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2
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0answers
163 views

Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the quantum 1D XX model?

The ground states of the quantum 1D Ising and Heisenberg models exhibit spontaneous magnetization. Is this also true for the 1D XX model?
20
votes
1answer
1k views

Emergent symmetries

As we know, spontaneous symmetry breaking(SSB) is a very important concept in physics. Loosely speaking, zero temprature SSB says that the Hamiltonian of a quantum system has some symmetry, but the ...
14
votes
1answer
462 views

Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance in gauge theories

I was browsing through the hep-th arXiv and came across this article: Spontaneous Lorentz Violation in Gauge Theories. A. P. Balachandran, S. Vaidya. arXiv:1302.3406 [hep-th]. (Submitted on 14 ...
4
votes
1answer
130 views

Dimensional transmutation in Gross-Neveu vs others

Firstly I don't know how generic is dimensional transmutation and if it has any general model independent definition. Is dimensional transmutation in Gross-Neveau somehow fundamentally different ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Residual symmetries of the superposition of two fcc lattices

Fcc lattices are Bravais lattices and so are invariant under a set of discrete translations plus inversions over the 3 axis ($x\rightarrow -x$,$y\rightarrow -y$,$z\rightarrow -z$). When one superposes ...
9
votes
1answer
218 views

Chiral perturbation theory: what is the Quark Condensate? why expand in $U$ rather than Goldstone fields?

I'm studying Chiral Perturbation Theory ($\chi PT$) from Scherer's Introduction to Chiral Perturbation Theory. What I am currently having some trouble understanding are two things: The quark ...
9
votes
1answer
379 views

What is the meaning of non-compactness in the context of $U(1)$ in gauge theories?

In John Preskill's review of monopoles he states Nowadays, we have another way of understanding why electric charge is quantized. Charge is quantized if the electromagnetic U(l)em gauge group ...
3
votes
3answers
497 views

Ising Ferromagnet: Spontaneous symmetry breaking or not?

In explaining/introducing second-order phase transition using Ising system as an example, it is shown via mean-field theory that there are two magnetized phases below the critical temperature. This ...
8
votes
1answer
372 views

Dispersion of ferromagnetic ($E\propto k^2$) and antiferromagnetic ($E\propto k$) spin wave

The dispersion of ferromagnetic spin wave at low energy is $E\propto k^2$, while $E\propto k$ for antiferromagnetic case. Is there a simple/physical argument (such as symmetry) for these results? ...
3
votes
0answers
197 views

Who used the concept of symmetries first?

Who "invented" the concept of symmetries? This article is quite extensive, but it blurs the history with the modern understanding. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/symmetry-breaking/ Some of the ...
4
votes
1answer
544 views

Spontaneous symmetry breaking in SU(5) GUT?

At the end of this video lecture about grand unified theories, Prof. Susskind explains that there should be some kind of an additional Higgs mechanism at work, to break the symmetry between the ...
7
votes
2answers
397 views

Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and Witten index

Witten index, defined as ${\rm Tr}(-1)^F$, makes know if supersymmetry is spontaneously broken or not for a given model. But it is known that supersymmetry can be also broken dynamically and one can ...
6
votes
2answers
734 views

What is the role of the vacuum expectation value in symmetry breaking and the generation of mass?

Consider a theory of one complex scalar field with the following Lagrangian. $$ \mathcal{L}=\partial _\mu \phi ^*\partial ^\mu \phi +\mu ^2\phi ^*\phi -\frac{\lambda}{2}(\phi ^*\phi )^2. $$ The ...
3
votes
0answers
158 views

Higgs stability in Standard Model

I am a little unclear on what ramifications a negative quartic at high energies has on our world at low energies. (1) First of all, is it that there is a second, isolated minimum that appears at ...
7
votes
1answer
342 views

Time crystals : fake or revolution?

