Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Steam bath physics

In the steam bath at the health club, why is the "steam" thicker first thing in the morning before it has been used all day and the walls are "hotter"?
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127 views

Name for thermodynamic derivative $dP/dT|_V$?

While trying to express the isoentropic sound speed as partial derivatives of $V$ and $T$ only I end up, as part of the longer expression with $dP/dT|_V$ (which according to a Maxwell relation is the ...
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802 views

Partition Function for Two Level System

I have a system with $N_s$ sites and $N$ particles, such that $N_s >> N >> 1$. If a site has no particle, then there is zero energy associated with that site. The $N$ particles occupy the ...
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89 views

Can I express the heat flow of a fluid in terms of estabilshed characteristics of the velocity distribution?

If $\rho$ is the mass density of a fluid and $A({\bf v})$ is an function of the velocity, which is distributed according to $f({\bf v})$, we have an averaging process $A\mapsto \langle A\rangle:=\int ...
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234 views

Are there critical constants for liquid-solid transition?

I'm aware of the critical constants for gas-liquid transition but is there such constants for liquid-solid transition? Like the maximum temperature above which a liquid cannot be solidified.
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385 views

Energy transfers in boiling a liquid?

When you boil a liquid the KE stays the same (as temp is the same), so where does the extra energy go? I know the extra energy put in breaks bonds between the molecules/ atoms, but once it has broken ...
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559 views

Does serving food on a hot plate really keep it warm longer?

I live in Ireland where serving food on hot plates is considered “good cooking practice” to ensure the food remains warm – I come from France where I have rarely seen it done. I am wondering if this ...
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196 views

Temperature of thermochemical reaction between propane and nitrous oxide

I'm trying to calculate the properties of the combustion process using propane and nitrous oxide. When I tried to nail down the combustion temperature, the result looks just off to me. I went through ...
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69 views

Thermodynamics and Energy conservation in the Scope of the Universe

According to the 2nd law of thermodynamics, no system can be a 100% efficient. Looking at the universe as it's own system, is it an exception to the rule (a system that doesn't lose any energy)? If ...
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86 views

How to derive following thermodynamic relation?

I'd would like to derive the following $$\bigg(\frac{\partial U}{\partial V}\bigg)_T = T \bigg(\frac{\partial p}{\partial T}\bigg)_V - p$$ What I know is that the internal energy $U$ is a function ...
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207 views

Why uniform ensemble and microcanonical ensemble are the same in thermodynamic limit?

So uniform ensemble is the ensemble of all possible states with energy less than E, and since entropy derived from both are equivalent with each other in the thermodynamic limit, many functions ...
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99 views

Textbook Problem: Free energy expression

In Klotz, Introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics, Ex. 8.2 requires me to derive $$ dG = V \left( \frac{\partial p}{\partial V} \right)_V dV + \left[ V \left( \frac{\partial p}{\partial T} ...
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289 views

Shouldn't the sign of generated entropy always be positive?

I have a process where 10 g of liquid lead at 400 C is dropped into a water bath that is at 25 C. The lead solidifies over time and comes to thermal equilibrium with the water bath. The bath is so ...
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230 views

What is the physical basis behind thermal diffusion in a Clusius-Dickel column?

A Clusius-Dickel column allows separation of two species by the application of a thermal gradient. In its simplest form, two bulbs are maintained at two different temperatures $T_1$ and $T_2$ and ...
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1k views

Can water exist as liquid in a vacuum chamber at room temperature?

I know boiling point at vacuum is far below the room temperature. But I still wondering if the humidity reaches the saturated humidity (100% relative humidity), will the vapor condense to liquid, ...
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115 views

What are the state functions telling me or how are they related to total energy?

