Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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20
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11answers
1k views

Why does hot air rise in a column instead of cold air pressing down?

Ok, this looks like a dumb question or even near trolling, but I really don't understand it. When air is heated over an oven plate, it rises. Obviously, I can check by blowing some smoke in. The ...
5
votes
5answers
2k views

Understanding mathematically the free expansion process of an ideal gas

I'm trying to understand mathematically that for the free expansion of an ideal gas the internal energy $E$ just depends on temperature $T$ and not volume $V$. In the free expansion process the ...
0
votes
2answers
230 views

Second law of thermodynamics (in terms of entropy)

Is the second law of thermodynamics (in terms of entropy) for closed systems or isolated systems? I thought it must be valid for isolated systems, such as the Universe. But the book Fundamentals of ...
3
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2answers
38 views

Why does conservation of étendue matter when showing one cannot focus light to arbitrary temperatures?

The latest XKCD What-If post discusses how one cannot start a fire by focusing the light from the moon. The answer is no, for well-established reasons, but the explanation isn't watertight. Maybe ...
1
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1answer
122 views

Energy conservation of permanent magnets engine

How to explain the fact that magnet can attract an object (apply a work W) without losing a (significant) part of its internal energy? How to apply the energy conservation principle? Please think to ...
0
votes
2answers
25 views

volume of the air bubble in the water

How does the depth affect the volume (the radius) of an air bubble in the water, if the temperature and density of the water are constant. Is there any relation combining this? Can I say that ...
0
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0answers
28 views

Acceleration of an bubble under the sea [duplicate]

An air bubble arises from the bottom of the sea. Find its acceleration if resistance force is proportional to $\rho Av$ where $\rho$ is density of water, $A$ is cross section area and $v$ is velocity ...
0
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0answers
20 views

Acceleration of an air bubble under the sea [on hold]

An air bubble arises from the bottom of the sea. Find its acceleration if: a) There is no resistance of water b) Resistance force is proportional to $\rho Av$ where $\rho$ is density of water, $A$ ...
1
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0answers
17 views

solar energy on a specific location

How to find the amount of solar wattage in any specific place on earh in a monthly manner? by solar wattage I mean the energy recieved from the sun in a squared meters.
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1answer
20 views

What does ''population'' mean in regards to the excited and ground states of an atom?

I have a problem I'm working on. It seems simple enough, but there is a term I'm not familiar with. It asks for the ''relative populations of the first excited and the ground states for helium gas in ...
0
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0answers
7 views

What is temperature dependence (Schottky defects)?

The problem requires us to use the following property to determine the temperature dependence: For a system in thermal equilibrium in a heat bath at temperature $T$ the Helmholtz free energy is a ...
0
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2answers
42 views

Thermodynamics at the stoves, cooking problem

I was wondering about a daily question with respect upon heat, time and thermodynamics "made easy". Supposing I put a pot on the stove (we can say without losing so much that the pot is a cylindrical ...
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0answers
28 views

Thermodynamics of Rubik's cube

I was wondering... Could it be possible to calculate the entropy change while rearranging a Rubik's cube from a given arbitrary arrangement? I tried with 3*3*3=27 microstates...but achieved a pretty ...
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2answers
304 views

Book with solved problems on thermodynamics

I am working on honing my engineering thermodynamics problem solving skills at the undergraduate and graduate level. It would be much help if you could suggest me some good books with solved ...
25
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8answers
3k views

What are the various physical mechanisms for energy transfer to the photon during blackbody emission?

By conservation of energy, the solid is left in a lower energy state following emission of a photon. Clearly absorption and emission balance at thermal equilibrium, however, thermodynamic equilibrium ...
-3
votes
0answers
18 views

What is the correct setting for Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission?

For example, is the setting free space? Is it a surface? etc. So, what is the correct setting of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission?
7
votes
3answers
130 views
+50

Why do some substances undergo sublimation while others do not?

