Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Is the temperature different and or salinity different can lead to different colour of the water bodies?

I had skimming on an article about Thermocline and Halocline. How can two seas not mix? However, I am still curious on: Why the effect of Thermocline and Halocline are distinguishable based on ...
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136 views

Derivation of the Thermal Noise Spectrum

The thermal noise spectrum is given by: $$\mathcal{S}(f) = \frac{\hbar f}{2(e^{\frac{\hbar f}{kT}} - 1)}$$ This equation seems really similar to the Dirac-Fermi distribution but where does it come ...
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151 views

What would give us more heat ? infrared or microwaves?

As we know that our body is made up mostly of water and the frequency of vibration of water molecules matches that of microwaves which is the working principle of microwave ovens. When we come in ...
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191 views

Does heat increase the volume of a gas, and in turn its pressure?

Lets say you have 1 liter of hydrogen in a sealed container, at 100 psi. If 50 cm^2 of the containers surface area is heated to a 1000 degree Celsius, will the psi increase over time? What would be ...
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69 views

Thermo-couple Eelectroomotive force

I am studying thermocouples. In a text book, the author said that, the electromotive force can be written as $$ E= \alpha \theta + \beta \theta^2 \tag{1}$$ where $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are constants ...
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45 views

Transfered thermal energy to a gas with varying mass

In my physics book (and wikipedia) it states that the thermal energy transferred to an object is: $Q = c \ m \ dT$, where $Q$ is the transferred thermal energy, $c$ is the specific heat capcity of the ...
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109 views

is this heat calculation equation correct?

If I have a line of copper wire (lets say $\textrm{1 meter}$ long, $\textrm{1 mm}$ thick) and one end is a flattened disk of copper about the size of a quarter, and I apply a lot of heat to it (I'm ...
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62 views

Second law of thermodynamics and motion

The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve toward thermodynamic equilibrium—the state of ...
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60 views

Radiation pressure thermodynamic paradox

Could the radiation pressure of a black body (theoretically) perform work on the perfectly reflecting apparatus in the figure below? Assume that the block does not hinder the passage of light through ...
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110 views

How do you define a reversible path for general processes?

The equation $dS = \frac{\delta Q}{T}$ is only defined for a reversible path. Given a irreversible path we typically calculate the entropy by choosing a reversible path from the same initial to final ...
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365 views

Can a glass window protect from heat radiation?

I have been reading in this and found a statement saying : " Glass will not transmit heat radiation.". So now I am confused. If glass won't transmit heat radiation, then why do we feel hot when we sit ...
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943 views

How do you calculate the change in temperature of an adiabatic system?

I really don't even know how to start doing this problem. I understand PV=nRT and I understand that if either T, V, or P is kept constant, then the other 2 change at the same rate, and I understand ...
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67 views

Will the heat flow of Joule heat be different, if the Joule heat is dissipated in a material that has a temperature gradient beforehand?

Let us assume one dimensional heat transfer, for example a finite length wire starting at point $0$ and ending at point $\ell$. If the current passes the wire, the Joule heat $I^{2}R$ will be ...
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109 views

Are $G$, $F$ and $H$ (thermodynamics potentials) extensive quantities?

Internal energy $E$ is an extensive quantity for most systems. But energy extensivity is not valid in systems with long-range interactions, like gravity (e.g. in astrophysical systems). For extensive ...
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56 views

Tungsten Wire Heat discipation

Background Information: I'm doing an experiment in which I place a bare tungsten wire in to various liqids, to measure a coefficient $\alpha $ in the equation $$ Power Dissipated = \alpha * \Delta T ...
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159 views

Proper name for a thermodynamic process with constant internal energy $U$

Back in the day I learned that a few special thermodynamical processes have special names. For example, if one keeps $P$ constant, the process is called isobaric, if one keeps $T, V$ or $S$ ...
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359 views

Liquid nitrogen condensing oxygen out of the air

In this video, a pool of liquid nitrogen in a metal bowl can cool it enough so that oxygen from the air condenses at the bottom: ...
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61 views

Determining if a solution will boil

A piston compresses a solution of 40% $HNO_3$ in $H_2O$. If the piston breaks and the pressure is reduced from 12.0 atm to 1.0 atm: a) If the temperature of the solution is 110 degrees C, will the ...
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215 views

Why does the specific thrust of an ideal turbojet drop with increasing compressor pressure ratio?

