Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Superconductors in a magnetic field — mixed phase

In my Stat Mech class we're learning about the phase transition between superconducting and non-superconducting metals in the presence of a magnetic field (Chapter 7, Kittel). I understand that the ...
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1answer
60 views

The outside of a steel teapot is hot to touch. Does this mean that the water inside is necessarily at least as hot?

Some teapots, like this one Are made from thin steel which conducts the heat of the teapot quite well, meaning that you can't comfortable hold the sides while they're full of hot water. Tonight I ...
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1answer
90 views

Will my coffee end up colder if I wait to put in the milk? [duplicate]

When I receive a cup of coffee, and I'm not yet ready to drink it, will it lose less heat if I immediately add the milk, rather than wait to add the milk just before I drink it? (Bonus points for ...
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2answers
57 views
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1answer
54 views

How does this capillary-action setup not become a perpetual motion machine?

If you have a very thin glass tube and you place it into water, let's say the water in the tube rises to the height of $x$ mm from the surface of the water. What would happen if you poked a hole in ...
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28 views

Internal heating effects of a circuit element?

The heat-up of a solid circuit component in an electric circuit (for which no chemical reactions, phase changes reactions or other stuctural changes take place) may include: Joule heating $\dot ...
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30 views

Does a fixed amount of gas have slighty more mass when at a higher temperature?

According to relativity, energy and mass are equivalent. Does this mean that the energy added to a fixed amount of gas when it is heated adds slightly to the mass of the gas? The difference would be ...
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4answers
104 views

How can there be entropy change in this system?

How can there be an entropy change in this system? Suppose if I have a system consisting of liquid water, $1\, \mathrm{kg}$ at $290\,\mathrm{K}$, I stir it, and do say, $10\, \mathrm{J}$ of work on ...
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30 views

Determine the amount of energy used for baking a cake

Let's suppose we have a room of temperature $T_0$ with an oven of volume $V$, both filled with air of density $\rho$ and specific heat $c$. We need to bake a cake in the temperature $T_1$. Thus we ...
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1answer
2k views

Why do two flames kept side by side merge into a single flame?

I have read about why a candle flame is in the shape of a tear drop in the presence of gravity. The top portion which is sharp is directly above the wick, where the soot particles from the wick rise ...
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19 views

What is the change in PSI of a football with 13.5 at a temperature of 77 degrees F when placed in a 23 degree environment? [duplicate]

The internal pressure of a regulation football is 13-14 lbs/square inch at 77 degrees (Fahrenheit). What pressure will it become when taken out of that 77 degree environment and placed in a 23 degree ...
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2answers
24 views

Deriving the partition function in MaxEnt

I'm trying to understand this paper on Maximum Entropy by Jaynes, and am stuck on something which should be rather simple. We're attempting to maximize the entropy $-\sum_i p_i \ln(p_i)$ subject to ...
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1answer
50 views

If entropy is a state function, then why is all the talk about reversible vs. irreversible processes?

So I'm preparing for my Thermodynamics undergrad exam, and I just can't wrap my head around the significance of reversibility vs. irreversibility of a process in relation to entropy. I mean if entropy ...
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1answer
419 views

If a microwave oven disk rotates to warm up food, why doesn't it go up/down/sideways?

This has been in my mind for a while... Well, actually everytime I heat any food with a greater amount of liquid in it: a microwave oven warms up food by inducing polar molecules in the food to ...
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1answer
41 views

Will an object with a higher temperature lose its heat faster than a cooler, yet warm object

I'm after the math, which I don't understand yet and can't find elsewhere. The variables are: Two identical cups, A and B The same volume of fluid is contained in each cup, test fluid is water. ...
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2answers
50 views

If pressure inside a container is lesser than atmospheric pressure, how long can the vessel resist deformation? [closed]

Is the strain caused by stress (due to the pressure difference) is negligible?
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1answer
15 views

What physical change has taken place in a solid, say ice, half way through a latent heat temperature verses time experiment?