This question is indeed lengthy...but please go through the question at least. From the study of kinetic theory I know that for intuitive answers we can associate the states (liquid, solid,gas) with ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views
+100

Specific heat capacity

Which of two objects at the same tempreature can cause more intense burns when you touch it: the one with the greater specific heat capacity or the one with the smaller specific heat capacity and why? ...
2
votes
0answers
9 views

Nose-Hoover Barostat

Much can be found about the Nose-Hoover Thermostat. However I seem to be having difficulty finding out details about the Nose-Hoover Barostat, and how it is implemented. Would anyone be able to give ...
-1
votes
2answers
80 views

Is Planck’s proof of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission false, and if not why not? [on hold]

In his book ‘The Theory of Heat Radiation’, Max Planck adduced his theoretical proof of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission. In a recent paper, I argued that Planck's proof is wrong. I'm looking for ...
2
votes
2answers
46 views

gravitational force and irreversibility

If we place a ball at a certain height it falls and the process is irreversible. Is there any entropy change associated with the falling of ball? If so why?
1
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1answer
22 views

Are isentropic closed rigid thermodynamic systems also isolated?

$\newcommand{\d}{\, \mathrm d}$Currently it seems to me that isentropic closed rigid thermodynamic systems have to be also isolated. Is this correct? The reason why it seems to me like this is the ...
3
votes
0answers
42 views

Physical interpretation of the chemical potential in Bose and Fermionic gas

I understand that both Fermions and bosons have the chemical potential $\nu <0$ when it is T>0, but still behave classically, the fermions would increase its chemical potential at T=0, whereas the ...
1
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1answer
22 views

Is there a difference between solid-to-fluid convection and fluid-to-fluid convection?

I found an online calculator relating to convective heat transfer, but the calculator's description says it's for heat transfer between a solid surface and a moving fluid. However, the definitions ...
4
votes
3answers
125 views

How do we define temperature?

I was watching this video What is Temperature?. It states that when we measure temperature we are measuring $dU\over dS$ at equilibrium. But at equilibrium, how the entropy and the internal energy are ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Mechanical equivalent of heat => transfer from work W to heat Q

Consider the following experiment to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat $\mu = \frac{\Delta W}{\Delta Q}$ Not seen in the picture is a weight with known mass hanging down the cord. When you ...
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0answers
22 views

Carnot cycle in steam processes

Our professor told us that in steam processes, such as Clausis-Rankine process, Carnot's cycle is impossible to achieve. Can someone explain why?
10
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8answers
13k views

Why does maximal entropy imply equilibrium?

From a purely thermodynamical point of view, why does that entropy have to be a maximum at equilibrium? Say there is equilibrium, i.e. no net heat flow, why can the entropy not be sitting at a ...
1
vote
2answers
625 views

If an object falls - regarding air resistance - does the Potential or Kinetic energy get converted into thermal energy as it is falling?

I read a paragraph on the transfer of potential energy to kinetic energy and heat from this website: Even if air resistance slows down the ball, the potential energy is the same (Mb x g x H). ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Does Earth's loss of internal energy to the moon reduce local entropy?

The moon's orbit is increasing 3.78 cm/year due to the faster spinning Earth and tides pulling on it. The Earth slows down 15 microseconds/year. From this I've estimated (assuming the core's rotation ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

work done in reversible and irreversible process

According to maximum work theorem work done maximum work is done during reversible process . consider a reversible adiabatic and irreversible adiabatic process that occurs between two states of the ...
1
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1answer
27 views

Heat pump solution to pollution [on hold]

I have invented a process that converts an air conditioner into a heat pump. How many metric tons of carbon equivalent could be eliminated from entering the atmosphere annually if 1.every air ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Prove for ideal gas temperature being directly proportional to absolute temperature [on hold]

I have some difficulties proving that the ideal gas temperature is directly proportional to absolute temperature defined by the second law of thermodynamics. The ideal gas temp. is defined by the ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

How does the fundamental assumption of statistical physics make sense?

