A class of theories that attempt to explain all existing particles (including force carriers) as vibrational modes of extended objects, such as the 1-dimensional fundamental string. PLEASE DO NOT USE THIS TAG for non-relativistic material strings, such as, e.g., a guitar string.

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1answer
36 views

p-cycles and Fluxes

I would like to ask why the existence of a non-trivial p-cycle leads to a non-trivial flux. I would say that e.g. for a five-form $F_{(5)}$ field strength , the flux is: $$\int\limits_{\mathcal{C}^{5}}...
2
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1answer
30 views

Multi-center Taub-NUT geometry and homologically nontrivial cycles

In the string theory book by Ibanez and Uranga (click here for the Google books excerpt), the four-dimensional multi-center Taub-NUT metric is written as $$ds^2 = \frac{V(\textbf{x})}{4}d\textbf{x}^2 ...
1
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0answers
16 views

Query about Ramond-Ramond fluxes associated with a Dp-brane

A paragraph in the string theory book by Ibanez and Uranga (String Theory and Particle Physics by Luis Ibáñez and Angel Uranga) has confused me. According to the book (for a screenshot of the ...
5
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2answers
58 views

Why cannot a fundamental string couple to the R-R gauge field $C_{\mu\nu}$?

People usually say that D-branes can carry R-R charges, or can couple to R-R sector gauge fields. But why a fundamental string cannot couple to a 2-form R-R sector gauge field? What's the essential ...
3
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0answers
56 views

Higgs mechanism in quantum GLSM

My question is regarding the following Gauged Linear Sigma Model (GLSM) in two dimensions. $$\tag{1} S=\int d^2x\Big(-D_{\mu}\overline{\phi} D^{\mu}\phi +\frac{D^2}{2e'^2} +D(|\phi|^2-r)\Big).$$ ...
4
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1answer
81 views

What, exactly, is a “delta function p-form” as used in the theory of branes?

In string theory, when dealing with branes, the following happens: We rewrite a worldvolume action $S = \int_{\Sigma_{p+1}} \omega^{(p+1)}$ of a $D_p$-brane as an integral over the whole $\mathbb{R}^{...
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0answers
100 views

Question on $E_8$ and twistor space [closed]

The Kahler $4$ form constructed from two-forms $\{\alpha, \beta\} \in H^2(M,\mathbb Z)$, and $M$ a $4$-manifold, is induced by $\alpha\wedge\beta$ with the map $H^2(M, \mathbb Z)\otimes H^2(M, \mathbb ...
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0answers
39 views

Confusion regarding Vacuum fluctuations, Strings & The Casimir Effect

From Wikipedia: Casimir Effect The typical example is of the two uncharged conductive plates in a vacuum, placed a few nanometers apart. In a classical description, the lack of an external field ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Enhanced D-Brane Gauge Symmetry and the string decoupling limit

Consider a system of $N_C$ $Dp$-branes (in Type IIA or Type IIB string theory, depending on whether $p$ is even or odd). In the Les Houches lectures on supersymmetric gauge theories by Berman and ...
6
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1answer
130 views

Gravitational wave and string theory

I'm new to physics and have been reading about fundamental and textbook physics text, which is the Young & Freedman University Physics (good book). I'm little skeptical towards string theory as ...
3
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0answers
42 views

Can random walks be applied to String Theory in curved space?

If we study the high temperature limit (near Hagedorn) of a string gas, most of the energy is concentrated in a single long string. If we model the string by a fixed number of rigid links of length ls ...
1
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1answer
106 views

Polyakov From Nambu-Goto Directly, for Strings?

The following derivation, for a classical relativistic point particle, of the 'Polyakov' form of the action from the 'Nambu-Goto' form of the action, without any tricks - no equations of motion or ...
2
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2answers
227 views

How to find the rank of the matrix $\frac{\partial ^2\mathcal{L}}{\partial \dot{X^\mu} \partial \dot{X^\nu} }$ for the Nambu-Goto string Lagrangian?

In this case $$\mathcal{L}~=~-T\sqrt{-\dot{X^2}X'^2+(\dot{X}\cdot X')^2}.$$ I was reading some books and papers about the constraints in the Nambu-Goto action, and all of them say something like ...
10
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1answer
332 views

Could string theory be an effective theory?

I know that many quantum field theories could be low-energy effective theories in String Theory (ST), but I've also read and heard that ST cannot itself be an effective theory. I suppose this has ...
1
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0answers
31 views

What is the origin of the five-form field in bubbling Ads geometries?

