A class of theories that attempt to explain all existing particles (including force carriers) as vibrational modes of extended objects, such as the 1-dimensional fundamental string. PLEASE DO NOT USE THIS TAG for non-relativistic material strings, such as, e.g., a guitar string.

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Identity of Operator Product Expansion (OPE)

I have one more s****d question in Polchinski's string theory book, Eqs. (2.3.14a) $$ j^{\mu}(z) :e^{ik \cdot X(0,0)}:~ \sim~ \frac{k^{\mu}}{2 z} :e^{ik \cdot X(0,0)}:,$$ where $j^{\mu}_a ...
4
votes
3answers
231 views

Identify the coefficients of Operator Product Expansion (OPE)

Sorry I have a stupid question in Polchinski's string theory book vol 1, p46. For a holomorphic function $T(z)$ with a general operator $\mathcal{A}$, there is a Laurent expansion $$T(z) A(0,0) \sim ...
5
votes
1answer
147 views

A question about conformal transformation in Polchinski's string theory

I have one more stupid question in Polchinski's string theory book. P. 46, it is said It is convenient to take a basis of local operators that are eigenstates under rigid transformation (2.4.9) ...
1
vote
0answers
149 views

How to prove Eq. (2.4.5) in Polchinski's string theory book?

I got one more stupid question in Polchinski's string theory book. In p. 44, it is said The currents $$j(z)=i v(z) T(z), \tilde{j}(\bar{z}) = i v(z)^* \tilde{T}(\bar{z}) \tag{2.4.5}$$ are ...
3
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0answers
567 views

Is Electromagnetic Mass Possible?

If the sinusoidal electric component of a light wave were off-set to one side of the magnetic component and then the smaller "lobe" were to cancel out with much of the larger side, then where would ...
3
votes
1answer
262 views

How to derive Eq. (2.1.24) in Polchinski's string theory book

Excuse me, I got one more stupid question in Polchinski's string theory book :( $$\partial \bar{\partial} \ln |z|^2 = 2 \pi \delta^2 (z,\bar{z}) (1) $$ I shall check this equation by integrating both ...
5
votes
1answer
373 views

Divergence theorem in complex coordinates

This question is related to Stokes' theorem in complex coordinates (CFT) but, I still don't understand :( Namely how to prove the divergence theorem in complex coordinate in Eq (2.1.9) in ...
3
votes
1answer
348 views

Some questions about the free Fermionic partition function on a circle (Ginsparg's CFT lectures)

The following questions are based on these lectures, http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/9108028 I would like to know what is the relationship between the last equation on page 82 ($(L_0)_{cyl} = L_0 - ...
8
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1answer
137 views

About the stability of the ground state of the bosonic string

In Polchinski's string theory vol 1, p. 23, it is said "It is a complicated question whether the bosonic string has any stable vacuum, and the answer is not known." The book was published on 1998. ...
6
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1answer
211 views

How exactly are Calabi-Yau compactifications done?

To compactify 2 open dimensions to a torus, the method of identification written down for this example as $$ (x,y) \sim (x+2\pi R,y) $$ $$ (x,y) \sim (x, y+2\pi R) $$ can be applied. What are the ...
2
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1answer
118 views

Where does $p^i/p^+$ come from in the EOM of an open string?

I have a stupid question about Eq. (1.3.22) in Polchinski's string theory volume 1. In the equation of motion for an open string, Eq. (1.3.22), $$X^i (\tau, \sigma) = x^i + \frac{ p^i}{p^+} \tau + ...
6
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0answers
215 views

Poincare recurrence and the multiverse

In this paper Susskind claims that a stable de Sitter universe is problematic (among other things) due to the existence of Poincare recurrence, which happen because of finite entropy. I disagree that ...
3
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1answer
80 views

IIA and IIB Compact on 8D

How can compactifying IIA (non-Chiral) and IIB (Chiral) Superstring on $T^2$ (2-torus) gives rise to ($2$ dual descriptions of) the same $\mathcal N = 2$ supergravity in $8$ dimensions? I don't see ...
17
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5answers
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String Theory and Standard Model in CERN

I don't know how to say it, but in the TV dominatrices and the popular science books we see the string theory as "the best theory to explain everything", and as "the only game in town"... etc. And ...
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1answer
217 views

String theory and the SM spectrum [closed]

Long ago, I realized this: (super)string theory can NOT give a well-defined/unique prediction of why the electron (muon, tau) or the neutrino (any flavor) masses have the masses we measure. String ...
12
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1answer
2k views

What is the relationship between string theory and quantum field theory?

