Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Which requires less energy, complete mechanical breaking or vaporization of matter?

Let's say we have a one kilogram piece of rock. Now if we want to separate each molecule from the other molecules making this piece of rock, which method requires the least energy while neglecting ...
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10 views

Hagedorn temperature as a control parameter of saddle - node bifurcation

Can we interpret the Hagedorn temperature as a control bifurcation of equilibrium parameter of the saddle - node type?
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20 views

Number of impacts nitrogen molecules make with the palm of a hand

What is the number of impacts one mole air makes with the palm of your hand assuming air is entirely made up of nitrogen?
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31 views

The Ideal Gas Equation in higher dimensions

Basically I wanted to know whether or not the ideal gas equation, $PV=NkT$ would hold in higher dimensions? If so, how would you go about proving this? I can't see any reason as to why it shouldn't ...
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2answers
40 views

Can two different objects or system of molecules have different temperatures, but having same internal kinetic energy?

If I take an extreme case, where a body has only an internal potential energy with zero internal kinetic energy, does this body have a temperature? Another question related to it: if two objects A and ...
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20 views

What is collimated/paralell beam of atoms? [on hold]

This question is related to following exercise: "The intensity of the collimated, paralell beam of atoms of potassium was reduced by 3% by a layer of argon at 1 mm thickness and pressure $6,0\cdot ...
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1answer
12 views

Example of a system where we cant measure the total possible microstates of a system but can measure the microstates of most probable state?

I have been reading about entropy and I read that entropy is basically a measure of total possible microstates but there was an approximation that when no. of particles become very large we take ...
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1answer
22 views

Calculate the pressure in a container given moles and volume [on hold]

Say there are two containers with the same volume. The first has a temperature T and pressure P and contains 1 mole of $O_2$. The second has a temperature 2T and contains 1 mole of $He_2$. I'd like to ...
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1answer
26 views

Deriving Boyle's law from only the Gay-Lussac laws

My physics professor during a lecture presumably mathematically derived Boyle's law from the two Gay-Lussac laws for ideal gasses. What he said is also printed in his own textbook. He states that, ...
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24 views

Heat and mass transfer modes inside rapidly rotating cylinder

My question is about simultaneous heat and mass transfer in rotating cylinder system. System can be detailed as: A rotating cylinder contains wet porous substance in a lump shape. Air stream enters ...
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0answers
30 views

Acceleration of an bubble under the sea [duplicate]

An air bubble arises from the bottom of the sea. Find its acceleration if resistance force is proportional to $\rho Av$ where $\rho$ is density of water, $A$ is cross section area and $v$ is velocity ...
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30 views

Acceleration of an air bubble under the sea [on hold]

An air bubble arises from the bottom of the sea. Find its acceleration if: a) There is no resistance of water b) Resistance force is proportional to $\rho Av$ where $\rho$ is density of water, $A$ ...
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20 views

solar energy on a specific location

How to find the amount of solar wattage in any specific place on earh in a monthly manner? by solar wattage I mean the energy recieved from the sun in a squared meters.
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2answers
32 views

volume of the air bubble in the water

How does the depth affect the volume (the radius) of an air bubble in the water, if the temperature and density of the water are constant. Is there any relation combining this? Can I say that ...
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12answers
4k views

Why does hot air rise in a column instead of cold air pressing down?

Ok, this looks like a dumb question or even near trolling, but I really don't understand it. When air is heated over an oven plate, it rises. Obviously, I can check by blowing some smoke in. The ...
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1answer
24 views

What does ''population'' mean in regards to the excited and ground states of an atom?