This article about "crystals of time" just appeared on the PRL website. Viewpoint: Crystals of Time (http://physics.aps.org/articles/v5/116) The authors (including famous Frank Wilczek) claim that ...
15
votes
2answers
2k views

Norton's dome and its equation

Norton's dome is the curve $$h(r) = -\frac{2}{3g} r ^{3/2}.$$ Where $h$ is the height and $r$ is radial arc distance along the dome. The top of the dome is at $h = 0$. Via Norton's web. If we put ...
1
vote
0answers
232 views

Breaking of conformal symmetry

I am wondering something about the breaking of conformal symmetry: I know that it can be broken at the quantum level, anomalously, but I never encountered or heard about a model where it is broken "à ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Self energy, 1PI, and tadpoles

I'm having a hard time reconciling the following discrepancy: Recall that in passing to the effective action via a Legendre transformation, we interpret the effective action $\Gamma[\phi_c]$ to be ...
5
votes
3answers
313 views

Higgs Boson: The Big Picture

First, please pardon the ignorance behind this question. I know a fair amount of math but almost no physics. I'm hoping someone can give me a brief "big picture" explanation of how physicists were ...
-3
votes
1answer
292 views

What if microstates increase proportional to universe volume? [closed]

I am probably a delusional crank with a lot of crazy, overly speculative conjectures. If I am not delusional, than at the very least I've been ahead of the curve, the last 40 or so years. I was a ...
3
votes
1answer
230 views

Does spontanous symmetry breaking affect Noethers theorem?

Does spontanous symmetry breaking affect the existence of a conserved charge? And how does depend on whether we look at a classical or a quantum field theory (e.g. the weak interacting theory)? ...
8
votes
3answers
720 views

How come a photon acts like it has mass in a superconducting field?

I've heard the Higgs mechanism explained as analogous to the reason that a photon acts like it has mass in a superconducting field. However, that's not too helpful if I don't understand the latter. ...
1
vote
2answers
187 views

Do particles gain mass only at energy levels found during the big bang?

I am trying to make sure my understanding is correct. At energies and temperatures found during the big bang (or at CERN recently), the Higgs mechanism comes into effect. When it does, there is a ...
2
votes
2answers
493 views

Effects of a non-Lorentz-invariant vacuum state

I'm here asking about real or though experiments (i.e., physical effects) where, at least in principle, one can see some consequence of a non-Lorentz-invariant vacuum state in an otherwise Poincare ...
4
votes
4answers
2k views

How does Higgs Boson get the rest mass? [duplicate]

Higgs Boson detected at LHC is massive. It has high relativistic mass means it has non-zero rest mass. Higgs Boson gives other things rest mass. But, how does it get rest mass by itself?
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Why do we need Higgs field to re-explain mass, but not charge?

We already had definition of mass based on gravitational interactions since before Higgs. It's similar to charge which is defined based on electromagnetic interactions of particles. Why did Higgs ...
-3
votes
1answer
177 views

Higgs Boson - only little over GCSE physics? [closed]

According to http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2012/jul/04/higgs-boson-discovered-live-coverage-cern, the reporter says that higgs boson things are little over GCSE physics. So, English learn a ...
-1
votes
1answer
192 views

What is Supersymmetry (SuSy)? [closed]

In particle physics, supersymmetry (often abbreviated SUSY) is a symmetry that relates elementary particles...etc. what is symmetry breaking? What is supersymmetry (SUSY)? What is spontaneous ...
4
votes
1answer
116 views

What kinds of inconsistencies would one get if one starts with Lorentz noninvariant Lagrangian of QFT?

What kinds of inconsistencies would one get if one starts with Lorentz noninvariant Lagrangian of QFT? The question is motivated by this preprint arXiv:1203.0609 by Murayama and Watanabe. Also, what ...
2
votes
1answer
413 views

Spontaneous symmetry breaking and 't Hooft and Polyakov monopoles

What is spontaneous symmetry breaking from a classical point of view. Could you give some examples, using classical systems.I am studying about the 't Hooft and Polyakov magnetic monopoles solutions, ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

Spontaneous Time Reversal Symmetry Breaking?

It is known that you can break P spontaneously--- look at any chiral molecule for an example. Spontaneous T breaking is harder for me to visualize. Is there a well known condensed matter system which ...
5
votes
1answer
237 views

What is the code distance in quantum information theory?

What is the code distance in quantum information theory? Code distance seems to be a very important concept in fault tolerant quantum computation and topological quantum computation.
30
votes
10answers
3k views

What is spontaneous symmetry breaking in QUANTUM systems?

