Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

1
vote
0answers
32 views

Calculate Helmholtz Free Energy with Entropy, Work given

it's my first time here and I hope the post complies with the general rules. My problem originates here: I'm doing a statistical physics task which unfortunately leaves me clueless atm. I keep my ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Why is the Carnot engine the most efficient?

It seems that the only condition used in proving that the Carnot engine is the most efficient is that it is reversible. More specifically, the Carnot engine can be run in reverse as a refrigerator. ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

What would a graph of temperature increase of a cup of water in a microwave look like?

My lunch had been in the microwave for a minute or so, and I was wondering if I took it out 10 seconds early, would the amount of temperature it increased in that 10 seconds be more significant, less ...
0
votes
2answers
22 views

Entropy change in irreversible heat flow

For an irreversible heat flow from an object $A$ at temperature $T_A$ and another object $B$ at temperature $T_B < T_A$ , I'd like to know how to evaluate the change in entropy using the following ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Difference between solid and gases thermal expansion

The coefficient of linear expansion is $$\Delta L = L \,\alpha \Delta T,$$ where $\Delta t$ can be the difference of any two temperatures. However, in volume expansion of gases, $$\Delta V = V ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Water behaviour under theoretical near-infinite pressure conditions

I've asked a similar question here but the answer given shows the behaviour of water under general conditions. I'd like to know what the behaviour of water is like as pressures increase towards ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

What unit would the answer be in?

So I have used this formula: $$W= PV_1 \times \ln\frac{V_2}{V_1}$$ and I have converted my values to cubic meters and pascals. So Work Done, $W$, what would be the unit for that answer? I already ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Physical Meaning Of $ dQ/T $ Regarding Clausius Inequality: Is it related to Energy Loss in form of heat or Something Else?

What is the physical meaning of term $ dQ/T $ in Clausius Inequality $ dQ/T \le dS $ ? Physically we can relate entropy to number of microstates of a system, which relates to number of possible ...
3
votes
2answers
37 views

Why does a cooling car engine crackle?

Why does a cooling car engine crackle? What determines the frequency of the crackles?
2
votes
3answers
89 views

Interpretation of systems in different state of matters BUT almost identical configuration

For a start, let me clarify that by "almost identical configuration" I mean same volume, temperature and number of molecules (but different pressure). One could for instance take two identical systems ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

How does the second law of thermodynamics follow from low entropy of early universe?

One of the explanations of the second law of thermodynamics is that it goes back to the low entropy in the early universe (How do you prove the second law of thermodynamics from statistical ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Total and partial derivatives in thermodynamics and Maxwell relations

Consider the expression $$dS=\left(\frac{\partial S}{\partial T}\right)_VdT+\left(\frac{\partial S}{\partial V}\right)_TdV$$ I'm trying to understand how to derive an expression for $\left( ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Diameter of aluminium ring after it expands [on hold]

An aluminium ring has diameter $200.00$ mm at $25.00^0C$. What would be its diameter at $325.00^0C$? $\alpha$ for aluminium is $7.500 \times 10^{-5}K^{-1}$. Thanks for your help.
1
vote
3answers
71 views

Why does the blackbody radiate even at thermal equilibrium?

Everytime, I read about blackbody, I always get confused at the point where it is written Under thermal equilibrium conditions , the blackbody radiation depends only on temperature. ..... . At ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Why doesn't the 1 dimensional ising model have a transition temperature?

Consider a 1 dimensional chain of spins that are able to either have the value $\sigma =$ $+1$, $-1$, from now on referred to as up and down. For the Hamiltonian $H = J \sum_{i,j} \sigma_i \sigma_j$ ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Air unit selection and duct sizing [on hold]

I am not sure if this is the right place to post this. But would you please provide me with a concrete example showing the selection of an air heating/cooling unit along with the required duct sizing ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy

Some hot water radiators have a single pipe connected to them. The steam comes to the radiator and the water leaves in the same pipe. The steam and the water are both at a temperature of 100°C. Where ...
-3
votes
0answers
37 views

Why does hot food give off vapor?

Does your food melt and then boil to give off this gas? What is the vapor here?
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Thermodynamics - ideal gas [on hold]

Question: 1 mol of a monoatomic gas at 298 Kelvin acquires a volume of 3 litres. It is expanded adiabatically and reversibly to a pressure of of 1 atm. It is then compressed isothermally and ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Rate of Temperature Change due to Heat addition

I might be wrong but I will give a little background leading to my question. I am trying to calculate the heat generation in the advection-diffusion equation for heat generation due to friction by ...
6
votes
1answer
48 views

How does a giant walk-in fridge maintain a thin temperature gradient at the entrance?

I'm standing in a Costco store, and they have a large walled off area for chilled produce. The entrance to this section is a square opening about 10 feet on a side. When you walk in, you notice a ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

How to convert cc to bar?

In astronomy/astrophysics, medium density is often given in cc, particles per cubic centimeter. Also, the temperature of the medium is usually given, in Kelvins. For some materials the melting point ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Deriving an Expression for Helmoltz free energy

Given the equations of states for an isolated system: $$E=\frac32 pV$$ $$p=aVT^4$$ I was asked to find the Helmoltz free energy per particle, $F=E-TS$, as a function of $T$ and $V$. I began with the ...
18
votes
2answers
3k views

Melting diamond and cool down as diamond

Is it possible to melt diamond? And if possible while let it cool will it became diamond again?
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Location of heat conversion in heat engines

If I put a large glass dome on a heap of coal, and burn it, I would expect the air to heat up certain amount. But if I put a coal power plant to that dome, and use it to burn the same amount of coal, ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

How can q=mcp(deltaT) be made dimensionless?

