Surface tension occurs due to the tendency of liquid molecules to favor their own kind. Surface tension is important in fluid multiphase systems typically at small length and velocity

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Why is surface tension positive?

My book describes surface tension as $e=dW/dA$ and work as being negative when it is done against a force. Therefore, if i increase the surface area of a liquid i am doing work on the liquid against ...
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Why do sponges work? [duplicate]

By "sponge" I mean anything used to suck up liquids from surfaces, such as kitchen towels etc. I assume capillary action is a factor, and also maybe surface area and surface energy. What are the ...
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What is the direction of surface tension?

How do we define the direction in which surface tension will act? Surface tension is a kind of hypothetical tension in which liquid molecules undergo tension force at the surface. Thus it should be a ...
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Could a hydrophobic surface increase a liquid's resistance to compression/displacement?

Imagine a quantity of an aqueous (yet slightly viscous) solution is resting on a hydrophobic surface with a contact angle around 100°. A downward force is then applied as a (repellant) surface is ...
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1answer
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triangular symmetry of surface tension configuration of small grains on water

This is freshly ground pepper on water. Why is there a triangular configuration of the water around the pepper fragment? Surely all these pepper fragments have different shapes? You can clearly see ...
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64 views

Are raindrops actually “shaped like tears” when they fall?

Raindrops are always pictured like this, people imagine they have this shape when they fall, but is this true? Doesn't this shape create too much drag? What shape do they really have? It would also be ...
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Maximum hole size to stop a fluid passing through a solid

In a previous question, the following is answered in a general sense: Assume I have a inverse cone which holds 200ml water. I am going to cut the tip of the cone to create a small hole. How to ...
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506 views

Why does a bubble take a spherical shape?

I suspect this has something to do with thermodynamics and the isoperimetric inequality and I'm interested in a mathematical derivation of this result.
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427 views

Why does surface tension of water-ethanol binary mixture decrease with increasing concentration of ethanol?

I was thinking that it must be due to weaker hydrogen bonding in ethanol than in water. But then I learnt that Raman Spectroscopy and viscosity measurements suggest that upto a certain ethanol ...
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Thermodynamic derivation of condition for equilibrium of triple line

Edit:(4/1/2016) Okay, I get how the required equation arises from force balance. All forces are acting on the same length, so the length cancels out of the equation and what we've got is essentially ...
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40 views

Surface Tension and Its Direction?

Can Anyone explain what is the direction of Surface Tension? I studied it is along the Tangential plane to the surface e considered at the location of length element considered.. And within that plane ...
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Finding surface tension of water at certain temperature and pressure

The question is: Using the Young-Laplace Equation (if applicable), find the surface tension (dynes/cm) for water at 20 degrees Celsius with 2.5 psi. Round to the nearest tenth. ...
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34 views

What causes an emulsion to be stable or unstable?

The other day I made a salad dressing based on oil and vinegar. To my understanding, there is a positive energy associated with the surface between the oil and vinegar. The most stable state is also ...
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Does it take energy to destroy the surface of a liquid jet? [closed]

Imagine we have a collision of a liquid jet with an obstacle Does it take time for the surface of the jet to be destroyed while collision?? Or it'll be destroyed immediately?
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standing waves on a cylindrical jet

as we know, there are some perturbations on a falling jet which are always present and according to their wave number and the radius of the jet, they can grow and decay over time. so, imagine a jet ...
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Plateau–Rayleigh instability according to liquids $Ca$ number

For examining whether viscosity or surface tension dominates each other effects, we can't refer to $Re$ or $We$ numbers because they just tell us about one of them ( surface tension and viscosity ). ...
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1answer
40 views

Surface energy of water [closed]

If $10^3$ small drops of water each of radius $10^{-7}\,\mathrm{m}$ combined to form one single large drop then what should be the energy ? If the surface tension is equal to $0.07\,\mathrm{N/m}$ . I ...
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1answer
31 views

Plateau–Rayleigh instability for liquids with low $Re$ number

I'm working on a project about Plateau–Rayleigh instability for liquids. But I've a question. we can examine the fluids with high $Re$ number that the influence of viscosity is negligible, but what ...
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1answer
48 views

How does surface tension explain the floating needle experiment?

Part 1: After reading some explanation in internet I understood the fact that the molecules of water on the surface have no water molecules in the outward area so it feels a net force towards the ...
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1answer
39 views

What does Low Surface Tension mean?

I have that a book that says "Low surface tension of a liquid helps it to spread over a larger area." . My question is How and Why ? When I say that a liquid A has a lower surface tension than liquid ...
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How much of the forces when entering water is related to surface tension?

When an object enters water with high velocity, (like in Why is jumping into water from high altitude fatal?), most of it's kinetic energy will be converted, eg to accelerate water, deform the object ...
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The Optics of the Vortex (in Water): why there is a bright ring also in reversed flow?

This question is closely related to this one; The optics of vortex (in water): why there is a bright ring? In this case "physics girl" gives somehow an plausible explanation, and it's only debatable ...
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1answer
46 views

What makes bathroom soap bars to crack during winter season?

Is there some relation between winter season and cracking of bathroom soaps? I noticed that , cracking happens only during winter season.I also learned earlier from physics stack that, During winter ...
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1answer
51 views

How to calculate the speed of a jet of liquid coming out of a nozzle? [closed]

I'm working on a project and i need to calculate speed of a jet falling from a nozzle. But my question is that, is it correct to use $$v=\sqrt{2gh}$$ Or should the speed of the jet be independent ...
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Why does water pouring from a glass sometimes travel down the side of the glass?