Please forgive a string theory novice asking a basic question. Over at this question Luboš Motl gave an excellent answer, but he made a side comment that I've heard before and really would want to ...
3
votes
1answer
359 views

Deriving the transformation under Weyl rescaling in Polchinski eq. (1.2.31)

I have another question in Polchinski's string theory book volume 1, namely how to derive Eq. (1.2.32)? $$(-\gamma')^{1/2} R'=(-\gamma)^{1/2} (R-2 \nabla^2 \omega) \tag{1.2.32}$$ I have awared his ...
2
votes
1answer
139 views

Weyl symmetry and Polyakov action

I have a question in reading Polchinski's string theory volume 1. p12-p13 Given the Polyakov action $S_P[X,\gamma]= - \frac{1}{4 \pi \alpha'} \int_M d \tau d \sigma (-\gamma)^{1/2} \gamma^{ab} ...
2
votes
1answer
187 views

How to derive Eq. (1.2.17) in Polchinski?

I have a super stupid question about deriving Eq. (1.2.17) in Polchinski's string theory, vol 1. The book seems to derive from $$\tag{1.2.16} h_{ab}=\frac{1}{2} \gamma_{ab} \gamma^{cd} h_{cd} $$ ...
8
votes
1answer
520 views

Why does tachyon arise in bosonic string theory?

I am looking for precise mathematical and physical reasons which cause the presence of tachyon in bosonic string theory(specially closed bosonic string theory). Has it to do with the specific form of ...
6
votes
2answers
538 views

The General Relativity from String Theory Point of View [duplicate]

I have a hard time understand the statement that When you only look at the classical limit or classical physics, string theory exactly agrees with general relativity Because from what I know, ...
12
votes
2answers
694 views

Why can the Euler beta function be interpreted as a scattering amplitude?

The Wikipedia article on the Veneziano Amplitude claims that the Euler beta function can be interpretted as a scattering amplitude. Why is this? In another word, when the Euler beta function is ...
8
votes
1answer
691 views

Is String Theory proven to be finite?

I read Lee Smolin's book "The trouble with physics" and the book says that the finiteness of string theory ( or string pertubative theory) is by no means a proven mathematical fact, despite that the ...
2
votes
0answers
69 views

boundary conditions Faddeev-Popov ghosts bosonic string

I have a question concerning the Faddeev-Popov ghost boundary conditions in the path integral quantization of bosonic strings. My ghost action is: $S_g= - \frac{i}{2\pi} \int d^2 \xi \sqrt{-h} \; ...
6
votes
1answer
154 views

Decomposition of Representation Multiplication

How can the multiplication of spinor representations (of $SO(8)$) $8_+ \otimes 8_-$ be decomposed into $8_v \oplus 56_v$? Where can I read more about the decomposition rule of different ...
6
votes
1answer
377 views

Energy-momentum tensor of Bosonic Ghost Action in String Theory

When quantizing bosonic string theory by means of the path integral, one inverts the Faddeev-Popov determinant by going to Grassmann variables, yielding: $$ S_{\mathrm{ghosts}} = ...
3
votes
0answers
141 views

What is the physical meaning of equivalence of 1st and 2nd quantization formalism?

Ref (Superstring theory (Green, Schwarz, Witten)) Take an $n$ dimensional euclidean space-time $x_0,x_1...x_{n -1}$, a relativist real scalar field, with a propagator $G_E(x,y)$. The propagator ...
5
votes
2answers
230 views

Dilaton in Background Field

How can one show that the action of dilaton in the String Background Fields must be of the form: $ S_\Phi = \frac1{4\pi} \int d^2 \sigma \sqrt{h} R(h) \Phi(X) $? Thank you.
2
votes
1answer
126 views

Background Fields in String Theory

In "String theory and M-theory" (K. Becker, M. Becker and H.Schwarz) page 81, they said that among the background fields, the fields associated with massless bosonic fields are especially significant. ...
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votes
2answers
647 views

Since when were Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) and Einstein-Cartan (EC) theories experimentally proven?

Can this template at Wikipedia be true? It seems to suggest that Einstein-Cartan theory, Gauge theory gravity, Teleparalleism and Euclidean Quantum Gravity are fully compatible with observation! It ...
4
votes
1answer
353 views

What is on the AdS side in AdS/CFT supergravity or string theory?

