Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Math for Thermodynamics Basics

I am studying Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics from a book that i am not sure who has written it, because of its cover is not present. There is a section that i can not understand: ...
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768 views

Why is Entropy expressed in terms of Enthalpy?

Why does ${\Delta}S_{m(fusion)} = \frac{{\Delta}H_{m(fusion)}}{T}$ ? I always thought ${\Delta}S = \frac{dQ}{T}$ In this case does it mean $dQ = {\Delta}H$ ?? Why is it so?
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477 views

Is there a mechanism for time symmetry breaking?

Excluding Thermodynamic's arrow of time, all mathematical descriptions of time are symmetric. We know the arrow of time is real and we know the equations describing physics are real so is there any ...
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1answer
595 views

What determines bubble locations in boiling water?

Something a little different to our usual fare. I was boiling a pan of water for cookery the other day, and got to wondering what caused the location of the bubble streams from the bottom of the pan. ...
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112 views

Can Joule's First Law of Thermodynamics be Applied to Atomic Charges?

James Joule established that all forms of energy were basically the same and interchangeable. My question is if thas law is relevant in particle physics. Can a positive charge and a negative charge be ...
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536 views

Dispersion relation and Heat Capacity

I have seen case studies of the 3D Debye model where the vibrational modes of a solid is taken to be harmonic with dispersion relation $\omega = c_sk$. It is said that for temperatures much less than ...
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983 views

Human as a heat engine

humans are heat engines. heat engines can't operate when the source and the sink are at the same temperatures and also if the temperature of the sink is higher than that of the source. in humans' ...
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343 views

Maxwell demon : how can the demon move the door without doing any work ?

Here is something that I never understood about Maxwell's demon paradox : in order to contradict the second law of thermodynamics, the demon must open and close the door without doing any work... But ...
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622 views

Temperature change inside pressure chamber

Let's say there is a pressure chamber with some sort of sample / specimen (e.g. protein crystal) in it. Now I apply a certain amount of gas pressure, e.g. 10 or 20 atm. Let's say I use xenon as a gas. ...
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2k views

What are the various physical mechanisms for energy transfer to the photon during blackbody emission?

By conservation of energy, the solid is left in a lower energy state following emission of a photon. Clearly absorption and emission balance at thermal equilibrium, however, thermodynamic equilibrium ...
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306 views

Net work output of an engine performing Carnot cycle?

My problem gives me a Carnot cycle heat engine with water as its working fluid, with $T_H$, $T_L$, and the fact that it starts from saturated liquid to saturated vapor in the heating process. I need ...
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74 views

In $PdV$, what is the value of $P$? $P_1$ or $P_2$?

Say I have an ideal gas that has a known $P_1$, $P_2$, $T_1$, and $T_2$ undergoing a reversible adiabatic process. I want to find the work done so I must use $PV = RT$ to get the change in $V$, so ...
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474 views

Difficulties with understanding total entropy change and unavailabillty

Of course, I know the fact that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases. Neverthless what makes me confused about the entropy(or change of entropy) of an isolated system is the explanation ...
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193 views

Information bearing degrees of freedom of a quantum simple harmonic oscillator

I am trying to make sense of arXiv:physics/0210005. I am confused with the concept of information bearing degrees of freedom of a system mentioned at the very beginning. To verify the arguments of the ...
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811 views

Why is the equation for Entropy of an ideal gas that undergoes reversible change in T at constant Pressure like this?

