Phonons are the quantum of lattice vibrations in crystals and are not to be confused with photons, the gauge bosons of the electromagnetic force. Apparently, they contribute to heat conduction, but I ...
I am reading a paper ("Tunable Electrical Conductivity of Individual Graphene Oxide Sheets Reduced at 'Low' Temperatures," Jung, et al. Nano Lett. 2008, 8, 4283-4287) about electrical conductivity in ...