I am quite new to thermodynamics and statistical mechanics so this might be an easy question: In thermodynamics you get a bunch of thermodynamics potentials, so as for example enthalpy, internal ...
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100 views

A box with cooler and heater on opposite faces

Suppose there's a box with one face cold, and the opposite face hot. So when the air molecules hit the cooler face, it will transfer its momentum and energy to the wall, bouncing back with less ...
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109 views

Solid in Liquid Heat Transfer

If there is a solid immersed in a large (but finite) pool of water, where the solid has temperature $T_s$ and the water has temperature $T_w$, with $T_w>T_s$, how can I calculate $T_s(t)$ and ...
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96 views

Finding cooling time using an impulse of heat energy

A chip has a thermal resistance of 0.007 K/J s and thermal capacitance of 1.6 J/K. You give it an impulse of heat equal to 100 J. How long does it take for the chip to cool to within 10% of the ...
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401 views

How would a change in ambient temp affect a radiator?

I'm curious if you have a radiator or say a block of metal (lets say it's copper since it has the highest thermal conductivity) and on one side is a processor producing heat. At idle the processor ...
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1k views

How long does it take a warm object to cool in air?

This is a work-related question. A warm steel torus of a given diameter & thickness is left in a room held at a controlled temperature, how long does it take to reach equilibrium? Assume the air ...
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566 views

Which form of the first law of thermodynamics should I use?

I usually wonder which thermodynamics first law is better to use ? The one given by physics : $\Delta U=Q-\Delta W$ or the one by chemistry : $\Delta U=Q+\Delta W$ In other words, should I take ...
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847 views

Why is Entropy expressed in terms of Enthalpy?

Why does ${\Delta}S_{m(fusion)} = \frac{{\Delta}H_{m(fusion)}}{T}$ ? I always thought ${\Delta}S = \frac{dQ}{T}$ In this case does it mean $dQ = {\Delta}H$ ?? Why is it so?
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617 views

Sensible heat question (solving for temperature)

If $55 034.175 \rm{kJ }$ of heat are transferred to $150 \rm{kg}$ of ice at a temperature of $-12.15 ^\circ \rm{C}$, calculate the temperature of the resulting water. Using $Q = mc(t_2-t_1)$ or ...
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253 views

Rate of Cooling

I was given the following problem: Two objects have a temperature difference of 20 degrees C at time 0. Two minutes later, they have a temperature difference of 18 degrees. How long does it take ...
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50 views

Reconciling Units in Jeans' Criterion Formula

In "Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System" Jeans' Criterion is given as: $\frac{GmM}{R_c} = \frac{3mkT}{2}$ ... To me this suggests that on the left we have Joules, and on the right we have ...
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593 views

Why the temperature is getting lower when the universe is expanding

As we know, if an ideal gas expands in vacuum, as its energy is unchanged, the temperature remains the same. An ideal gas's energy does not depend on volume. In general, the energy is $kT$ times the ...
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986 views

Heat transfer between two surfaces

Suppose I have surface A in contact with surface B, if I apply Fourier's law of heat transfer, which $K$ should I use, $K_a$ or $K_b$? Essentially asking whether the same block of material heats ...
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310 views

Clausius Clapeyron equation

While reading about the Clausius Clapeyron equation from the Feynman lectures on Physics, I couldn't understand a few things from its derivation: Although the argument was pretty clear, when the ...
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241 views

free energy and entropy of 2D soap froth

This is a (exploratory) computational project. The soap froth was created by injecting bubbles into a chamber formed by two rectangular plates which are 0.16cm. From the moment the soap froth was ...
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657 views

Lennard Jones liquid vapour phase transition

I am trying to generate a phase diagram of pressure versus temperature in a NPT ensemble using molecular dynamics method. I am using the Lennard Jones potential with 108 particles and Berendsen ...
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457 views

Why is an air conditioner more efficient in a low-thermal-mass house?

Why is an air conditioner more efficient in a low-thermal-mass house? I recently read To get these efficiency gains it is important to use the air conditioner as it is intended: the unit has to ...
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101 views

Where does the energy flow differ between a forward and reverse process?