As the pressure ratio increases in an ideal turbojet (fixed flight Mach number), the specific thrust, $\frac{F}{\dot{m_{air}}}$ rises, reaches a peak for small pressure ratios and then starts to ...
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57 views

Efficiency of the insulation of a house

I had an argument about the most cost-effective way to keep the energy bill low in the winter (here, temperature usually have an average of -20°C (-4°F)). He thinks that it's more effective to keep a ...
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74 views

Showing specififc internal energy $e$ is a perfect differential

I am reading a book on Gas dynamics and there is a small section on thermodynamics before the conservation laws of mass momentum and energy are introduced. The book says $$ p = R \rho T$$ where ...
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121 views

Calculating sum of heat transfered

I have a formula of thermal conductance heat transfer rate. Here it is: $$ Q = \lambda{S (T_1 - T_2) \over L} \Delta t $$ For my calculations I have got some constant values available $$ Q = 0.58{1 ...
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216 views

Why does time reversibility imply equilibrium in a thermodynamic system? [duplicate]

I'm reading through Kardar's Statistical Mechanics of Particles; in the section 1.5 he says: A reversible process is one that can be run backward in time by simply reversing its inputs and ...
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134 views

What the rate of heat transfer between my thumb and a surface of known dimensions and properties?

I am trying to calibrate a high speed thermocouple for measuring heat transfer rates. One of the calibration techniques I am using is sticking my thumb to the thermocouple (which is embedded flush ...
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136 views

Any closed system?

Is there any physical example of a real closed system? I am aware that the whole universe can be considered as a closed system, but I am looking for a smaller example.
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1k views

Definition of “intensive” and “extensive” properties

Today I was asked what does it mean for a physical property of a system to be intensive. My first answer, loosely speaking, was: "It is a property that is local." I was specifically thinking ...
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406 views

Calculating the ideal mixing entropy using Gibbs' entropy formula

Two distinguishable gases are in separate volumes $xV$ and $(1-x)V$ $(x\in [0,1])$ respectively, and the number of particles on each side is $xN$ and $(1-x)N$ respectively. The volumes are separated ...
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238 views

Thermodynamics in a closed room - Why does the stale smell depend on Temperature? [closed]

Why does the stale smell disappears in a crowded room if you cool it via air-condition ? What's the physics ?
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111 views

Waterflow of coolant in nuclear reactor [closed]

The generator in a nuclear reactor delivers 580 MW electric power. a) How much TWh electrical energy is delivered yearly if the reactor runs only 70 % of the time? b) What flow of coolant ...
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97 views

Evidence of atoms from Dulong–Petit law?

All materials have same molar specific heat, cf. the Dulong–Petit law. Is it an evidence of atoms? What other examples are there for atomic theory?
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5k views

Thermodynamics: Are pressure and temperature enough to calculate enthalpy?

From the chart above, it looks like it is possible to calculate enthalpy from just pressure and temperature. After a few hours of Googling my question, I'm not able to find anything helpful. My ...
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251 views

How to heat swimming pool with physics principles [closed]

I'd like to apply physics principles to a home-experiment relating to my swimming pool. The water should flow inner to 100 meters of black pipe and so it should become warm. Then it should return in ...
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181 views

scaling of motor power

For car engines, the cylinder volume is often associated with the engine power, which suggests scaling of the power as $L^3$ where L is the linear size. Consider a system consisting of a motor and its ...
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306 views

Calculating the amount of dissolved gases in a liquid?

