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2
votes
2answers
172 views

How would one show that a nonabelian field strength tensor transforms in a certain way under a local gauge transformation?

How would one show that the nonabelian ${F_{\mu\nu}}$ field strength tensor transforms as ${F_{\mu\nu}\to F_{\mu\nu}^{\prime}=UF_{\mu\nu}U^{-1}}$ under a local gauge transformation? Rather than going ...
1
vote
2answers
242 views

How do you show from the index notation that the change of frame formula for a metric must involve the transpose?

Let $x^\mu$ and $x^{'\mu}$ be two coordinate systems related by $$dx^{'\mu}~=~S^\mu{}_\nu~ dx^\mu.$$ In index notation the metric in both systems are related by: ...
1
vote
1answer
210 views

Weyl & Riemann curvature tensors and gravitational “physical” quantities in Einstein vacuum equations

If we look at the Einstein vacuum equations, that is without matter (there is the possibility or curvature without matter), for instance we may consider gravitational waves. The question is: Is there ...
1
vote
1answer
105 views

S. Weinberg, “The Quantum theory of fields: Foundations” (1995), Eq. 2.4.8

Unfortunately I'm struggling to understand how do we get eq. (2.4.8) from eq. (2.4.7), p. 60; namely how $(\Lambda \omega \Lambda^{-1} a)_\mu P^\mu$ is transformed into ...
3
votes
1answer
106 views

Type/Valence of the stress tensor

In classical continuum mechanics, the stress tensor is said to be of type/valence (1,1) and I do not see why. If I am correct, its maps a vector $n$ defined in $\mathbb{R}^3$ (which is the normal to ...
10
votes
2answers
447 views

Introduction to spinors in physics, and their relation to representations

First, I shall say that I am familiar with the intuitive idea that a spinor is like a vector (or tensor) that only transforms "up to a sign" when acted on by the rotation group. I have even rotated a ...
1
vote
1answer
291 views

Interpretation of the off-diagonal terms of the conductivity tensor

Say we have the electrical conductivity tensor expressed as a 3x3 matrix. I've seen that if it's cubic material then the conductivity tensor reduces to just the diagonal terms and these are equal, ...
1
vote
0answers
235 views

Eigenvalues of the square of Pauli-Lubanski operator

Let's have Pauli-Lunanski 4-operator: $$ \hat {W}^{\nu} = \frac{1}{2}\varepsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta \gamma}\hat {J}_{\alpha \beta}\hat {P}_{\gamma}, $$ which easy transforms to $$ \hat {W}^{\nu} = ...
-1
votes
1answer
220 views

Metric tensor in General Relativity or otherwise [closed]

What is the metric tensor? How can this be a covariant and contravariant tensor, or a mixed tensor, by raising and lowering indices? How it relates to distance function (metric) and angles? How ...
18
votes
6answers
832 views

Tensor Operators

Motivation. I was recently reviewing the section 3.10 in Sakurai's quantum mechanics in which he discusses tensor operators, and I was left desiring a more mathematically general/precise discussion. ...
2
votes
2answers
141 views

Tensors in general relativity

This is a question on the nitty-gritty bits of general relativity. Would anybody mind teaching me how to work these indices? Definitions: Throughout the following, repeated indices are to be summed ...
4
votes
2answers
389 views

Irreducible Representations of SO(n) tensors

My interest is purely in $\text{SO}(n)$ tensors and how one works out their irrep decomposition. For instance, for rank 2 tensors we simply split into an antisymmetric part, a traceless symmetric part ...
4
votes
1answer
340 views

Irreducible decomposition of higher order tensors

I am familiar with the notion of irreps. My question refers simply to tensor representations (not tensor products of representations) and how can we decompose them into irreducible parts? For example, ...
2
votes
0answers
345 views

The connection between classical and quantum spins

I have two questions, which are connected with each other. The first question. In a classical relativistic (SRT) case for one particle can be defined (in a reason of "antisymmetric" nature of ...
3
votes
2answers
318 views

Tensor Product of Hilbert spaces

This question is regarding a definition of Tensor product of Hilbert spaces that I found in Wald's book on QFT in curved space time. Let's first get some notation straight. Let $(V,+,*)$ denote a set ...
-1
votes
2answers
2k views

Center of a mass of a hemisphere [closed]

How can I show that position vector of the center of a mass of a hemisphere is $(0,0,\frac{3a}{8})$ where $a$ is radius of a hemisphere, $x$ and $y$ axis are laying on the base and $z$-axis is ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Why is it suffice to show Tensorial identity on a tensor composed of two vectors?