I have been reading the paper: Bubbling Ads space and the 1/2 BPS geometries[hep-th/0409174]. In the paper they look at 1/2 BPS states in the field theory which are dual to D3 branes IIB supegravity. ...
1
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1answer
44 views

What relative effects be for object with near light speed velocity in compactified dimensions?

What relative effects be for an object with near light speed velocity in compactified dimensions? Does gravity increase the same as for an object with near light speed velocity in usual spacial ...
3
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1answer
59 views

D-branes conserving only half of the supersymmetries

Concerning D-branes as BPS states from T-duality. In D-Branes by Johnson (and other sources) I find the following statement (p.196): "Only the total [supersymmetric] charge of $Q_a+\tilde{Q}_a$ of ...
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0answers
44 views

Why RR cohomology is important in string theory?

I want to know the RR cohomology in string theory or topological field theory in detail. (RR stands for Ramond Ramond). In following papers they compute the nilpotency of differential operator for RR ...
0
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1answer
61 views

Question about a formula in the book by Green, Schwarz, Witten

In chapter 7 of superstring theory, it is written $$ g\langle0;k_1|\zeta\cdot\alpha_1V_0(k_2)\zeta_3\cdot\alpha_{-1}|0;k_3\rangle=g\langle0;k_1|\zeta\cdot\alpha_1e^{k_2\cdot\alpha_{-1}} e^{-k_2\cdot\...
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3answers
99 views

Are dimensionless physical constants predicted to be rational, irrational, or transcendental numbers?

Are dimensionless physical constants predicted to be rational, irrational, or transcendental numbers? Directly measured ones are obviously unknown, but according to Wikipedia many dimensionless ...
0
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0answers
38 views

Mathematician wanting to learn cutting edge physics [duplicate]

I have interest in and wanted to learn modern physics including string theory,relativity,etc. But I'm currently a mathematics major and not a physics major, thus I'm train as a mathematician and not ...
4
votes
1answer
48 views

What kind of fields can couple naturally to a $p$-form gauge fields in a Lagrangian?

Ordinary $U(1)$ gauge fields can naturally couple to classical fields such as spin-$1/2$ fields via the Dirac Lagrangian, or to complex spin-$0$ fields via the obvious covariant derivative coupling, ...
5
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2answers
86 views

Why are CFT descriptions of String Theory inherently perturbative and how can it be circumvented?

Field theories like QED/QCD are a priori non-perturbative theories. Perturbatively you can describe them by Feynman diagrams which essentially sum over all topologies of virtual particle creation and ...
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0answers
32 views

Applying AdS-CFT to traversable wormholes? [closed]

ER=EPR recently brought up the connection between non-traversable wormholes and entanglements. What about traversable wormholes? Can we apply AdS/CFT to traversable wormholes?
3
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2answers
129 views

What is the motivation for using Calabi-Yau manifolds in string theory?

I have just begin to study Calabi-Yau compactification. Looking in many book I found that, if we start with a critical superstring theory in $D=10$, we are in search of a compact $D=6$ Calabi-Yau ...
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1answer
77 views

Is most of what everything is made from in another dimension?

If there are eleven dimensions as M-Theory asserts would that mean that the majority of what we are made from exists in the seven other dimensions?
4
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3answers
974 views

Are quantum mechanics and general relativity predictions of string theory, or were they built into the theory from the start?

Are quantum mechanics and general relativity predictions of string theory, or were they built into the theory from the start? If the former, why aren't tests of GR and QM considered simultaneous tests ...
3
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1answer
65 views

From states in string theory to differential forms

This question is probably really easy and isn't usually discussed in textbooks. So suppose when we construct states in string theory we obtain something like $\left|- \right\rangle \otimes \left|+ \...
0
votes
1answer
112 views

How can Big Bang happen without time?

I had recently watched a video and he says big bang could have happen by the slow collision rather than a fast collision. But I know that there was no time before the big bang and fast and slow are ...
3
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2answers
964 views

Path integral quantization of bosonic string theory

I was reading through my notes on the path integral quantization of bosonic string theory when a general question about path integral quantization arised to me. The widely used intuitive explanation ...
9
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1answer
273 views

What happens when two D-branes annihilate?

What happens when two D-branes annihilate? Do we get a radiation of strings?
3
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1answer
335 views

Flux compactification

How flux compactification solves the moduli space problem in string theory? Please provide some details and, if posible, an example.
0
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1answer
25 views

What artefacts of the ant on a wire analogy for string theory's curled extra dimensions are due to the analogy breaking down?

I'm trying to understand the ant on a telephone-wire analogy that's used to explain why we might not see the extra dimensions from string theory. I'm quite comfortable with Newtonian mechanics in 3D, ...
27
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4answers
10k views

Is spacetime discrete or continuous?