Mathematically ($W=\int PdV$) and by the First Law, I understand that $1 \rightarrow 4 \rightarrow 3 \rightarrow 2 \rightarrow 1$ and $1 \rightarrow 2 \rightarrow 3 \rightarrow 4 \rightarrow 1$ are ...
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223 views

Are Carnot theorem and Carnot Cycle related?

This has been in my head for a while, and I think I finally have the answer. I was wondering what was so special about the Carnot cycle so it was used to demonstrate the Carnot theorem; the ...
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137 views

What are the properties and impediments of a liquid air fueled engine?

I recently came across a very interesting article that suggested the possibility of using liquified gases like air, nitrogen, or oxygen as a power source for cars. It appears that this company is ...
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131 views

Could we really charge metal plates using microwaves?

While skimming through Dielectric heating, I read that they use microwaves to charge the plates. How do they do that?
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191 views

Zero entropy change

If you put a object in contact with a heat reservoir that is infinitesimally higher in temperature than the object and allow equilibrium to be reached the entropy change is zero right?
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88 views

Is Joule heating only between charged particles?

The Wikipedia page for Joule heating explains "It is now known that Joule heating is caused by interactions between the moving particles that form the current (usually, but not always, electrons) and ...
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194 views

Amount/flow rate of N2 needed to cool substrate

I'm trying to cool a substrate inside a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen. The substrate holder is a block of copper suspended from the top of the chamber via nylon screws (for thermal insulation). ...
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242 views

Slow thermal equilibrium

I have a question which is inspired by considering the light field coming off an incandescent lightbulb. As a blackbody radiation field, the light is in thermal equilibrium at temperature $T$, which ...
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154 views

Thermodynamics and cross entropy

I am facing with the concept of cross entropy. I would like to know the thermodynamic and statistical meaning of cross entropy (if exists)?
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223 views

How would I go about solving this transient convection problem if the mean fluid temperature is constantly changing?

Let's say I have a ceramic slab on a conveyor belt that is initially at $450\,^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ and there is air being blown over it at a speed of $35 \frac{m}{s}$ with an ambient temperature of ...
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151 views

nature of glass transition

I am reading in some book: "The glass transition is similar in appearance to a second-order phase transition, but it is not a true thermodynamic phase transition. This is because the transition ...
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551 views

How should a heat current be defined for two component system with unequal numbers

I'm trying to calculate a heat current in a linear response regime of a very weakly-interacting two component low temperature Fermi gas with imbalanced population. I think there are two standard ways ...
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349 views

Joining the definitions of entropy

$\int \frac{Q_{rev}}{T} = \Delta(k_B\ln\Omega)=\Delta S$ Could anyone give some definite proof for this? I was able to prove that the two definitions of change in entropy are equivalent for an ...
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2k views

Heat Flux and Spatial Temperature Gradients

The derivation for Heat Equation I am reading starts by stating Net change of heat inside $[x,x+\Delta x]$ = Net flux of heat across boundaries + Total heat generated inside $[x,x+\Delta x]$ and ...
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195 views

Do all closed systems, only considering kinematic/mechanical principles, exhibit time reversal symmetry?

It makes a lot of sense to me to imagine a cannonball flying through space as not so much experiencing a macroscopic non-conservative drag force, but as pushing a bunch of air molecules and giving ...
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95 views

Certain material heating water in a recipient

I don't know how to resolve a problem, but I don't want the answer since I'm almost going to have it resolved. What the problem says is we have 85 liters of water at 7ºC in an iron pot of 29kg. We ...
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381 views

Thermodynamic System: Windmill

There is a closed system that is just a windmill attached to a rotating shaft that can mechanically power something. I know the system produces work on the surroundings from the rotating shaft and ...
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191 views

Does thermodynamic processess affect phase transition in solid state metals

I read an article about phase transitions and I read about thermodynamic processes such as Adiabatic process, Isochoric process, Isobaric process, Isothermal process Do these processes affect phase ...