Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Maybe combine with [tag:statistical-mechanics].

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Derivation of continuum expression of the first law of thermodynamics

Continuum expression of first law of thermodynamics: $$\frac{D E_t}{D t}=\nabla\cdot({\bf \sigma\cdot v}) - \nabla\cdot{\bf q}$$ (I've seen it in my physics book) How this equation is derived? ...
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0answers
13 views

How much heat does a Thermoelectric generater need to produce and how much would it produce [on hold]

How much heat (Fahrenheit) does a Thermoelectric generater need to produce electricity and how much would it produce
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1answer
32 views

General expression of internal energy change in a closed system

let's say we have a classical closed system. What I've understood is that during a reversibile process the internal energy $E$ undergoes a change which could be expressed (as generally as possible) as ...
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1answer
38 views

How is a irreversible process (conventionally) represented on a $T-S$ plane and why cannot it be (really) represented?

A reversible process can be represented on a $T-S$ plane, and the area under the curve is the heat exchanged by the system. On $P-V$ plane a irreversible process is conventionally represented with a ...
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0answers
10 views

I can't get the right solution to this thermal expansion problem [on hold]

The problem : A glass flask is filled to 'the mark' with 60 cm3 of mercury at 20 ºC. If the flask and its contents are heated to 40 C ºhow much mercury will be above the mark? $\alpha$ for glass : 9....
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3answers
75 views

Thermal energy of a system

If I had a hot cup of tea and I added to it cold milk, what would happen is that tea will lose some of its thermal energy to the milk. But why do we notice that our liquid is no longer as hot as ...
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2answers
48 views

Relation between entropy and internal energy

I am confused as to what is the relation between entropy and internal energy. Entropy is always presented as a measure of the randomness in a system. So when we supply heat to a well insulated system ...
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1answer
64 views

“Big Crunch” Ending of Universe?

So, I am reading Introduction to Modern Cosmology by Andrew Liddle and have just learned that the universe is cooling as it is expanding. Now, I am mathematician knowing very little about physics, but ...
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17 views

Landau Diamagnetism and Pauli paramagnetism

In the conventional definition of Landau's diamagnetism we ignore the effect of spin-electron coupling and vice versa for the derivation of Pauli's paramagnetism. I want to know what would happen if ...
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1answer
46 views

What is the relationship between Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, Boltzmann distribution and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution? [on hold]

I have recently been studying some statistical thermodynamics and I am currently trying to understand all the different concepts of the course. I was wondering about differences between MB statistics, ...
4
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1answer
56 views

An ideal black - body at room temperature is thrown into a furnace. It is observed that? [on hold]

An ideal black - body at room temperature is thrown into a furnace. It is observed that? (A) initially it is the darkest body and at later times the brightest. (B) it is the darkest body at all ...
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2answers
67 views

How is one element capable of radiating (almost) every wavelength? [duplicate]

Black bodies are considered as emitting all wavelengths. A incandescent light bulb has (nearly/almost) also the continuous blackbody spectrum near-perfect color rendition. In this bulb is only one ...
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28 views

Problem in thermodynamics [on hold]

There is a 500 watt heater and a ton of wood. How much will the temperature of the wood increase over the course of 6 hours? P = 500 W m = 1000 kg t = 6 h = 21600 s c_wood= 1700 J/kg E = P * t ...
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2answers
36 views

Compressibility factor and deviation from ideal gas behaviour

I have recently started to study the deviation of ideal gas behavior. The source from which I am reading doesn't give me an intuitive understanding of the compressibility factor. I dont understand how ...
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1answer
22 views

At what rate does a wet clothing decrease the temperature of a human body?

The question is required for my project, but it is frankly too hard for me... The variables that I consider are: Human Body: 36.5(C) Air: 20(C) Sunlight Intensity: 1,368(W/m^2) Wind Speed: 20(km/hr) (...
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2answers
37 views

Is the top of an iceberg floating above the waterlevel equal to the expanding of the whole iceberg?

