Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

learn more… | top users | synonyms (3)

2
votes
0answers
80 views

Medical/Physics Question - Cut Off Finger Preservation

This question might require some knowledge of medical/tissue, but physicists seem to know everything, so figured I've give it a shot here ;) When people put cut off fingers they are told to put the ...
2
votes
0answers
438 views

Finding internal energy using equation of state

I have an equation of state as a function of $p$ (pressure), $T$ (temperature) and $V$ (volume) for a real gas and need to find an expression for the internal energy $U$. I know this is given by the ...
2
votes
0answers
2k views

Basic Thermodynamics: Quasistatic Adiabatic Process

I'm going through the exercises in a Thermodynamics book, just to revise and build my intuition. Right now, I'm working on: Show that for a quasistatic adiabatic process in a perfect gas, with ...
2
votes
0answers
91 views

What mechanisms require the use of different polarities in DC welding?

In gas metal arc welding, an electric arc forms between the work piece and a consumable wire, heating the work piece and also melting the tip of this consumable wire, which is continually fed into the ...
2
votes
0answers
205 views

Trace of the number operator in second quantization

I would like to find the helmholtz free energy of a system $F=-T ln(Tr[e^{\frac{-H}{T}}])$ namely a bcs superconductor (using Annett's notation) $H=\sum E_k (b_{k\uparrow}^\dagger b_{k\uparrow}+b_{...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Can I usefully interpret a non-unital completely positive (CP) map as a cooling process?

Non-unital completely positive (CP) maps take a maximally mixed quantum state (aka a normalized identity matrix aka an infinite temperature state) and map it to something else. This necessarily ...
2
votes
0answers
83 views

commutator to entropy in an uncertainty relationship?

Question: Does there exist a commutator to entropy in an uncertainty relationship? Similar Energy and time for instance.
2
votes
0answers
175 views

Heat equation with Neumann boundary conditions

I would like to explore some ideas with different geometries exchanging energy mainly by radiation. This means solving Laplace equation for the steady state. However the boundary conditions are always ...
2
votes
0answers
74 views

Is there a source that provides data for the temperature coefficient of resistivity at different temperatures?

I'm looking for a source where I can find the temperature coefficient of resistivity at different temperatures for pure metals. Tables are everywhere for 20$\,^{\circ}$C, but I'm having difficulties ...
2
votes
0answers
58 views

What's the domain of usability of these two expressions for entropy

$$dS=\frac{dQ}{T}$$ $$S=k\ln \Omega$$ What assumptions are being made about the system/process that allow for using those expressions?
2
votes
0answers
103 views

Can one get clear ice crystals from a dirty suspension?

Euteictic freeze crystallization is a method where an electrolytic solution is cooled and separated into a stream of (relativly) clean, pure ice and a salty brine. I know anectdotally of wine ...
2
votes
0answers
153 views

Calculate how hot PLA will become

I am trying to attach the shaft of a brass heating tip to a PLA component. My problem is that the tip will have to reach a temperature of about 200°C and the PLA can only handle a temperature of about ...
2
votes
0answers
73 views

Interface condition for heat exchange

I would like to compute the heat distribution of a piece of metal with some surrounding material. The heat is assumed to propagate by diffusion, so inside the metal piece and also on the outside, the ...
2
votes
0answers
129 views

Will humid air mitigate airborn dust due to neutralization of static electricity?

I have came to understand that humid air will help prevent electrostatic forces that can propel dust and cause it to cling to surfaces. My first question: is this above statement true? If the answer ...
2
votes
0answers
89 views

In a non-degenerate plasma, why are e-e collision negligible compared to e-ion for thermal conduction?