Consider two systems A and B in thermal contact. System A has $N_A=3$ simple harmonic oscillators and the system B has $N_B=3$ simple harmonic oscillators as well. Each system has a number of energy ...
7
votes
2answers
126 views

In a Monte Carlo NVT simulation How do I determine equilibration

I'm running an NVT (constant number of particles, volume and temperature) Monte Carlo simulation (Metropolis algorithm) of particles in two dimensions interacting via Lennard-Jonse potential ($U = ...
3
votes
0answers
25 views

Exhaust liquefaction in internal combustion engines

Does an internal combustion engine provide enough efficiency to still deliver mechanical power, if it is forced to liquify it's own exhaust gases by compression? If gas containers would be added to ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

What is the correct statement of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission?

There are various quite different statements in textbooks and other science literature as to Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission. So, what is the correct statement of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Reduced Pressure and Cooling

Hi Knowledgeable folks, Since boiling point of a liquid can be reduced via pressure reduction. I was wondering whether this is possible: Add some liquid (alcohol or Water) in a container, reduce the ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Question on the degeneracies of a thermodynamic system

I think I have a basic understanding of what degeneracies are: Two or more different states of a quantum mechanical system are said to be degenerate if they give the same value of energy upon ...
1
vote
1answer
9 views

dry adiabatic lapse rate

Adiabatic lapse rate is defined as $$ \Gamma_a \equiv -\left(\frac{dT}{dz}\right)_{\rm parcel}=-\frac{R_{\rm a} T}{c_p \,p}\left(\frac{dp}{dz}\right)_{\rm parcel} = \frac{g}{c_p} $$ $R_a$ is gas ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Obtain an exact expression for the heat capacity of the system

Before anyone mentions it, yes I did my research and found this question on this site. My question is his exact question, but I'd like some clarification or maybe a bit more explanation than the one ...
2
votes
1answer
17 views

How quickly does the temperature rise in a water container submerged in a hot water bath?

Let's assume I have a small bottle (neglecting any insulation from the walls of the bottle) containing e.g. 150ml water at 4°C and place it in a larger pot with sufficient water at 80°C so that the ...
6
votes
1answer
465 views

Calculation of water bulk modulus using equation of state

I simply want to calculate the bulk modulus of water at 50C and increasing pressures. I think I am correctly calculating the new specific volume from the original conditions at (25C and 1atm) to 50C ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Number and energy density integrals in cosmological thermodynamics

I am working through Mukhanov's book "Physical Foundations of Cosmology" and something has me puzzled in the section on evaluating integrals for number density, energy density and pressure. The ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

specific heat capacity (temperature) [on hold]

A 60KG bushwalker is suffering from hypothermia, having an average temperature of 33.5degrees.when rescued she was wrapped in a warm blanket and given two 310ml cups of warm tea each at a temperature ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Understanding the concept of temperature vs. mean energy/heat capacity of a system

I need help understanding a concept in thermodynamics. What is the relationship between temperature and mean energy? What is the relationship between temperature and heat capacity? What I know: ...
1
vote
3answers
2k views

The thermodynamics of heating water in a rigid container

When the pressure on the liquid surface is less than the vapor pressure of the liquid at a given temperature, the liquid will start to evaporate. This is common sense. The problem is more difficult ...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

Gibbs entropy, Clausius' entropy and irreversibility

I have a bunch of doubts and confusions on the concept of entropy which have been bothering me for a while now. The most important ones are of a more technical nature, arisen from the reading of this ...
-2
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0answers
22 views

Latent Heat of Vaporisation [on hold]

Is there a diagram which shows the effect of reducing pressure on Latent Heat of Vaporisation of water. Thank You.
0
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3answers
255 views

Heat flow in a hollow cylinder

Consider a hollow cylinder of different outer radius and inner radius and two different temperatures are maintained at the outer and inner surfaces such that inner temperature is higher. Because of ...