Internal heating effects of a circuit element?

The heat-up of a solid circuit component in an electric circuit (for which no chemical reactions, phase changes reactions or other stuctural changes take place) may include: Joule heating $\dot ...
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38 views

mathematical Physics + fluid mechanics, thermodynamics + mass transfer? beginner [closed]

I am completely new to the world of physics and am interested in learning the aforementioned topics. I have previously studied biochemistry, but am fascinated by physics and am interested in ...
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46 views

Is vortex tube reversible? [closed]

If you inject cold and hot air in outlets of a vortex tube, do you obtain a greater pressure at inlet?
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28 views

One question about critical exponents for first order transition free energy [closed]

I've got a problem to calculate critical exponents for theory given by Landau free action: $$ \tag 1 L = L_{0} - \frac{1}{2}(\nabla m)^{2} + atm^{2} + dm^{3} + bm^{4} - hm, $$ where $$ -\infty < ...
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24 views

Is it impossible to find the exact analytic form of the molar volume of liquid and gas in phase transition from the van der Waal equations?

I want to find the molar volume $v_g , v_l$ of gas and liquid respectively in the coexistence curve of phase diagram with given temperature when ideal van der Waal gas $$ P = ...
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1answer
62 views

Why does the temperature of a gas inside a moving container not increase with velocity?

A rectangular (simplified) container with rigid surfaces, has a certain mass of ideal gas within it, and it accelerates in free space, undergoing rectilinear motion. There are no dissipative ...
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does the internal energy and enthalpy of the GAS changes in a free expansion process?

when a balloon kept in an evacuated room is punctured and the ideal gas in the balloon goes on to fill the entire room,does the gas perform any work in this expansion, and is there in any change in ...
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Increased pressure of Liquid Pitch and Limestone (Bitumen/Asphalt) @ approximately 300 degrees Fahrenheit

If liquid pitch and limestone (20/80 mostly limestone) is pumped (appx. 5 gpm) out of a nozzle that restricts the flow compared to the flow that would be achieved straight out of the pump ( no ...
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29 views

Find the time needed to warm the water to a temperature [closed]

An electrical resistence has a power of 1 kW. It is put inside a container that has 10 liters water. The water is in temperature 20C with pressure 1 atm. Find the time to warm the water to the ...
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42 views

Find the velocity of the escape of the bullet

A gun has a muzzle 0.8 meters long and with a diameter of 0.006 m. A bullet with mass 0.002 kg is initially 0.01 m away from the end of the muzzle. As a result of a gunshot, the pressure of the gas ...
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38 views

Specific heat at constant volume

Me and my friend came across this derivation is some lecture notes of our thermal physics module. We have been trying to calculate the partial differential of the internal energy but cannot get the ...
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2answers
85 views

Fan Speed Formula

Is there any formula for computing fan speed by using air mass,air flux, air density or specific heat? I have computed air mass and air flux, and found the values for air density and specific heat, ...
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35 views

Thermal Equilibrium of two thin sheets

While reading Gibbs' Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics I came across this footnote: The most simple test of the equality of temperature of two bodies is that they remain in ...
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34 views

Triangular Cyclic Process

i am currently studying for my physics exam and i am trying to wrap my head around cyclic processes. There is the cyclic process - ![1]: (http://imgur.com/7i0JF1S) "cyclic process" We know its an ...
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47 views

Temperature change in adiabatic free expansion

Consider a gas with fixed number of particles $N$ undergoing adiabatic free expansion from $V_1$ to $V_2$. Apparently we have the following relation $$\Delta ...
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Vertical wall at 3 different temperatures - do the same natural convection coefficient correlations apply?

I have an vertical enclosure that consists of 3 shelves, each with its own temperature and are thermally isolated from each other. We will call the shelves A, B, and C with A being the base shelf. The ...
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27 views

How to convert the molar attenuation coefficient, ie. molar absorptivity, to heat capacity?

In spectroscopy techniques, such as infrared spectroscopy, light of a certain wavelength is absorbed. I see parallels to the concept of heat capacity, i.e. the heat necessary to change the temperature ...
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36 views

Heat transfer coefficients

I am trying to make a model of non-stationary heating on a plate and I have questions considering coefficients. I am using explicit method to solve it (have to use it). I am not sure if I am using the ...
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79 views

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

I have a metal plate and I need to transfer heat out of the metal plate to the atmosphere. Hence, I can use a double pipe heat exchanger which contains 2 pipes. But what if I just use one pipe and let ...
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62 views

Internal Energy questions

The first law of thermodynamics states that $\Delta U=q+w$ where $ΔU$ is the increase in internal energy of the system, $q$ is the thermal energy supplied to the system and $w$ is the work done on the ...
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47 views

Sufficient conditions for Equipartition Theorem to hold

I was wondering what are the sufficient conditions for the Equipartition Theorem. I know there is another question (For which systems is the equipartition theorem valid?) that somewhats answers this ...
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29 views

Thermodynamics of a heated enclosure [closed]

i have to maintain an aluminum enclosure of size 200x300x400mm at around 80 degrees Celsius, there for i need to calculate the thermodynamics of the system, ie what power of heater i need to achieve ...
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25 views

Is $\mathrm{d}H = C_P \mathrm{d}T$ and $\mathrm{d}U = C_V \mathrm{d}T$ always true?