If you have a glass of water, say, three quarters full and you pour it at an angle of say, $45^{\circ}$ with respect to the the table, the water comes out of the glass and goes directly down towards ...
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2answers
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How does a rising bubble take a dome-like shape?

Since I have swam on the swim team for most of my life, I am very familiar with bubbles. I know a raindrop falling through the sky gets its shape because it is the most aerodynamic shape, but how come ...
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110 views

Is there surface tension between a solid and a liquid?

The molecules of a solid are so tightly bound together that they are fixed in position unlike in a liquid or gas where they may move freely. In that case it seems like the surface tension between the ...
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How to make glass surfaces with different hydrophobicity level?

I have a number of small glass beads (d= 2.0 mm) and I need to use a method to make the glass surface hydrophobic. How can I create glass beads with different wettability levels (i.e. various contact ...
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38 views

What is meant by the word “length” in definition of surface tension?

Surface tension is defined as the force applied per unit length. What is that "length" belonging to? I can imagine force being applied per area but not length. "It would take a force of 72 dynes to ...
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1answer
30 views

Can a wheeled vehicle remain stationary on a water surface?

There are many field examples[1] of motorized, wheeled vehicles capable of staying on the surface of water. It appears that the requirement is sufficient "reverse-pressure" against the part of the ...
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3answers
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Why sphere minimizes surface area for a given volume?

I was studying surface tension recently. Rain drops or bubbles of any kind which form are always of a spherical shape. This is because the liquid tries to minimize the surface area as the molecules ...
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1answer
38 views

Is there a conclusive correlation between viscosity and surface tension?

I'm working on a project and I need to know if the viscosity effects on the surface tension or not?
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How to measure the surface tension of a liquid in contact with air? [closed]

I've used some ways to reduce the surface tension of water in contact with air ( like adding oil or electrifying the water or .... ) but now I've a question. How can measure the surface tension of ...
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1answer
255 views

How to reduce surface tension of water?

I'm working on a project and I need to reduce the surface tension of water. I want you to tell me a way in order to reduce surface tension of water except changing the temperature.
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544 views

Distinctive properties of liquids

The molecules are closely arranged in solids, loosely arranged in liquids and are free to move in gases... But, Why are liquids (especially water) exhibiting these distinctive properties such as ...
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84 views

What exerts the force of surface tension, and what does it act on?

Let me start with the simple situation that I am familiar with. This question might be kind of long. I have just learnt that if we have an imaginary line on the surface of a loquid, the liquid on ...
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Shape of a water drop

Some years ago (1987 time frame), a mechanical engineering professor asked a question in a graduate level heat transfer class that I have never been able to solve. The questions is: "Given the ...
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1answer
5k views

How does surface tension enable insects to walk on water?

I understand that water molecules at the surface have a net inward attraction due to the lack of water molecules above them. I've been reading a bunch of articles, and they say that this inward pull ...
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1answer
512 views

Water evaporation

It is known that molecules at the surface are more strongly attached to each other (more attraction less repulsion) than those within the bulk (attraction and repulsion are balanced). This is the ...
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1answer
26 views

Does nucleation depend on the rate of change in pressure in a carbonated liquid?

Carbonated beer flowing from a keg through a short length of tubing results in large quantities of foam. Unintuitively (at least to me), increasing the length of tubing results in a less frothy drink. ...
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2answers
1k views

Water VS Soapy Water

I recently did an experiment. I have a cup of tap water, and a cup of tap water mixed with soap. I used an eyedropper to slowly drip drops of tap water onto a penny. Then I cleaned the penny, and ...
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Resources for droplets investigation

I am interested in investigating droplets mechanics. I have read some documents and journal papers related to some aspects of (water) droplets e.g. surface tension, collision with flat surfaces or ...
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How does surface tension and adhesion lead to this phenomenon?

Surface tension is the elastic tendency of liquids which makes them acquire the least surface area possible Adhesion is the tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another ...
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84 views

Magnetic Fields and Surface Tension of Water

Here's a research paper exploring the effects of a magnetic field on the surface tension of water. http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/156/1/012028/meta The conclusions were that ...
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water surface tension and buoyancy

When we put a little pin on the surface of water, it floats; is this because of surface tension or buoyancy? Can somebody also draw a force diagram for me to explain how surface tension of water ...
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1answer
85 views

Why is there a $1/2$ factor in the surface tension for a thin film?

According to Wikipedia on the surface tension of a thin film: $$ \gamma = \frac{1}{2} \frac{F}{L}$$ Where $\gamma$ is the surface tension, $L$ is the length of the movable side and $F$ is the force ...
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What are the physics principles behind “amphibious” camera lens windows?

Underwater camera housings have a window through which the lens looks. When the camera surfaces, a couple of things can happen, and I've seen both captured in the camera footage. In one case, water ...
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1answer
55 views

Why don't we include the adhesive and cohesive force while calculating rise in a capillary tube?

The contact angle of a liquid solid interface is explained by saying that the liquid surface must be perpendicular to the resultant of adhesive cohesive and gravitational forces acting on it, since it ...
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Can a “bowl” shaped liquid half-bubble be free-floating in the air?

Intent: Not looking to make-up something, I seek explanations which are possible to duplicate Description of Phenomenon: The halved side of the bubble would be horizontal to Earth's surface, and the ...
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Formation of vortices in superconductors

So I'm trying to understand how mixed state of a type II superconductor becomes the energetically favourable state. I've been through a simple approximate calculation considering a S-N boundary to ...