It's the physical property that indicates the degree/intensity of heat present in a substance or an object. It can be expressed and measured according to various scales.

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Temperature dependent chemical potential

Chemical potential is determined by the number of electrons in the system and coincides with the Fermi energy at zero temperature. The chemical potential can shift as temperature changes if the ...
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How did my candle wax crawl up the sides of the jar?

I have an Ikea candle which has sat on my bookshelf in the sun for >5 years. Aside from an hour or two shortly after I bought the candle, I have not burned the candle regularly (in fact, the wick is ...
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75 views

Why thermal conductivity increases with temperature?

what is the molecular mechanism with which thermal conductivity increases by increasing temperature? at least for metals? I know that heat increases the oscillations of the atoms in the crystal. But ...
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645 views

Cooling down to absolute zero by radiation

Consider a system consisting of a gas, it is put in a container which is permits transmission of all kinds of electromagnetic waves. If this system is isolated and put in a perfect vacuum, and left ...
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68 views

Can we determine the surface temperature of stars other than the sun by using the black body radiation theory?

It is well known that the surface temperature of the sun can be determined by fitting the solar spectrum to the black body radiation spectrum. Is this scheme feasible for other stars? Possibly the ...
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92 views

Heat distribution in a long cylindrical electrical resistive element

I want to know what the maximum temperature will be within a heating element. Quite a few assumptions can be made, such as constant thermal conductivity, constant electrical resistivity, and assume ...
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1answer
152 views

Do solids have translational energy?

Along with having vibrational energy, do both crystalline and amorphous solids also have translational energy? I ask because I've always understood solids to have just vibrational motion/energy. But ...
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1answer
55 views

How cold does this ice have to be to freeze this water bottle solid?

We are at sea level in a room that is 21 celsius. We have 1 liter of sterile water with a temperature of 21 celsius in a normal plastic bottle. We have a 20 liter bucket of ice cubes, consisting of ...
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2answers
67 views

How much faster are airmolecules going when the temperature raise from 15 to 25 degrees C?

As far as I know the temperature of the air depends on how fast the airmolecules are moving. But what is the increase of speed (in km/h) of those air molecules?
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112 views

Will most solid state of something also be the coldest? [closed]

It is said that when something is cold its molecules have low kinetic energy, how is that different from something in a solid state. ... The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at ...
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2answers
65 views

Blocks releasing heat energy [closed]

If you had two blocks, two different sizes yet the same temperature. Which one would release the most energy in the shortest amount of time and why?
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1answer
7k views

What is the lowest possible theoretical temperature that nuclear fusion can occur at?

I am not talking about the pseudo-science of so called cold fusion I am interested in what temperature you can get away with to produce fusion reaction. I was thinking in terms of micro-fusion or at ...
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1answer
50 views

what is temperature coefficient of resonant frequency?

I am trying to find the definition for temperature coefficient of resonant frequency, (TCF), but it seems like there is well-defined information about this term. Even for articles in google scholar....
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1answer
54 views

What is the direction of buoyancy in the bulk of liquid on earth?

I have a trouble when considering the direction of buoyancy in the bulk of liquid subjected to vertical temperature gradient. The liquid is heated from below or above that induces a natural convection ...
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1answer
92 views

Why do I spill lesser water if it's hotter?

If I pour water in a glass to make a cup of tea, I noticed that if the water that comes out of the kettle is very hot, almost no water is spilled. If the water is cold though, much more water is ...
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2answers
240 views

How to calculate precipitation chance with basic weather data?

I would like to know if there is any algorithm which allows us to calulate precipation chance with following data: temperature, humidity, illuminance (in lux) and pressure. I've searched it in google, ...
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40 views

Estimate heating wires temperature

Im design a power supply to work with heating wires and one of the task is to estimate the temperature of the bare wire for a given current or power consumption. I've tried to measure the ...
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1answer
70 views

Temperature of a trapped particle

How is the temperature of the center of mass of a trapped particle (e.g. in a Paul or Penning trap with laser cooling) defined? I assume it has something to do with the equipartition theorem and ...
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30 views

Normalizing temperature data of CPU sensors to ambient

My scenario: I want my application to stop or take some decision based on temperature. say like if my ambient is morethan 41 i want to switch off the application and we do not have an separate ...
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3answers
132 views

Does entropy always increase with temperature? [duplicate]

For any system can we always say that entropy increases with temperature. In other words: $$\left(\frac{\partial S}{\partial T} \right)_{\{\alpha\}}\ge0$$ where $\{\alpha\}$ is the set of parameters ...
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1answer
39 views

Thermodynamics: efficiency of a heat engine [closed]

How can we calculate efficiency of a real heat engine? Do we have to consider volume of an object while calculating efficiency? Like in this question If so, how we have to proceed? Thanks in ...
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1answer
50 views

Can a High Enough Temperature Create a Black Hole?

My very basic understanding of GR leads me to think that if a substance has a high enough temperature, it can transform into a black hole without a mass required to create a black hole. The equation ...
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1answer
36 views

How do I find the temperature of an object being heated on one side and cooled on the other [closed]

Ok so i'm trying to figure out what temperature a beam would be when one end is put into the ground and the other side is in the open air above. Assuming the beam is perfectly insulated besides the ...
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0answers
16 views

How to calculate heat emitted and the range

If I have a source of heat and I know it's surface temperature and size (suppose there are no barriers, only vacuum) can I then calculate the length to which the heat will be felt, and create a graph ...
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How could I calculate the Heat Index with low humidity?