When water freezes it expands and is getting less dense. But is this expansion of the total iceberg equal to the top of an iceberg floating just above sealevel?
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2answers
50 views

Why don't air cool over time?

Say you have a balloon full of a type of gas, it is completely isolate from everything else. Let the temperature of the gas be 20 degrees (or any temperature, it doesn't matter) Now, the ballon is ...
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1answer
63 views

Using the ideal gas law to figure final pressure [on hold]

I'm studying for the GRE and I'm happy with Charles', Boyle's and Gay-Lussac's laws. I'm doing some questions on the ideal gas law. Please hear me out. This may come across as a homework style ...
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0answers
39 views

Does modern science discussed the concept of knowledge and the process of gaining it? [on hold]

I though of an idea is some extrapolation of the law of conservation of energy, and the second law of thermodynamics. It may come a bit philosophical, and I'm really interested if there is any field ...
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2answers
67 views

What is the time required for water at 10 deg C to reach room temperature?

I have a small container (100mm X 80mm X 60mm) filled with water at 10° C. The container is made out of Aluminum and is not insulated, and is resting on a wooden table. Room temperature is about 27° C....
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2answers
390 views

Why did our universe become transparent to light approx. 300,000 years after the Big Bang started?

Most books say that at age 300,000 years, our universe had cooled to approx. 3000 degrees Kelvin, which allowed free-electrons to bind with atomic nuclei, which allowed light to travel, unimpeded, ...
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0answers
29 views

Specific Heat of tissues vs kcal (Weird Thermodynamics question)

I'm a YouTuber who over-examines video game physics for the purposes of both education and entertainment, and I've run into a bit of a snag while researching my next video. I'm looking into heating ...
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0answers
12 views

ploting probability distribution of energy in Canonical ansambel [on hold]

To reproducing fig3.3 statistical mechanics pathria, probability density function of energy: $$p(E)\quad \alpha \quad e^{-\beta E} g(E) = e^{-\beta (U-TS)}~ exp{(-\frac{(E-U)^2}{2KT^2C_V})}$$ . I ...
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1answer
44 views

How are extremely high/low temperatures achieved on Earth?

Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) have their critical temperature below 30K. How are they cooled to such low temperatures? The operating temperature of a Tokamak is greater than 10 keV (over ...
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3answers
93 views

Is reversible work a point function?

The potential of a conservative force is equal to the reversible work done on or by a system. But since the potential of a conservative force is represented by a point function, this would seem to ...
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2answers
57 views

Books on entropy [on hold]

What books introduce entropy in a intuitive, elementary way (at most, for a person with undergraduate physics studies)? The book should not necessarily introduce entropy in relation only to ...
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2answers
64 views

Will a glass of water left in the fridge evaporate?

A commenter suggested that a glass of water left in a fridge would evaporate. I couldn't tell if this is true. I don't want to do the experiment since it would take too long; so I thought instead I'd ...
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2answers
82 views

Accessibility by reversible processes and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

One common way of motivating the existence of Entropy as a state function is the following. Let us take the Clausius/Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law, from which we can deduce Clausius' ...
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1answer
21 views

Water Boiling Time Calculator

Is there a way to calculate out how quickly a body of water will boil? My primary concern is to measure in relationship to different temperatures. For example, heat at 100 degrees Fahrenheit versus ...
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1answer
56 views

Why does wood go straight into ignition, while other materials melt first?

Background: I was cooking eggs (very difficult) with a plastic spatula which was not very good, so when I set it on the border of the pan it began melting. In order to keep cooking, I reached for a ...
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1answer
78 views

Why Doesn't Einstein Get More Credit for Being the Father of Quantum Theory? [closed]

I'm not simply referring to the notion that Einstein treated the discrete emission and transference of energy (and matter) as "real" physical phenomena, but rather his major continuous role in the ...
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0answers
67 views

Maintain Water Temperature with water [closed]

Ok, here we have thirty litres of water at 60c in a beer cooling box. This water is cooling down with 0.5c per hour. Now we gonna put 3 litres of water at 90c inside in 3 glass bottles of Coke. How ...
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3answers
45 views

Is work done in isothermal process process greater than work done in isobaric process?