I'm trying to make some order of magnitude estimates of heat transfer in stars - to better understand 1) why conduction is said to be negligible (for non-degenerate matter) and 2) when convection ...
2
votes
0answers
110 views

Temperature of the CMB when the Earth formed and the faint young Sun paradox

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has a modern temperature of about 2.7 K. At the time of the origin of the CMB, about 13.6 billion years ago, it had a temperature of about 3000 K. ...
2
votes
0answers
185 views

Dissipation when the temperature is not constant

Consider a process where some chemical species diffuses from one part of a system (which I'll call $A$) to another ($B$) at a rate $r$ $\text{mol}\cdot \mathrm s^{-1}$. If the system's temperature is ...
2
votes
0answers
244 views

Centrifugal Compressor Flow Rate

For a centrifugal compressor, as found in most turbochargers on internal combustion engines, is there a noticeable change in flow rate versus a naturally aspirated flow rate? In other words, does the ...
2
votes
0answers
2k views

When do I know if energy stored in an object is 0 or nonzero? (Heat transfer)

There is uniform internal heat generation at $\dot{q}=5\times10^{7} \frac{W}{m^{3}}$ is occurring in a cylindrical nuclear reactor fuel rod of 50 mm diameter and under steady state conditions the ...
2
votes
0answers
2k views

What are typical values of the critical thickness of insulation?

As most people who've had any elementary heat transfer course are aware, when insulating a pipe, wire, etc, there is a critical thickness for the insulation below which it causes greater heat transfer ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Proving that the Boltzmann entropy is equal to the thermodynamic entropy

I've been trying to understand how we can equate the Boltzmann entropy $k_B \ln \Omega$ and the entropy from thermodynamics. I'm following the approach found in the first chapter in Pathria's ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

What variables affect a Heat engine's efficiency? (and more)

I'm writing a Minecraft mod and I'm trying to create the equations for the engines players can build. I'm a highschool sophomore, so my knowledge of physics and mathematics is limited. I asked first a ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Quantum coherence as a thermodynamic quantity

Now that we know quantum coherence is one kind of resource that can be measured, is there any chance we can find some relation between quantum coherence and macroscopic thermodynamic quantity, just ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Reference: authoritative reference on Gibbs and Boltzmann's entropy

Can someone reference a good, standard textbook on thermodynamics or quantum mechanics that explicitly states the formula for Gibbs and Boltzmann's entropy (or maybe Shannon as well)? I am asking ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Liouville's theorem and systems in equilibrium

This is related to a statement I once came across in Reif, that systems in equilibrium, described by the micro-canonical ensemble,stay in equilibrium. In the appendix(pg 628), he asserts that, in a ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Correct terminology or way to refer to the 2 “types” of ice sublimation

I'm trying to get the right terminology for various forms of phase change. I am familiar with the phase change / triple point diagram for water, and we have various terms for the transition of a ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Mixed Gas Absorbtion

Consider a gas misture that contains two type of atom, A and B. The gas is in equilibrium at temperature $T$. If on the surface of the gas container there are M sites that can absorb an atom gas, and ...
1
vote
0answers
54 views

Classical Grand canonical partition function derivation

Consider a classical grand canonical ensemble. Let $S_r$ be the reservoir entropy. Suppose it could be expanded at first order: $$S_r \approx S_r(E_t,N_t) + \frac{\mathrm dS_r}{\mathrm dE_i} \cdot ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

Definition of heat that does not produce a cyclic argument?

If we are going to define (empirical) temperature from the zeroth law, we need a definition of heat that does not depend on the concept of temperature, else this would produce a cyclic argument. ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Confusion on meaning of fugacity in scientific publication

in my research project in statistical mechanics, in the context of phase transition and condensation, I was reading the seminal paper of Yang and Lee titled: "Statistical theory of equations of state ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Non-state thermodynamics functions

I know that work and heat are non-state functions in thermodynamics because they depend on path between two states. Are there any others?
1
vote
0answers
59 views

Thermodynamics: Apartment Airflow: What Am I doing wrong air

Our apartment is a sauna. But sometimes it's much much hotter inside the apartment than it should be (night time it's 68 degrees outside but thermometer still says 90 inside!). I have 2 fans, one ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Heating of mixture of gases with one gas barely above its boiling point

What happens when mixture of two gases is heated in a closed container? If one gas expands faster than the other and increases pressure of the container enough so that the boiling point of the other ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

Entropy of unattended music streaming and other useless processes

I just realized that on my work pc, I had an internet music streaming service turned on for the last week, but muted (=useless). I was wondering how much entropy in excess was generated by ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

How exectly does Molecular potential energy change in change of state?