The formula shown in the Heat Index(HI) requires that the relative humidity should be equal to or greater than 40%, so how to calculate the heat index when the humidity is less than 40%? Or is there ...
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0answers
38 views

Is it possible for dark energy density be decreasing? [closed]

I have an equation relating dark energy density and temperature, actually they have a linear relationship, my question is how to choose the temperature? If I choose the temperature of universe, the ...
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3answers
58 views

Why do Temperatures Equalize

I have some Oxygen at Temp A in one container and some Nitrogen at Temp B in another container. If I mix these two containers eventually both the Oxygen and Nitrogen will be at the same temperature. ...
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6answers
67 views

The Kelvin-Celsius problem

Let's suppose we have temperatures 30°C and 35°C. Converting them to Kelvin we have 303.15K and 308.15K. In the second case, the temperature difference is 5K. While in first case, temperature ...
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42 views

A 50 g Ice Cube with an initial temperature of -10°C is put in 400 g of water at 40°C. Find final temperature [closed]

My calculations: $$Q_g + Q_l = 0$$ $$Q_g = -Q_l$$ $$mc\Delta T = -mc\Delta T$$ $$(0.05)(2100)(T_f+10) = -(0.4)(4200)(T_f-40)$$ $$105(T_f+10) = -1680(T_f-40)$$ $$105T_f + 1050 = -1680T_f + 67,200$$ $$...
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78 views

Degrees of freedom and temperature

I quote the following lines directly from the Wikipedia page titled "Heat capacity": "...rotational kinetic energy of gas molecules stores heat energy in a way that increases heat capacity, since ...
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2answers
33 views

Diminishing solar temperature and its effects on earth

This is a hypothetical question; considering both the earth and the sun as black bodies. If the temperature of the sun decreased N times, what would be the effect on the radiation intensity received ...
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119 views

Gross “temperature” of a globular cluster

Globular clusters can be very large, which means we can do statistics about the stars in them. And that means we can try matching their star-as-particle potential/kinetic energy distribution against ...
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2answers
264 views

Can a black hole have negative temperature?

Stephen Hawking said that black hole also have temperature and it is related to its mass so in other words a black hole can also be shown to have a negative temperature! I know that nothing is colder ...
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27 views

What is the smallest practical milliKelvin temperature sensor or technique?

I need to track the temperature of a mass of less than 1 gram, and the two constraints are accuracy and mass of the attached sensor/circuitry (it must be less than 1.5g). Ideally it should be a non ...
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82 views

Does contracted spring weigh more than stretched one?

(One of examples that potential energy contributes to mass.) Does hot object weigh more than cold one? (One of examples that kinetic energy contributes to mass.) If these are true and justified by ...
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84 views

Intuitive explanation of the shape of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

At higher temperatures (for an ideal gas), the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is spread more widely and has a lower maximum. At lower temperatures, the spread is much more narrow and the peak is much ...
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4answers
452 views

Mass in special relativity?

Is the mass of a object at rest defined by $$E=mc^2$$ where $m$ is the rest mass. I.e. does the rest mass include every thing from thermal to gravitational potential energy and every other possible ...
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1answer
7k views

Mixing Water at Different Temperature

If I have cup of water at room temperature (say, $25^\circ$C). What would be the resultant temperature if I pour another cup of same amount of water at $100^\circ$C to it? Is it simply $\frac{25+100}...
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Is Moon too hot?

I find it puzzling that Moon's maximum "daily" equatorial temperature is almost 400K. Earth's theoretical black body temperature would be 279K at 1AU, and Moon is the same distance from Sun, yet its ...
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Why do electron and hole mobilities decrease with temperature?

From page 35 of "Microelectronics" by Millman Grabel Mobility $\mu$ decreases with temperature because more carriers are present and these carriers are more energetic at higher temperatures. ...
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Milk or sugar first to maximize temperature of a hot cup of tea?

If there is a hot cup of tea and we were asked to add milk and sugar, which mixing order would make the hottest tea? I personally think that the order doesn't matter, since sugar wouldn't change the ...
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1answer
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Temperature of the System right after mixing water at different temperature

Let's assume that 100gm of water at temperature 25$^{\circ}$C and another of 300gm at 90$^{\circ}$C. After mixing both samples, we would eventually get a constant temperature (say $T^{\circ}_f$) and ...
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43 views

Why does hot water gets cooler on stirring instead it should have gotten hotter

When we keep on stirring hot water vigorously it starts getting cooler. But we are increasing the random kinetic energy of the molecules of water. Heat is as it is the energy of RANDOM motion of atoms....
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2answers
650 views

How fast will 1 Liter of 65°C water get back to 20°C?

I want to make a very simple example for a PID controller (to learn and understand it). I thought of a controller for a water boiler. 1 liter of water in the boiler is in a 20°C room (fixed ...
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1answer
48 views

Newton's Law of Cooling [closed]

As shown in Figure 3.3.11, a small metal bar is placed inside container A, and container A then is placed within a much larger container B. As the metal bar cools, the ambient temperature $T_A(t)$ of ...
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Is there a limit to how hot an object can be? [duplicate]

We know that speed of physical object cant exceed speed of light, a body cant be cooler than 0k, thus does there exist a limit to hotness of an object?
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2answers
52 views

Why water's temperature is less than air?

I measured the temperature of water and found that it's less than room temperature. I think evaporation is the main reason of it. Are there any reason except evaporation for the less temperature of ...
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Heat transfer between water tank and room temperature

I have 20 gallons of water (salt water, but this might be irrelevant). These 20 gallons have a heater that maintains a minimum of 78º F. With the increasing temperatures during summer, the water ...