One of my friend was discussing today about the work done by ideal gases in three different processes. They are isothermal, isobaric and adiabatic. We googled to know about the differences between ...
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0answers
19 views

newtons law of cooling [closed]

I need help with this calculus problem i just cant get After 10 minutes in Jean-Luc's room, his tea has cooled to $43^\circ ~\rm C$ from $100^\circ ~\rm C\;.$ The room temperature is $23^\circ ~\...
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1answer
34 views

How to justify a thermodynamic cycle practically? [closed]

I have been working on some new thermodynamic cycle and was managed to create the formulation and the P-V diagram for it but when i showed my work to my professor he said that i am gonna have to ...
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0answers
58 views

can mixed quantum states be thought as separable states

A quantum system contained 6 qubits is defined with Hamiltonian $H$, and has an energy spectrum of 36 energy levels. As statistical mechanics point of view, we can ...
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1answer
35 views

Moving heat problem: instant toast?

Toast-making usually takes a couple minutes using something like a conventional toaster oven to brown the surface of a piece of bread, making toast. However, this duration may be inconvenient. What ...
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4answers
794 views

Would water, given enough heat, instantly vaporize?

(Please excuse the wrong usage of words, I'm not a trained physicist. Please point out any misuse.) So far, my understanding of water evaporating is the following: Water always evaporates, whatever ...
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2answers
57 views

Reversible processes in which mechanical or thermal equilibrium is not reached

The definition of a reversible thermodynamic process requires in any instant the mechanical equilibrium (equal pressures) and thermal equilibrium (equal temperatures) of the system in a quasi-static ...
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2answers
54 views

Change in entropy of thermodynamic environment during isobaric or isochoric processes

When an ideal gas follows a isobaric or isochoric transformation (no matter if it is reversible or not) I'm not sure what is the change in entropy of the thermodynamic environment. First of all, ...
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0answers
23 views

If a gas is in thermodynamic equilibrium does it changes its density? [closed]

If a gas is in thermodynamic equilibrium does it change its density ?
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1answer
55 views

By how much does the temperature of a cool Cola can increase by condensation of the ambient moisture on its surface?

Assuming standard ambient temperature and pressure, how can we estimate the increase in the temperature of a typical, cool beverage can produced by the condensation of ambient moisture on its surface? ...
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0answers
44 views

Thermodynamics Heat and Work [closed]

Q: A piston cylinder is filled with 6kg of saturated vapor steam at 200∘200∘C. The cylinder is heated further until the volume is doubled. Determine the work done by the piston and the heat added to ...
2
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1answer
90 views

Two conflicting forms of equation of state of non-relativistic gas

I've run into two conflicting derivations of the equation of state of a non-relativistic gas. However, the derivations of the relativistic equation of state of both sources agree. I think maybe the ...
3
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1answer
49 views

The exact mechanism of energy release durning bond formation on the atomic level

Image a situation: We have two atomic hydrogen atoms. We magically collide them together dead center and perpendicular. Each atom has exact amount of kinetic energy. We collide them with precisely ...
3
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4answers
312 views

Can we have air flow without air noise?

I want to have air flow in my room, but I don't want a fan to move the air because of the air noise. I think the noise comes from all air molecules going to the same direction. If I can move the air ...
4
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2answers
57 views

Boltzmann factor and ratio of number of states

When using Boltzmann factor for two states, we see that $$N_1/N_2 = \exp\left(\frac{h\omega}{k_BT}\right)\;.$$ Where $N_1$ is the number of atoms in state with lower energy $E_1$ than atoms in state $...
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0answers
44 views

Mixed Gas Absorbtion

Consider a gas misture that contains two type of atom, A and B. The gas is in equilibrium at temperature $T$. If on the surface of the gas container there are M sites that can absorb an atom gas, and ...