I've encounter many proves of Tensorail identity that begin with assuming our tensor can be written in form of: $T^{\alpha\beta}=u^{\alpha}v^{\beta}$ . As helpful is it might be, I'm not sure if its ...
0
votes
1answer
181 views

Symmetry of stress-energy tensor

Why in the general case of classical field theory canonical stress-energy tensor doesn't have symmetry of the permutation of the indices? For explanation, let's have a "derivation" of an expression ...
13
votes
1answer
436 views

What are the local covariant tensors one can form from the metric?

Normally in differential geometry, we assume that the only way to produce a tensorial quantity by differentiation is to (1) start with a tensor, and then (2) apply a covariant derivative (not a plain ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

General expression of the redshift: explanation?

In some papers, authors put the following formula for the cosmological redshift $z$ : $1+z=\frac{\left(g_{\mu\nu}k^{\mu}u^{\nu}\right)_{S}}{\left(g_{\mu\nu}k^{\mu}u^{\nu}\right)_{O}}$ where : $S$ ...
1
vote
1answer
271 views

Electromagnetic Tensor in Cylindrical Coordinates

I understand that the Electromagnetic Tensor is given by $$F^{\mu\nu}\mapsto\begin{pmatrix}0 & -E_{x} & -E_{y} & -E_{z}\\ E_{x} & 0 & -B_{z} & B_{y}\\ E_{y} & B_{z} & ...
5
votes
5answers
246 views

Tensors and rotations

All the tensors that I have studied so far have always appeared with some kind of rotation. For example, spherical tensors rotate as spherical harmonics, tensors in the context of special relativity ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the physical significance of the off-diagonal moment of inertia matrix elements?

The tensor of moment of inertia contains six off-diagonal matrix elements, which vanishes if we choose the principle axis of the rotating rigid body and the components of the angular momentum vector ...
4
votes
1answer
289 views

Tensor equations in General Relativity

In the context of general relativity it is often stated that one of the main purposes of tensors is that of making equations frame-independent. Question: why is this true? I'm looking for a ...
1
vote
1answer
242 views

Arbitrary tensor covariant derivative

what are the rules for performing covariant derivatives on tensors of arbitrary rank? I found a few examples of Tensor derivatives: $$\nabla_{c} T^a {}_{b} = \partial_{c}T^a {}_{b}+ \Gamma^a{}_{cd} ...
3
votes
0answers
122 views

Curvature and spacetime

Suppose that it is given that the Riemann curvature tensor in a special kind of spacetime of dimension $d\geq2$ can be written as $$R_{abcd}=k(x^a)(g_{ac}g_{bd}-g_{ad}g_{bc})$$ where $x^a$ is a ...
0
votes
1answer
107 views

Why elastic materials are discribed by tensors?

I am starting to read about elasticity of thin surfaces and I don't understand why tensors play such a major part? What are the tensors describing about the material? And just to clarify - Is there ...
1
vote
1answer
296 views

What is the Lorentz tensor with a superscript and subscript index?

I have been reading about symmetries of systems' actions, e.g. the Polyakov action, and I have encountered Lorentz transformations of the form: $\Lambda^{\mu}_{\nu} X^{\nu}$. I am moderately familiar ...
5
votes
1answer
279 views

When a variation of a tensor is not a tensor?

In a comment about variation of metric tensor it was shown that $$\delta g_{\mu\nu}=-g_{\mu\rho}g_{\nu\,\sigma}\delta g^{\rho\,\sigma}$$ which is contrary to the usual rule of lowering indeces of a ...
2
votes
0answers
146 views

Solving the equation of relativistic motion

How does one solve the tensor differential equation for the relativistic motion of a partilcle of charge $e$ and mass $m$, with 4-momentum $p^a$ and electromagnetic field tensor $F_{ab}$ of a constant ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Stress energy tensor of a perfect fluid and four-velocity

In the following demonstration, there is an error, but I cannot find where. (I explicitely put the $c^2$ to keep track of units). We consider a metric $g_{\mu\nu}$ with a signature $(-, +, +, +)$ : ...
3
votes
1answer
198 views

Sign crazyness on the stress energy tensor?

I would like to know on what depends the sign of the stress energy tensor in the following formula : $T_{\mu\nu}=\pm(\rho c^2+P)u_{\mu}u_{\nu} \pm P g_{\mu\nu}$ In my case the metric is equal to ...
2
votes
0answers
125 views

Lecture Notes confusion: Constructing the Einstein Equation

This question is on the construction of the Einstein Field Equation. In my notes, it is said that The most general form of the Ricci tensor $R_{ab}$ is $$R_{ab}=AT_{ab}+Bg_{ab}+CRg_{ab}$$ ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Zero-zero (lower indicies) term for affine connection ($\Gamma_{00}^\lambda$), why do some terms dissapear?