Why is the equation for change in Entropy for a reversible change in $T$ at constant $P$ described as $$\Delta S = n C_p \ln\frac{T_f}{T_i}$$
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100 views

Landauer's principle vs Wien's displacement law

Can we argue based on Landauer's principle that if one bit information is changed inside a blackbody, the total radiated energy should be at least or in order of kTln2? If it is so, can we also argue ...
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86 views

Landauer's principle vs Rayleigh–Jeans law

Can we argue based on Landauer's principle that if one bit information is changed inside a blackbody, the total radiated energy should be at least or in order of $kTln2$? If it is so, can we also ...
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244 views

Behaviour of individual terms in Einstein-Smoluchowski fluctuation-dissipation relation

Consider a bath of Brownian particles at temperature $T$. If we sprinkle some larger particles in this (eg: pollen grains in water or dust motes in air), they'll diffuse with diffusion constant $D$ ...
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331 views

Rotational Constant and Moment of Inertia of Fluorine gas

I have come across some homework question on thermodynamics which needs me to calculate $B$ of $F_2$ My attempt: $B= \frac{h}{8\pi^2cI}$ where $I=\mu r^2=\frac{m_1m_2}{m_1+m_2} r^2$ Atomic mass of ...
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101 views

Is there a relation between supersymmetry and entropy?

Considering that entropy denotes the level of order/disorder in a system, would it be possible for entropy and supersymmetry to exist at the same time? Or, are they entirely unrelated?
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647 views

Why isn't the Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy considered the quantum gravitational unification?

Based on the Bekenstein-Hawking Equation for Entropy, hasn't the relationship between quantum mechanics and gravity already been established.
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2answers
687 views

How long will a water drop exist until it evaporates based on ambient conditions? [closed]

How long will a water drop exist until it evaporates based on ambient conditions? I am looking for a simple equation or table that would tell me how long a water drop may exist until it evaporates ...
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589 views

Sensible heat question (solving for temperature)

If $55 034.175 \rm{kJ }$ of heat are transferred to $150 \rm{kg}$ of ice at a temperature of $-12.15 ^\circ \rm{C}$, calculate the temperature of the resulting water. Using $Q = mc(t_2-t_1)$ or ...
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461 views

Have negative pressures any physical meaning?

Some cubic thermodynamical equations of state predict negative pressures, have negative pressures any physical meaning? Could they be related to negative mass?
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240 views

Rate of Cooling

I was given the following problem: Two objects have a temperature difference of 20 degrees C at time 0. Two minutes later, they have a temperature difference of 18 degrees. How long does it take ...
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173 views

What pressure or tension occurs in a glass jar when I pour boiling water inside?

Sometimes it happens that when you pour a boiling water into a glass jar, it cracks. Since glass is very hard material and resilient to pressure, the tension must be very high. Is it possible to ...
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110 views

How to solve state parameters using these givens for an ideal gas?

In a thermodynamic turbine using air as an ideal gas, given that you have a known inlet temperature value $T_i$, a known exit pressure value $P_e$, a known inlet and exit velocity $V_i$ and $V_e$, a ...
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996 views

Determine the Dependence of S (Entropy) on V and T

Why can the equation $$dS= \frac{1}{T} dU + \frac{P}{T} dV$$ be expressed as $$dS= \left. \frac{\partial S}{\partial T} \right|_V dT + \left. \frac{\partial S}{\partial V} \right|_T dV \quad?$$
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2k views

How to describe heat transfer between two solid materials?

A general equation for dealing with heat transfer between one material and a region of insulating material. I've seen basic heat transfer equations for one material, but I'd love to see an explanation ...
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1k views

Does an object's color change its rate of cooling?

The motivation for this question comes directly from this thread. The proposition is that the color of something changes how fast it cools (note: specifically the rate of cooling, not taking into ...
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3k views

How can my water cool down more quickly?

I have a cup and I can only pour hot water inside, I wanna know whether the heat will dissipate more quickly with more water or less water? How about the occasion when my cup is well covered?
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2answers
362 views

Most efficient type of heat pump

Can I make a heat pump beat the Carnot efficiency? Why is the Carnot process the most efficient one? If I have a heatpump that is sphere shaped, and cascaded in layers like a onion can I beat Carnot ...
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347 views

A formal procedure for thermodynamic relations

This is my third time taking a thermodynamics course (two in undergrad, one in grad), and I've finally become frustrated enough about something to post on here. A lot of thermodynamic questions want ...
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50 views

Reconciling Units in Jeans' Criterion Formula

In "Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System" Jeans' Criterion is given as: $\frac{GmM}{R_c} = \frac{3mkT}{2}$ ... To me this suggests that on the left we have Joules, and on the right we have ...
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60 views

How hot would a disc have to be to create strong drafts that lift it upward?