Most descriptions of spontaneous symmetry breaking, even for spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum systems, actually only give a classical picture. According to the classical picture, spontaneous ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Can symmetry be restored in high energy scattering?

Suppose you have a field theory with a real scalar field $\phi$ and a potential term of the form $\lambda \phi^4 - \mu \phi^2$ that breaks the symmetry $\phi \to - \phi$ in the ground state. Is this ...
1
vote
0answers
125 views

What is the mean field value of a scalar field with spontaneously broken symmetry in a scattering event?

Consider you have a quantum field theory that undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking at some critical temperature. It doesn't necessarily have to be a continuous symmetry that's broken, I don't think ...
6
votes
0answers
188 views

Breaking of Lorentz invariance

Thinking about the concept of symmetry breaking led me to the following question: Let's say that I have a theory described by a Lorentz invariant Lagrangian, and the true vacuum of the theory is not ...
5
votes
1answer
222 views

Goldstone's theorem and massless modes for $\phi^4$ theory

Consider a scalar field doublet $(\phi_1, \phi_2)$ with a Mexican hat potential $$V~=~\lambda (\phi_1^2+\phi_2^2-a^2)^2.$$ When $a=0$ this is a quartic potential and the symmetry is not ...
3
votes
0answers
121 views

Polyakov action as broken symmetry effective action

I would like to ask if it is possible to regard the Polyakov action as an effective action that describes the broken symmetric phase of a more general model. Could someone draw an analogy with O(N) ...
7
votes
1answer
297 views

Where is the “true” Higgs if the LHC 125 GeV signal is rather a higher dimensional radion than a SM Higgs?

In this article, Lumo introduces and explains the idea (presented by the original authors in this paper) that the LHC signal at about 125 GeV could alternatively be interpreted as a higher ...
2
votes
1answer
113 views

Why are we forced to choose a specific value for $\pi$ field in Nambu-Goldstone phenomenon?

In the sigma-model of spontaneous symmetry breaking, we have degenerate vacuum states. But if we don't pick up a particular value of VEV, we won't have any symmetry breaking. As I read from a book, in ...
7
votes
1answer
205 views

Does measurement, quantum in particular, always increase the total entropy?

Measurement of a quantum observable (in an appropriate, old-fashioned sense) necessarily involves coupling to a system with a macroscopically large number of degrees of freedom. Entanglement with this ...
4
votes
3answers
346 views

In SUSY why does electroweak symmetry breaking only happen in the SM sector?

This is a difficult question to phrase succinctly, so I hope the title makes sense. What I want to understand is what seems like a lack of symmetry (besides SUSY-breaking) between the SM sector and ...
7
votes
1answer
220 views

Where does the hidden supersymmetric sector of the MSSM come from?

At the end of Chapter 14 of the "Supersymmetry Demystified book" from Patrick Labelle it is mentioned that to constrain the number of allowed softly SUSY breaking terms, a shadow or hidden ...
8
votes
1answer
705 views

Possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation in low dimensions

I remember having a problem (for practice preliminary exams at UC Berkeley) to prove that Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) is not possible in two dimensions (as opposed to three dimensions): For ...
2
votes
1answer
969 views

Chiral anomaly and decay of the pion

I am told that if all classical symmetries were reflected as quantum symmetries, the decay of the neutral pion $$\pi^0 ~\longrightarrow~ \gamma\gamma$$ would not happen. Why would the conservation of ...
8
votes
1answer
104 views

Which is the coupling between the photon and the SU(2)xU(1) gauginos, before symmetry breaking?

The photon field is the non chiral piece of SU(2)xU(1), independently of symmetry breaking or not, isn't it? But before symmetry breaking, each gauge boson has only a chiral gaugino as ...
9
votes
3answers
515 views

Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance

Is it possible to spontaneously break Lorentz invariance, i.e., have a Lagrangian that respects LI but a vacuum which does not? If it is possible, why isn't there even the slightest hint of the ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Experimental limits on anisotropies in the $e/m_{e}$ ratio

Currently the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron is known to 10 orders of magnitude. However, i'm curious if: Are there any experiments trying to bound the anisotropy of this ratio for different ...