More simply a tensor algebra question, but in General relativity I have the following when I calculate $\Gamma_{00}^\lambda$:- $$ \Gamma_{00}^\lambda = \frac{1}{2}g^{\nu\lambda}\left( \frac{\partial ...
2
votes
1answer
448 views

Ricci identity/Riemann curvature tensor and covectors

Can somebody please explain to me how the following statement is true? The Riemann curvature tensor $R^c_{dab}$ is given by the Ricci identity $$(\nabla_a\nabla_b-\nabla_b\nabla_a)V^c\equiv ...
2
votes
1answer
264 views

Contracting the Riemann tensor issues, p540 hobson

I am stuck trying to work through something on p540 in Hobson (General Relativity: An Introduction for Physicists), one is supposed to use the variation of the full Riemann tensor and then contract it ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Non-diagonal elements when switching metric signature?

Considering a metric tensor with the signature $(-,+,+,+)$: $g_{\mu\nu}= \begin{pmatrix} -c^2 & g_{01} & g_{02} & g_{03}\\ g_{10} & a^2 & g_{12} & g_{13}\\ g_{20} & g_{21} ...
1
vote
1answer
158 views

Derivative of covariant EM tensor

I cannot seem to prove that the derivative of the duel tensor = 0. $$ \frac{1}{2}\partial_{\alpha}\epsilon^{\alpha \beta \gamma \delta} F_{\gamma \delta} = 0. $$ Writing this out I get (for some ...
0
votes
1answer
137 views

Tensor manipulation

Having a bit of trouble applying what I know about tensor manipulation, given, $T^{\mu \nu} = \left( g^{\mu \nu} - \frac{p^\mu n^\nu + p^\nu n^\mu}{p \cdot n} \right)$, I need to compute quantities ...
0
votes
2answers
110 views

A tensor summation question

With the definition of the tensor \begin{equation} J_{ij} = I_{ij} - \tfrac{1}{3}\delta_{ij}I^{k}_{k}. \end{equation} I have seen the quantity \begin{equation} J_{ij}J_{ij} \end{equation} written as ...
2
votes
2answers
142 views

When does $T^{ij} = T_{ij}$?

Suppose we have some tensor with components $T^{ij}$. Then suppose that we also have $T_{ij}$. When would $T^{ij}T_{ij} = (T^{ij})^2 = (T_{ij})^2$?
2
votes
1answer
80 views

Tensor perturbation inflation

During inflation the metric is de-Sitter so $dt^2-d\underline{X}^2 $. I know that the eqn.motion governing GW's from inflation (tensor perturbations) is $$2H\dot{h}+\ddot{h}-\nabla^{2}_{i}h~=~0,$$ ...
1
vote
0answers
119 views

Einstein +Maxwell 's tensor

Why is it true that we can deduce that Einstein's GR equations coupled with Maxwell's EM equations may be written in the form $$R_{ij}=C(F_{ik}F_j^{\,\,k}-{1\over 4}g_{ij}F_{mn}F^{mn})$$ without ...
2
votes
3answers
854 views

Maxwell Stress Tensor in the absence of a magnetic field

I'm having some trouble calculating the stress tensor in the case of a static electric field without a magnetic field. Following the derivation on Wikipedia, Start with Lorentz force: $$\mathbf{F} = ...
1
vote
1answer
172 views

Relationship between a formal vector derivative and time evolution of an operator

I'm an undergraduate in physics, with all the lack of knowledge inherent in that. In two of my classes, my professors introduced two equations which look eerily similar. The first, from general ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

Two General Relativity questions

Hi When contracting $T^{\mu \nu}$ with $ g_{\mu \nu}$ does one get $T^{\mu \nu}_{\mu \nu} = T$? is the metric tensor already a sum over its component, so it is effectively a trace of a matrix with ...
7
votes
3answers
282 views

Is “entanglement” unique to quantum systems?

My text shows (sections 0.2 and 0.3) that the joint "state space" of a system composed of two subsystems with $k$ and $l$ "bits of information", respectively, requires $kl$ bits to fully describe it. ...
1
vote
0answers
70 views

Equivalence of simple formulations of qubit entanglement

I'm reading some very elementary treatments of quantum computation and am unsure about the correspondence among "definitions" of qubit entanglement. One definition states that (1) the bits of a ...
4
votes
1answer
217 views

Do partial derivatives commute on tensors?

For example; is $$\partial_{\rho}\partial_{\sigma}h_{\mu\nu} - \partial_{\sigma}\partial_{\rho}h_{\mu\nu}=0$$ correct?
1
vote
1answer
270 views

Calculating electromagnetic invariant in matrix form

I'm kind of confused. I want to calculate the electromagnetic invariant $I := F^{\mu\nu}F_{\mu\nu} $, but I'm not sure what is the easiest way to do so. So, I was trying to do it in matrix form, i.e. ...