Is the spacetime continuous or discrete? Or better, is the 4-dimensional spacetime of general-relativity discrete or continuous? What if we consider additional dimensions like string theory ...
1
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1answer
46 views

Why supersymmetry requires either left or right movers to vanish for a $S^1$ compactification

In the chapter on Black holes in string theory (Section 11.4, page 584 near equation 11.94) in the book by Becker, Becker and Schwarz, they write [...] let us consider a single string wound $Q_1 ...
7
votes
1answer
352 views

Infinitesimal transformations for a relativistic particle

The action of a free relativistic particles can be given by $$S=\frac{1}{2}\int d\tau \left(e^{-1}(\tau)g_{\mu\nu}(X)X^\mu(\tau)X^\nu(\tau)-e(\tau)m^2\right).$$ If we then make an infinitesimal ...
9
votes
1answer
774 views

Why do we identify symmetric 2nd rank tensors with spin-2 particles in string theory?

I am going through Tong's lecture notes on String Theory and came across the following irrep decomposition (Chap 2, p.43) of the bosonic string first excited states: $$\text{traceless symmetric} \...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Boson in Superstring

I'm confused about a point. Superstring sigma model is $$ S=-\frac{T}{2}\int\mathrm{d}^2z \left[\eta^{ab}\partial_aX^\mu\partial_b X_\mu -i\bar\psi^\mu\rho^a\partial_a\psi_\mu \right], $$ of course, ...
1
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1answer
37 views

Type II Superstring and Open String

I would like to trow away some confusion I'm accumulating. Usually when superstrings are introducted (see for example Wikipedia) one says: Type I is a theory of open and closed strings, while Type ...
5
votes
1answer
133 views

Fifth force in string theory [closed]

I can't seem to get a clear description of what the "fifth force" in string theory is. What is the fifth force in string theory? What does it do? What mediates it?
0
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1answer
54 views

Membrane Theory

I'm not a physicist or educated mathematician, so please excuse me if my question is scientifically rudimentary. It concerns Membrane Theory. If all open strings are attached to the surface of the D ...
3
votes
1answer
69 views

What makes the strings (or $p$-branes) that occur in string theory vibrate?

A normal spring (for example in my ballpoint) is made of particles that interact with each other wich makes the string vibrate with a frequency that depends on the material (the particles). Now a ...
2
votes
0answers
100 views

Shouldn't there be 6 fundamental forces? [closed]

I'm listening to Leonard Susskind's The Black Hole War. In it he states (paraphrased) that a string wrapped around a compact dimension once imparts one unit of charge. Wrapped one way, it's a ...
1
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2answers
757 views

How exactly do superstrings reduce the number of dimensions in bosonic string theory from 26 to 10 and remove the tachyons?

In bosonic string theory, to obtain the photon as the first excited state, the ground state must have a negative mass (tachyon). By applying $1 + 2 + 3 + \cdots = -1/12$, it can be shown (in a ...
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0answers
76 views

CFT: from States to Operators

I'm having trouble finding the general algorithm for moving from states to operators under the state-operator correspondence in a CFT. Does anyone have any hints as to how one might go about ...
3
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0answers
76 views

Does Type IIB string theory feature D(-1) and D9 branes?

I'm slightly confused as to how one deduces the D-brane content of a string theory by studying the p-form fields in the effective field theory. In type IIB supergravity one has: The Kalb-Ramond 2-...
7
votes
1answer
178 views

Relations between diffeomorphism symmetry theories and invariant $SU(N), N \rightarrow \infty$ theories

Is it possible to have, an exhaustive panorama (as much as possible), about the relations between theories having a diffeomorphism symmetry, and theories having a $SU(N), N\rightarrow\infty$ ...
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0answers
16 views

Explanation of two slit experiment [duplicate]

Whilst going through 'a brief history of time' ,I faced difficulty in understanding the two slit experiment. How can individual electrons cause fringes?
1
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0answers
27 views

Is there any known dynamical process to obtain supertubes?

I'm looking for a dynamical process to produce supertubes. For example, microstates of the D1-D5 black hole system can be understood as supertubes. See, for example, http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/...
1
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0answers
18 views

Ask help for calculation from Veneziano amplitude to expansion at small $s$? [closed]

The Veneziano amplitude \begin{eqnarray} A_{ven}(s,t)={\Gamma(-\alpha_0-\alpha^\prime s)\Gamma(-\alpha_0-\alpha^\prime t)\over \Gamma(-2\alpha_0-\alpha^\prime (s+t))}, \end{eqnarray} as claimed in ...