What really is on the AdS side in AdS/CFT, does it always have to be string theory or is sometimes supergravity "enough" or better suited to do calculations? From the answers to my earlier question, ...
4
votes
1answer
183 views

Time-ordered Derivative and Equal-time Commutator

In Green, Schwarz & Witten Superstring theory, Vol. I, page 141, I don't understand how pulling the derivative inside the Time-ordered product can give an Equal-time Commutator: $$\tag{3.2.44} ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

What is the effect of the compact extra dimensions of the heterotic theories?

The five super-string theories are generally said to be 10-dimensional. However the Heterotic theories combine a bosonic left mover (which lives in 26 dimensions) with a super right mover (which lives ...
5
votes
1answer
374 views

M(atrix) theory and things other than D0-branes? And is it non-peturbative M-theory or non-peturbative Type IIA theory?

When I first read the BFSS Paper on M(atrix)-theory, I was under the impression that it was a non-peturbative formulation of M-theory. But recently, upon reading this paper of Nathan Seiberg's, I ...
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votes
1answer
214 views

Is there a heuristic explanation for the derivation of Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle from String Theory?

Heisenberg famously derived his uncertainty principle by considering the disturbance that a measurement would have on a small enough system. Of course in the mathematical formalism of Quantum ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Powercounting in String Frame?

if I consider the low energy effective action of type IIB string theory in the string frame, i.e. with an $e^\phi$ prefactor, is it possible to do standard powercounting with this action? I.e. how do ...
3
votes
1answer
86 views

Must string models that describe 4d effective field theories always have D-branes that extend in the 4 non-compact spacetime dimensions?

In string theory the D-branes give those directions that the strings are allowed to move along. The string excitations give the fields that we detect. Is it correct to think of a particle propagating ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Cosmology and TOE

I have read an answer on this site regarding the change of laws over time . However a physisct told me that the laws did evolve at planck era and then stopped evolving after it , is that true even in ...
2
votes
1answer
235 views

Why do the mismatched 16 dimensions have to be compactified on an even lattice?

The mismatched 16 dimensions between the left- (26 dimensional) and right- (10 dimensional) are compactified on even, unimodular lattices. I think I get the unimoduar part, at least intuitively, ...
0
votes
1answer
163 views

How many dimensions are there in total? [duplicate]

I happened to get my hands on a string theory book where its been said that the universe's fundamental particle i.e. the string, takes about ten dimensions for specifying itself under symmetry. What ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

T duality under a small fluctuation of the compact dimension

How do small perturbations around the compact dimension affect T duality. What happens if I chose a compactification of the nature $r+\delta r$. And what keeps the compact dimension stable, i.e from ...
5
votes
1answer
107 views

How do Aharony et. al conclude that all scalar fields in the supergravity multiplet are periodic?

This question is for anyone who has read/gone through the paper above or knows anything about AdS/CFT. The paper can be found here. On page 46, eq. (2.33), the author finds solutions to the scalar ...
4
votes
1answer
318 views

Is there an open oriented superstring?

Type I superstring theory is unoriented, and it seems that it needs to be so in order to exist. Now, we always have open-closed duality, that connects at least the ultraviolet sector of a theory ...
11
votes
2answers
633 views

Conformal Compactification of spacetime

I have been reading Penrose's paper titled "Relativistic Symmetry Groups" where the concept of conformal compactification of a space-time is discussed. My other references have been this and this. In ...
4
votes
1answer
64 views

Solitonic nature of RR sources

In the famous paper by Polchinski where he shows that D-branes are sourcing RR fields, he says (before we known the result) that RR sources must be objects with tension going like $1/g_s$ (page two of ...
3
votes
2answers
190 views

Symmetry transformation in AdS space

In AdS/CFT papers the action of the SO(D,2) symmetry is usually given at the boundary where the transformations are just the conformal transformations (Poincare, scaling and special) for D+1 ...
3
votes
1answer
286 views

What precisely, is the string theory landscape in 10 dimensions?

I was reading this Physics.SE thread. The OP said, (changed the last word to type HO) For D = 10, there are 5 vacua. Or maybe it's more correct to say 4, since type I is S-dual to type ...
6
votes
1answer
391 views

What does it mean to renormalize an effective field theory?

This is in reference to slide 19 of this talk "As always in Effective Field Theory, the theory becomes predictive when there are more observables than parameters" Can one explain what this exactly ...
2
votes
0answers
503 views

Tree level and loop level

I'm trying to read through a paper which explains the following about Universal Extra Dimensions (UED) vs ADD models: The new feature of the UED scenario compared to the brane world is that ...
3
votes
1answer
368 views

Neumann boundary condition and the open string

In string theory, If an open string obeys the Neumann boundary condition, then in the static gauge, one can show that the end points move at the speed of light. The derivation is straightforward, but ...