During the classic high school latent heat experiment a solid such as ice is heated from below the melting point until it is a liquid above the melting point. During this experiment the temperature ...
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2answers
416 views

Is there a highest temperature? [duplicate]

Im new to physics and do not yet know of all of the terms and math. I was wondering about temperature. I read that there is the lowest temperature which is absolute zero where nothing happens, i.e. ...
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2answers
42 views

Why specific heat at constant pressure is greater than specific heat at constant volume?

I know the relation between specific heat at constant volume and pressure and I also know how to calculate it. Thing is, I don't understand its concept I want to know why at constant pressure, ...
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1answer
52 views

How can we be sure the Maxwell speed distribution equation is always a rational number?

The Maxwell speed distribution equation is given as $$f(v) = 4\pi \biggl(\frac{m}{2\pi kT}\biggr)^{3/2}\exp\biggl(-\frac{mv^2}{2kT}\biggr)v^2.$$ The left hand side gives the fraction of molecules ...
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1answer
41 views

Why dU may not equals dW in free expansion?

From a video lecture, it is mentioned that "dU≠dW in Joule's free expansion if the process is irreversible and adiabatic" Mentioned in around 36:00-38:00 in the video: ...
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2answers
76 views

Resonance in Benzene violating Second Law of Thermodynamics

In chemistry a few months ago we were taught the resonant structure of benzene, that states the double bonds upon the six carbon atoms flicker back and forth between the two possible states it can be ...
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0answers
35 views

Filling an empty box with ambient air

A rigid box has a volume of $V_1$ and is thermally isolated so that it exchanges no heat with its environment. Initially the box is empty, and the air around it has a pressure of $P_0$ and a ...
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1answer
77 views

What happens as you approach/cross the Planck temperature?

According to IFLScience, above the Planck Temperature (absolute hot) conventional physics break down. My question is what happens as you approach this temperature, and, if it is possible, what ...
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1answer
32 views

Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a balloon which requires no energy for expansion?

Two moles of ideal helium gas are in a rubber balloon at $30^°C$. The balloon is fully expandable and can be assumed to require no energy in its expansion. The temperature of the gas in the balloon ...
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1answer
47 views

Is the pressure uniquely determined by the energy density?

I've been trying to figure out how many state functions one needs to fully specify a thermodynamic system. For example, suppose we are given the energy as a function of temperature and volume, i.e. U ...
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1answer
47 views

Finding the expression for the time it takes for a water tank to be half empty

The problem is to find an expression for the time it takes for a cylindrical water tank is half empty. I am given that the water tank has a diameter of $D_0$ and a hight $H$. The water outlet is ...
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0answers
57 views

If time somehow went backwards would this violate one of the laws of thermodynamics?

If time somehow went backwards and all the physical events that had occurred in a sequence , would some of the events occurring 'backwards' or in the reverse order violate the principle of entropy or ...
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1answer
48 views

Effect of breeze on a very hot day [duplicate]

If air temperature is well above body temperature eg air temp of 50C then would a wind make the apparent temperature higher or lower. Clearly the wind would help take away heat due to increasing ...
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0answers
35 views

mathematical Physics + fluid mechanics, thermodynamics + mass transfer? beginner [closed]

I am completely new to the world of physics and am interested in learning the aforementioned topics. I have previously studied biochemistry, but am fascinated by physics and am interested in ...
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2answers
39 views

Heating suprecritical water in a closed water tank

How does the pressure of water in a closed tank evolve in the following setting: - closed tank of 2 liters (filled up with water) - water initially at 25°C and pressurized to 3 bars The water is now ...
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0answers
45 views

Is vortex tube reversible? [closed]

If you inject cold and hot air in outlets of a vortex tube, do you obtain a greater pressure at inlet?
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0answers
26 views

One question about critical exponents for first order transition free energy [closed]

I've got a problem to calculate critical exponents for theory given by Landau free action: $$ \tag 1 L = L_{0} - \frac{1}{2}(\nabla m)^{2} + atm^{2} + dm^{3} + bm^{4} - hm, $$ where $$ -\infty < ...
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1answer
56 views

Which laws of physics does this problem break?