Is $\mathrm{d}H = C_P \mathrm{d}T$ and $\mathrm{d}U = C_V \mathrm{d}T$ always true for ideal gases?
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showing that polytropic exponent n = 5/3 corresponds to an isentropic process for a monoatomic ideal gas [closed]

Given an ideal monoatomic gas with $pV = NT$ and $E = \frac{3}{2}NT$ what are the types of processes described by $n = 0, 1, \frac{5}{3}$, where n is the polytropic exponent ($p V ^ n = const.$)? ...
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49 views

Why does transfer of $^3$He from the rich to sparse phases in a dilution refrigerator cause cooling?

Explanations of the dilution cooling process seem to state without explanation that moving a $^3$He atom across the boundary from the $^3$He rich to the $^3$He sparse phases takes up heat from the ...
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82 views

How do I model this Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) using COMSOL? [closed]

I'm trying to model this: GaAs on-top of a heat-sink made of Copper. It's trying to simulate a type of Quantum Cascade Laser, I'm looking at the effect the temperature has by running a 10V voltage ...
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73 views

Equation involving; elastic modulus, poisson ratio, radius and pressure of a sphere [closed]

I am trying to determine the expansion of a spherical pressure vessel. I am certain that an equation exist that will define the change of radius of the sphere as the pressure increases. The vessel ...
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31 views

The potential profile of two batteries in series

I would like to know the potential profile in two batteries in series, like the battery in the attached image.
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1answer
99 views

Why temperature of liquid drops after spraying thru a nozzle?

We have tested in our lab as mentioned in the picture. We connected hot water at 130degree F at 40Psig to a nozzle(bottle sprayer).we measured the temperature differences inside tank and after ...
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143 views

How to calculate liquid pressure regardless of the gravity?

Assume we have a balloon in a tank filled with a liquid , without any gravitational forces: We just know the Temperature, V0 and V1 I want to calculate the pressure exerted from the liquid on the ...
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41 views

Which is a more effective cooling method?

Assume I have a refrigerator at 0C and I put a can of soda at the center of the refrigerator. The temperature inside the refrigerator will be increased to 5C after I put the soda in, but will go back ...
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How do I calculate temperature diffusion in a gas contained in a heatsink?

To simplify the problem, consider a sphere with a diameter of $25\mathrm{mm}$ inside an infinite heatsink at $300\mathrm{K}$. At $t=0$ I instantaneously raise the temperature of the gas in the ...
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35 views

Is the diffusion coefficient time-dependent?

It is known that in the partial differential equation: $$u_t=au_{xx} $$ within the limits $0<x<1$ and $a>0$, the diffusion coefficient, arises in the mathematical modelling of a process of ...
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95 views

Entropy change in an irreversible process between 2 equilibrium state

Calculating entropy change in an irreversible process between 2 states requires computing the change in entropy for any reversible process between the 2 same states, but why? If someone could provide ...
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52 views

How fast do I have to dry myself for a hot shower to heat my body?

I am not a physicist. I would like to know how fast do I have to dry myself after taking a hot shower to get more heat from the shower, than lost because the water on my skin increasing heat exchange ...
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48 views

Are reversible and irreversible processes frame dependent?

since it is all about time. If I have a look at an irreversible process from a frame where time runs really slow. is there a possibility of considering that process reversible from that frame?
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Thermal de Broglie wave length

If we refer to this wiki page thermal de Broglie wave length, we can see there are two expressions. One is derived using equipartition theorem, which makes perfect sense. The other one used $\pi kT$ ...
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43 views

What is the gas entropy as a functional of a one-particle distribution function?

There are some discrepancies on how to introduce entropy in classical kinetic theory. In what follows $f(r,p,t)$ is the usual one-particle distribution function of a monatomic gas, normalised to the ...
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27 views

Given the Pair Correlation Functions for a Multi-component Fluid, is There a Simple Way to Obtain the Helmholtz Free Energy?

I think it may not be possible. Given all the pair correlation functions (e.g. calculated from Ornstein Zernike theory), it seems possible to obtain the internal energy (assuming different species ...
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39 views

How water anomalies affects the Mpemba effect?

I understand basic explanation of Mpemba effect like this: Distant molecules are easier to realign into new formations. But if we compared two bottles of water like in Mpemba effect and one of them ...
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55 views

What is the smallest engine theoretically possible?

Is there some law of physic forbiding small engines that use say petrol? I would like to know of some analogy between electric motors and heat engines. In the latter we can make a motor so small that ...
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71 views

Energy conservation of permanent magnets engine

How to explain the fact that magnet can attract an object (apply a work W) without losing a (significant) part of its internal energy? How to apply the energy conservation principle? Please think to ...
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2answers
146 views

An equation to describe a process of heating one room using hotter air from another room

There are two rooms completly isolated from the outer world (a closed system, no heat losses). They are connected with each other through a ventilation tube. Temperature in room A is 32 degrees ...
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42 views

When did the casual definition of the three laws of thermodynamics first appear? [closed]

Who is credited as the source, and when were the laws first stated in this form? (1st Law) You can't win. (2nd Law) You can't break even. (3rd Law) You can't get out of the game.
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Is the system in equilibrium?

If the time derivative of the Liapunov functional related to free energy of my system is zero, can I say my system is in chemical equilibrium?
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Necessity of infinitesimal steps for reversible processes

Is there a mathematical proof for why a reversible process is one that has many infinitesimal equilibrium steps, rather than fewer large steps? Maybe something along the lines of this?: ...
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174 views

Confusing Chemical potential of mixtures

I feel that there are very few textbook that treat the chemical potential of mixtures in an understandable clear way, which is why I wanted to ask here about certain things? Although I do not have a ...