I have a problem I'm working on. It seems simple enough, but there is a term I'm not familiar with. It asks for the ''relative populations of the first excited and the ground states for helium gas in ...
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0answers
29 views

Thermodynamics of Rubik's cube

I was wondering... Could it be possible to calculate the entropy change while rearranging a Rubik's cube from a given arbitrary arrangement? I tried with 3*3*3=27 microstates...but achieved a pretty ...
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3answers
53 views

Thermodynamics at the stoves, cooking problem

I was wondering about a daily question with respect upon heat, time and thermodynamics "made easy". Supposing I put a pot on the stove (we can say without losing so much that the pot is a cylindrical ...
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0answers
33 views

What is the correct setting for Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission? [on hold]

For example, is the setting free space? Is it a surface? etc. So, what is the correct setting of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission?
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3answers
71 views

Why does conservation of étendue matter when showing one cannot focus light to arbitrary temperatures?

The latest XKCD What-If post discusses how one cannot start a fire by focusing the light from the moon. The answer is no, for well-established reasons, but the explanation isn't watertight. Maybe ...
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0answers
14 views

Nose-Hoover Barostat

Much can be found about the Nose-Hoover Thermostat. However I seem to be having difficulty finding out details about the Nose-Hoover Barostat, and how it is implemented. Would anyone be able to give ...
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0answers
47 views

Physical interpretation of the chemical potential in Bose and Fermionic gas

I understand that both Fermions and bosons have the chemical potential $\nu <0$ when it is T>0, but still behave classically, the fermions would increase its chemical potential at T=0, whereas the ...
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1answer
27 views

Are isentropic closed rigid thermodynamic systems also isolated?

$\newcommand{\d}{\, \mathrm d}$Currently it seems to me that isentropic closed rigid thermodynamic systems have to be also isolated. Is this correct? The reason why it seems to me like this is the ...
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2answers
51 views

gravitational force and irreversibility

If we place a ball at a certain height it falls and the process is irreversible. Is there any entropy change associated with the falling of ball? If so why?
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1answer
26 views

Is there a difference between solid-to-fluid convection and fluid-to-fluid convection?

I found an online calculator relating to convective heat transfer, but the calculator's description says it's for heat transfer between a solid surface and a moving fluid. However, the definitions ...
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10 views

What is temperature dependence (Schottky defects)?

The problem requires us to use the following property to determine the temperature dependence: For a system in thermal equilibrium in a heat bath at temperature $T$ the Helmholtz free energy is a ...
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24 views

Mechanical equivalent of heat => transfer from work W to heat Q

Consider the following experiment to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat $\mu = \frac{\Delta W}{\Delta Q}$ Not seen in the picture is a weight with known mass hanging down the cord. When you ...
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0answers
24 views

Carnot cycle in steam processes

Our professor told us that in steam processes, such as Clausis-Rankine process, Carnot's cycle is impossible to achieve. Can someone explain why?
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44 views

Does Earth's loss of internal energy to the moon reduce local entropy?

[ edit: Since posting this I had 3 very contrary thoughts: 1) If the moon had been orbiting faster than the Earth, to the same degree, it seems like everything would be the same except that ...
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1answer
28 views

Heat pump solution to pollution [on hold]

I have invented a process that converts an air conditioner into a heat pump. How many metric tons of carbon equivalent could be eliminated from entering the atmosphere annually if 1.every air ...
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0answers
19 views

Prove for ideal gas temperature being directly proportional to absolute temperature [on hold]

I have some difficulties proving that the ideal gas temperature is directly proportional to absolute temperature defined by the second law of thermodynamics. The ideal gas temp. is defined by the ...
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1answer
53 views

How does the fundamental assumption of statistical physics make sense?

Consider two systems A and B in thermal contact. System A has $N_A=3$ simple harmonic oscillators and the system B has $N_B=3$ simple harmonic oscillators as well. Each system has a number of energy ...
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0answers
26 views

Exhaust liquefaction in internal combustion engines

Does an internal combustion engine provide enough efficiency to still deliver mechanical power, if it is forced to liquify it's own exhaust gases by compression? If gas containers would be added to ...
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1answer
40 views

What is the correct statement of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission?

There are various quite different statements in textbooks and other science literature as to Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission. So, what is the correct statement of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal ...
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3answers
131 views

How do we define temperature?