The most basic situation, water at room temperature, has dissolved oxygen, CO2, and more. Why is this? How would one calculate how much gas should be dissolved in any given liquid?
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56 views

Electricity directly from heating a material [duplicate]

I am looking for some more information about how to obtain electricity from heat directly. This e.g. involves the Seebeck effect, as I have found it is called, where a material produces a voltage ...
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61 views

heat spread from hot coil: diffusion, radiation?

When modeling the heat spread from a hot object through a vacuum (or a gas), what is the dominant physical process for heat energy transportation? Thermal diffusion, thermal radiation, a mix of the ...
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467 views

Newton's law of cooling: changing temperature of environment

A metal ball having temperature of $80^\circ C$ is placed into $m$ grams of water at $0^\circ C$. After ten minutes, it was found that the temperature of ball and water are $60^\circ C$ and ...
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512 views

Minimization of energy and maximization of entropy

Are maximization of entropy and minimization of energy equivalent? Or are they contrary? Why should the thermodynamic potentials such as $G$, $A$, etc, be minimum at equilibrium? I am confused. ...
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234 views

A Calorimetry Problem

I have a question in calorimetry from an old competitive exam. The question is: The temperature of $100$ grams of water is to be raised from $24 ^\circ$C to $90 ^\circ$C by adding steam to it. ...
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204 views

Does brown but transparent swimming pool water heat significantly faster than western style highly chlorinated pools?

Eastern European swimming pools are often brown tinted water. i was told it was the color of the chemical to keep the pools clean, but who knows. These pools did not smell unsanitary and may have even ...
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1k views

Calculating the coefficient of thermal expansion in liquid

I am trying to write a matlab function that calculates the coefficient of thermal expansion of water from a given temperature. From what I understand the thermal expansion coefficient is calculated as ...
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23k views

Conduction, convection, & radiation examples (besides vacuum flask)

I am studying heat transfer And understanding the vacuum flask example that involves conduction, convection, and radiation Do you know other example that involves these 3 phases? we can name some by ...
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1k views

Finding equation of state from thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility

I'm stuck on a problem that I found in a book (Modern Thermodynamic with Statistical Mechanics, Helrich S., problem 5.2). The text of the problem is that: Consider a solid material for which: ...
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285 views

What happens to pipe outlet temperature here?

I have a fluid flowing through a pipe in the ocean and there is heat transfer from the ocean to the fluid in the pipe. I prepared a simulation and the results show that if I increase the mass flow ...
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108 views

Is it possible to “add cold” or to “add heat” to systems?

Amanda just poured herself a cup of hot coffee to get her day started. She took her first sip and nearly burned her tongue. Since she didn't have much time to sit and wait for it to cool down, ...
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224 views

Math for Thermodynamics Basics

I am studying Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics from a book that i am not sure who has written it, because of its cover is not present. There is a section that i can not understand: ...
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543 views

Temperature change inside pressure chamber

Let's say there is a pressure chamber with some sort of sample / specimen (e.g. protein crystal) in it. Now I apply a certain amount of gas pressure, e.g. 10 or 20 atm. Let's say I use xenon as a gas. ...
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173 views

Information bearing degrees of freedom of a quantum simple harmonic oscillator

I am trying to make sense of arXiv:physics/0210005. I am confused with the concept of information bearing degrees of freedom of a system mentioned at the very beginning. To verify the arguments of the ...
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1k views

Adiabatic expansion of steam through a valve

I'm working on a homework problem, and I have a suspicion the textbook is trying to trick me. The question is: "Steam at 20 bar and 300 C is to be continuously expanded to 1 bar. Compute the ...
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314 views

What would result in a transformer that has its secondary wires disconnected from any circuit?

I am studying magnetism and I am curious as to what happens in a transformer that has its secondary output wires connected through a circuit versus one that doesn't. My main questions (in the case of ...