I read this article on xkcd.xom, from its spin-off blog "What If?" and that answer made me wonder. It was mentioned in that article that a very hot but indestructible box would eventually be able to ...
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117 views

Is the crystallization of a heat pack the same as the crystallization of freezing water?

Is the crystallization of a heat pack the same as the crystallization of freezing water? If so, why does one generate heat where the other does not?
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126 views

Thermodynamics and electromagnetic fields

The energy density in an electromagnetic field is given by: $u = (1/2) <\vec{E}^2 + \vec{B}^2>$ where $<,>$ denotes the average over time. In a cavity it holds that $u= u(T) = ...
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166 views

How much money does an unused but plugged-in cellphone-charger waste in a year, if its not getting warm?

Is it right as xkcd states: You can use heat flow to come up with simple rule of thumb: If an unused charger isn’t warm to the touch, it’s using less than a penny of electricity a day. Or, more ...
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3answers
567 views

Why the temperature is getting lower when the universe is expanding

As we know, if an ideal gas expands in vacuum, as its energy is unchanged, the temperature remains the same. An ideal gas's energy does not depend on volume. In general, the energy is $kT$ times the ...
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600 views

Is there a formal definition of a macroscopic variable in statistical mechanics?

Intuitively it's easy to accept that the usual variables like temperature, internal energy, etc. are 'macroscopic', but does there exist a formal definition of a macroscopic variable? In other ...
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291 views

A simple thermodynamic question? [closed]

I tried this question a lot of time and few day's earlier I also solved it correctly but I don't know why I am not able to solve it now. I can't get what link I am missing. ques: 2 moles of helium gas ...
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2answers
572 views

When should I take wine out of the fridge - transient heat transfer problem

I am hosting a dinner tonight for which I'll be serving white wine (Riesling to be more specific). Generally white wine is best served chilled (not COLD!) at around ...
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1k views

What if the earth's core goes cold?

What effects would occur if the earth's core goes cold? Would the planet stay liveable after this happens?
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7k views

Formulae for Heat Change and Internal Energy Change in a Thermodynamic Process

Today, we were being given a lesson on Thermodynamics when my brain encountered an error. It is easy to derive that, $\Delta U$, the internal energy change for constant volume process is given by, $$ ...
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3answers
993 views

Energy equation for an open system

I teach undergraduate thermodynamics and I was quite ashamed that I couldn't explain to a student, the following. I thought I'd bring it to physics.SE in hope of providing my student a good ...
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2answers
1k views

Can low temperature plasma exist?

Plasma is ionized gas which as far as I know only occurs at high temperatures. When plasma cools down it tends to recombine with the electrons present and turn back into gas. But what if the ...
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136 views

Is it possible to condense heat?

Suppose that I have a warm room. Is it possible to condense the heat of the room into a small object so that the room turns cold and the small object very hot? If it's possible: How? If it's not: ...
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120 views

Will humid air mitigate airborn dust due to neutralization of static electricity?

I have came to understand that humid air will help prevent electrostatic forces that can propel dust and cause it to cling to surfaces. My first question: is this above statement true? If the answer ...
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1answer
86 views

What controls the heating ability of steamers?

Pictured below is a standalone steamer used for foaming and heating milk for milk-based coffee drinks like cappuccinos and lattes. They can be filled with water up to the pressure relief incorporated ...
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2answers
773 views

Why is there a Global Minimum for the Morse Potential?

For Diatomic molecules, the Morse potential describes their potential energy as a function of separation distance between the two particles. My question is, what is the explanation of of the dip ...