One of the problems from the Google Code Jam programming competition, round 2 2015, goes like this: A kiddie pool is a big container in which you can put water, so that small children can play ...
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2answers
57 views

Definition of an irreversible process

I'm a little bit confused as to why quasi-static process cannot lose energy to friction in order to be reversible. This is how I'm thinking: Suppose you have a container of gas with a piston, and on ...
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3answers
450 views

How hot can metal get in sunlight? [closed]

I will make some 5mm blackened steel letters for a building. Now, in the sunlight in summer, how hot can they get? EDIT: i want to place some LEDs on the back of the letters. now the question is if ...
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1answer
42 views

Shape of metal to be heated in consumer microvave oven? [closed]

I tried to use a common 900 W microwave oven melt some alloy with low melting point (138 deg C, eutectic bismut/tin). The metal did not heat up, neither did the metal container, which makes me think ...
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0answers
24 views

Is it impossible to find the exact analytic form of the molar volume of liquid and gas in phase transition from the van der Waal equations?

I want to find the molar volume $v_g , v_l$ of gas and liquid respectively in the coexistence curve of phase diagram with given temperature when ideal van der Waal gas $$ P = ...
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1answer
62 views

Why does the temperature of a gas inside a moving container not increase with velocity?

A rectangular (simplified) container with rigid surfaces, has a certain mass of ideal gas within it, and it accelerates in free space, undergoing rectilinear motion. There are no dissipative ...
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1answer
49 views

Definition of 1 calorie

Why has the definition of 1 calorie been taken to be the energy required to heat 1 gram of water from 14.5 to 15.5 degree centigrade at standard pressure? Is there any specific reason for taking the ...
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2answers
54 views

Which materials absorb heat?

Which are the materials that absorb heat? and can i somehow convert that absorbed heat into a different form of energy? I am looking into trying to absorb the wasted heat dissipated by laptops,severs ...
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1answer
11 views

does the internal energy and enthalpy of the GAS changes in a free expansion process?

when a balloon kept in an evacuated room is punctured and the ideal gas in the balloon goes on to fill the entire room,does the gas perform any work in this expansion, and is there in any change in ...
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1answer
44 views

Seeking Reference on Transport of Momentum by Diffusion of Mass

I'm looking at continuum mechanics from the perspective of De Groot and Mazur's "Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics" - the first reference that I've come across that seems to do a good job of bringing ...
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1answer
41 views

Can gas return back into a sparkling beverage on cooldown?

We all know that if a sparkling beverage (let's say, CocaCola) spends some time outside of the fridge and gets warm, the gas comes out of the liquid, rises the inner pressure and makes the bottle ...
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0answers
10 views

Increased pressure of Liquid Pitch and Limestone (Bitumen/Asphalt) @ approximately 300 degrees Fahrenheit

If liquid pitch and limestone (20/80 mostly limestone) is pumped (appx. 5 gpm) out of a nozzle that restricts the flow compared to the flow that would be achieved straight out of the pump ( no ...
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1answer
64 views

Electromagnetic cooling

Heat means stored kinetic energy in matter. Microwave owens and induction heaters works on increasing kinetic energy on matter. Is it possible to make inverse of this heaters like cooler. Can we ...
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0answers
29 views

What do physicists mean with “classical critical behaviour”?

What do physicists mean with "classical critical behaviour"? As far as I am concerned it should be "power law behaviour" of some quantity close to the critical point but I ask here to be sure.
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29 views

Specific heat capacity for constant volume and constant pressure

I have seen in some exercises that the specific heat capacity for constant volume, $c_{vo}$ and the specific heat capacity for constant pressure, $c_{po}$ , where the $o$ indicates that we are ...
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3answers
58 views

Different materials have different temperatures?

Why do two materials, under the same weather, have different temperatures? I have a small clue about it. For example, iron and wood supposed under the sun's radiation, and if we touch both of them, ...
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0answers
27 views

Work done by a gas in an expansion [duplicate]

1) Consider a gas expanding quasistatically and reversibly from $V_1$ to $V_2$ at constant temperature. I want to calculate the work done. So by convention work done by a system is a negative quantity ...