I was watching this video What is Temperature?. It states that when we measure temperature we are measuring $dU\over dS$ at equilibrium. But at equilibrium, how the entropy and the internal energy are ...
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1answer
40 views

Reduced Pressure and Cooling

Hi Knowledgeable folks, Since boiling point of a liquid can be reduced via pressure reduction. I was wondering whether this is possible: Add some liquid (alcohol or Water) in a container, reduce the ...
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1answer
30 views

Question on the degeneracies of a thermodynamic system

I think I have a basic understanding of what degeneracies are: Two or more different states of a quantum mechanical system are said to be degenerate if they give the same value of energy upon ...
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1answer
9 views

dry adiabatic lapse rate

Adiabatic lapse rate is defined as $$ \Gamma_a \equiv -\left(\frac{dT}{dz}\right)_{\rm parcel}=-\frac{R_{\rm a} T}{c_p \,p}\left(\frac{dp}{dz}\right)_{\rm parcel} = \frac{g}{c_p} $$ $R_a$ is gas ...
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1answer
33 views

work done in reversible and irreversible process

According to maximum work theorem work done maximum work is done during reversible process . consider a reversible adiabatic and irreversible adiabatic process that occurs between two states of the ...
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1answer
17 views

How quickly does the temperature rise in a water container submerged in a hot water bath?

Let's assume I have a small bottle (neglecting any insulation from the walls of the bottle) containing e.g. 150ml water at 4°C and place it in a larger pot with sufficient water at 80°C so that the ...
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0answers
34 views

Obtain an exact expression for the heat capacity of the system

Before anyone mentions it, yes I did my research and found this question on this site. My question is his exact question, but I'd like some clarification or maybe a bit more explanation than the one ...
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1answer
35 views

Number and energy density integrals in cosmological thermodynamics

I am working through Mukhanov's book "Physical Foundations of Cosmology" and something has me puzzled in the section on evaluating integrals for number density, energy density and pressure. The ...
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0answers
20 views

specific heat capacity (temperature) [on hold]

A 60KG bushwalker is suffering from hypothermia, having an average temperature of 33.5degrees.when rescued she was wrapped in a warm blanket and given two 310ml cups of warm tea each at a temperature ...
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22 views

Latent Heat of Vaporisation [on hold]

Is there a diagram which shows the effect of reducing pressure on Latent Heat of Vaporisation of water. Thank You.
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0answers
24 views

Specific Heat capacity [on hold]

The total heat capacity of a caloriemeter, heater, stirrer is 107 joules per kelvin. Mass of the liquid in caloriemeter is 0.241 kg. The power supplied by heater is 41.48 watts. The initial rate of ...
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1answer
76 views

Gibbs entropy, Clausius' entropy and irreversibility

I have a bunch of doubts and confusions on the concept of entropy which have been bothering me for a while now. The most important ones are of a more technical nature, arisen from the reading of this ...
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3answers
60 views

Is the internal energy of an ideal gas always $\frac{3}{2}nRT$?

Is the internal energy of an ideal gas always $\frac{3}{2}nRT\,?$ I saw in Wikipedia that it is $\alpha nRT\;.$ Is $\alpha$ always equal to $\frac{3}{2}$ for an ideal gas?
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2answers
121 views

Is Planck’s proof of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission false; and if it is not false why is it not false? [on hold]

In his book ‘The Theory of Heat Radiation’, Max Planck adduced his theoretical proof of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission. However, there are some problems with that approach, some of which we ...
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0answers
18 views

Understanding the concept of temperature vs. mean energy/heat capacity of a system

I need help understanding a concept in thermodynamics. What is the relationship between temperature and mean energy? What is the relationship between temperature and heat capacity? What I know: ...
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1answer
54 views

Why the 3D heat equation is $\frac{\partial u}{\partial t}=\alpha\nabla^2u$ [on hold]

Why the 3D heat equation is $$\frac{\partial u}{\partial t}=\alpha\nabla^2u=\alpha\left(\frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2}+\frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial y^2}+\frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial z^2}\right)?$$ ...