I have learn some basic knowledge of Heat in my class, and I got confused when dealing with the change of state. Basically, what the textbook say is that the molecular kinetic energy keeps constant ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Estimate heating wires temperature

Im design a power supply to work with heating wires and one of the task is to estimate the temperature of the bare wire for a given current or power consumption. I've tried to measure the ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Liquid Temperature Profile

Suppose I have a one meter cubed box of liquid and I know that it is in a $-4^\circ~\rm C$ room for some amount of time, but was at a uniform $25^\circ ~\rm C$ when it was placed inside. I know I can ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Maximum temperature possible on earth

What is maximum temperature that can we have on earth on a single day? Lets say an air mass is static over an area and there is no way for air mass to move, sun warming it up would increase ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Can the second law of thermodynamics be violated in a small enough system if tried repeatedly enough?

Second law of thermodynamics is observed in the universe because statistics favors it, right? And in large enough system this statistical tendency becomes certainty. Does it also mean that negative ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Thermal de Broglie wavelength - definition

The thermal de Broglie wavelenght is often defined by the formula $\lambda=\frac{h}{\sqrt{2\pi mkT}}$ but equally frequently is it defined as de Broglie wavelength for a free ideal gas of massive ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Temperature versus heat for water

What does the kink(abrupt rise and fall) in region of phase change from liquid to vapour state in the following graph indicate? Does it indicate that temperature rise and fall abruptly during phase ...
1
vote
0answers
8 views

Energy Per Dry Ice Mass Required By de Laval Expansion of Air?

There has been a lot of talk lately about CO2 extraction from air. Since there are rocket engines in which ice crystals precipitate in the exhaust when expanding into near vacuum, it seems dry ice ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Heat capacity and fluctuation-dissipation theorem, meaning of energy fluctuations?

I have read that from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem that the heat capacity is proportional to energy fluctuations (or populations fluctuations). In this context what is the meaning of 'energy ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

What is melting / boiling from the statistical viewpoint?

Microscopically, solids are usually described as "completely ordered" and "strongly bound", liquids "somewhat ordered", and gases "unbound" and "disordered". Thermodynamics predicts that the ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Optimal two-stage warming up of a bottle of baby milk

Here's a common two-stage method to warm up a bottle of baby milk to avoid uneven milk temperature: 1) Heat up a bowl of water in a microwave oven. 2) Put the bottle into the bowl of heated water to ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

How much time it takes to boil water in a rigid body?

I have a question that bothers me. If we have a rigid container containing water at $P_1 = 1$ $atm$ and $T_1 = 25$ $°C$. If we add an electric resistance to heat the water inside, we go through ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Heat transfer with a small airgap - conduction v convection v radiation

I have a transducer approx 25mm dia x 25mm length which will sit inside a brass casing, but stood off from the walls by around 0.5mm. Obviously the brass is a far better conductor than the plastic of ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Reason behind the heat capacity of water

Water has a high specific capacity. Why can water release a large amount of energy without a great change in temperature?
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Calculating optimal heat dissipation/air-flow out-of/into an enclosure - hole size vs number of holes

I am not sure if this is the right place to ask, but I figured it would be a physics question. Essentially I have an enclosure that I will be using to house the components to build a computer. I am ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

probability of striking the circular ring by gas molecules

In kinetic theory we use probabilistic case to derive pressure, no. Of molecules having speed c to c+dc or in such cases.and to derive such equations we introduce a term called "SOLID ANGLE" I come ...