Specifically, how can I make $m C_p$ dimensionless? I've tried using the Reynolds number and Peclet number definitions to plug into there but the closest I've gotten to was: $q=\pi D Re Pe ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Max thickness that can be cooled in a certain time

A frozen-food company freezes its spinach by first compressing it into large slabs and then exposing the slab of spinach to a low-temperature cooling medium. The large slab of compressed spinach is ...
16
votes
1answer
759 views

Does the heat equation violate causality?

I've ran across the idea that, besides simply writing partial differential equations in covariant form, they need to be hyperbolic with all characteristic speeds less than the speed of light. A ...
2
votes
2answers
41 views

Does the conductivity of a wire in a vacuum decrease over time?

Does the conductivity of a wire in a vacuum decrease over time, say over the period of years or decades? In other words: Does current degrade a wire, making it less conductive? If so, by how much, and ...
6
votes
3answers
642 views

How do blankets keep you warm?

I heard a famous physicist (was it Feynman?) argue that blankets do not keep you warm by trapping heat but by trapping air next to the body. Is this true?
0
votes
1answer
80 views

Applying Euler Homogenous Function Theorem to $df$ or $f$

I am currently reading Demirel's Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics in order to learn more about entropy and nonequlibrium thermodynamics However I and stumped on how the author's do the following step: ...
1
vote
2answers
72 views

why do metals feel cold when electron moves at Fermi velocity?

This might be a very elementary question. Considering that electrons in typical metals have very high Fermi velocity, why is it that when you touch a metal you feel cold? My intuition tells me that ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Does degeneracy affect the adiabatic relation?

The adiabatic relation is $P=K\rho^\gamma$. For ideal monotomic gas $\gamma$ is 5/3. For nonrelativistic degenerate electron(inside white dwarf), $\gamma$ is also 5/3. Is this just an coincidence? ...
16
votes
3answers
5k views

If your hair was on fire and you entered a vacuum, could you outlast the fire?

Let's say a person's hair was on fire and suddenly we (instantaneously) pumped all the air out of the (sealed) room, then after time period X we put all the air back. Is there an X such that we will ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Non-steady state gas expansion

Please look at the following link for the sketch of the problem: Adiabatic Expansion with expanding control volume I have a certain amount of gas at a certain pressure and temperature at the start. ...
4
votes
4answers
459 views

Heat and work are not the state functions of the system. Why?

Heat and work, unlike temperature, pressure, and volume, are not intrinsic properties of a system. They have meaning only as they describe the transfer of energy into or out of a system. This is ...
4
votes
2answers
44 views

How does aerogel attain its enormous heat isolation properties?

In a text about properties of aerogel I read some interesting facts - clothes with aerogel proved to be impractical, being far too warm to wear. If you isolated a house with aerogel and lit a candle ...
-1
votes
1answer
36 views

How many grams of anthracite coal is needed to convert to steam? [closed]

So I have searched the internet but it would not give me the answer that will truly satisfy the question. I hope someone could answer this
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Entropy maximum postulate and reversibility

I'm studying Thermodynamics on Callen's book and he introduces entropy through the entropy maximum postulate, namely: There exists a function (called the entropy $S$) of the extensive parameters ...
1
vote
0answers
79 views

Why does graphene exist?

I started to read some articles on graphene and almost all say that graphene was discovered late because physicists thought it would be unstable. Despite this, I didn't found a clear explanation of ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Interpretation of partition function and thermodynamic potential

So in the microcanonical ensemble the partition function $\Omega$ counts the number of microstates for a given $(NVE)$ configuaration and $S = k_B \ln (\Omega)$ is the entropy. The most likely state ...
11
votes
5answers
1k views

Is it possible to increase temperature of sun using radiation of sun itself?

We know that we can focus radiation of sun and can burn a paper. If we think of this thought experiment, will that happen? If someone constructs a concave mirror on the sun and concentrate radiation ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Calculating rate of vaporization of water

Let there be a cylindrical vessel with diameter D that only has liquid water and water vapor as the picture below shows (The water vapor is the grey portion and the liquid water is the blue portion). ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

why a engine convert all of its heat into work? [duplicate]

Why does heat is released to sink at lower temperature why all of the heat that is taken by a engine from heat reservior cannot be converted into work? I know that it has something to do with the ...
3
votes
1answer
213 views

From a particle's point of view is his temperature absolute zero

Since the vibration of the particles is what cause temperature and a particle from its own point of view is not moving, is its temperature 0°K from its own point of view? Is there a thing like ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Isothermal compressibility

How does one get from the thermodynamics definition : $$ \chi_T = -\frac{1}{V} \left(\frac{\partial V}{\partial p}\right)_T$$ to the fluid dynamics definition : $$ \chi_T = \frac{1}{\rho} ...
3
votes
2answers
480 views

Heat Temperature and my dinner

So today while revising for my QM midterm I decided to raid the cupboards for a well earned lunch, only to find nothing there but noodles and rice. So I put two metal pans of water on two pre-heated ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

In thermodynamic identity, dU=TdS-PdV. Are dS and dV orthogonal or is (T,P) defined in a conjugated space from (dS,dV)?

In thermodynamic identity, we say dU=TdS-pdV, and only Maxwell's relation is required for U to be a proper behaved thermodynamics variable. But from multivariable calculus, that result requires dS ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

How close to the critical point is sufficient close for measuring critical exponents?

I am learning Monte Carlo and just manage to simulate a phase transition by computing the heat capacity or the susceptibility. I wish I can also compute critical exponents.To this purpose, I have read ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Do physicists use agent based models?

I am hoping that this is a simple and specific question. I just wanted to know whether physicists from any branch of physics use agent based models as a tool in their research? If so, then in which ...