Physicists classify matter according to the state of matter, which are gas, liquid and solid. A material is either in one of these states depending on the temperature and/or pressure applied to it. One characterises the state of matter by the mechanical response of a material under pressure.

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Why is Helium so hard to liquify?

By the end of the 19th century all gasses had been liquefied apart from helium (He). What is it about helium that makes it so hard to liquefy compared to the other gases? And why does it need to be ...
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52 views

How cold does this ice have to be to freeze this water bottle solid?

We are at sea level in a room that is 21 celsius. We have 1 liter of sterile water with a temperature of 21 celsius in a normal plastic bottle. We have a 20 liter bucket of ice cubes, consisting of ...
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107 views

Will most solid state of something also be the coldest? [closed]

It is said that when something is cold its molecules have low kinetic energy, how is that different from something in a solid state. ... The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at ...
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Speed of Sound in matter

So basically when it comes to the speed of sound, it is said that speed of sound in media is based on two main factors - 1)elasticity and 2)density from the formula V= $\sqrt{E/\rho }$ where E is ...
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What is the difference between metallic hydrogen and plasma of hydrogen?

As far as I know, metallic hydrogen and plasma seems share some common properties, eg:conduct electricity, nuclei share electrons, high temperatures... So my question is, is metallic hydrogen in fact ...
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Phase diagrams and critical pressure

If a solid substance is pressurized past its critical pressure, what happens? Is the critical pressure only a factor when a substance is over the critical temperature also? On another note what makes ...
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26 views

What the difference between Bose-Einstein condensate and quantum spin liquid?

When matter gets close to absolute zero temperature, how does it becomes either BEC or QSL? I know in BEC atoms lose their individual id and becomes super-atom and as for spin liquid the alignment of ...
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49 views

Are there any liquid that becomes solid on heating under room temperature?

The title says it all. When I searched around, there are answers which involve extra steps like super cooling and then heating or exposing the liquid to high pressure. But I would like to know if ...
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43 views

Boiling Water in the Vacuum of Space [duplicate]

In space: When you depressurize ice with a temperature of -72 degrees Celsius would it turn into water? Is there a stable temperature range in which water stays liquid? Does the temperature ...
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15 views

Thermodynamics: state change and process types

Why is change of state, for example: water to ice, considered an isobaric process as opposed to isothermal? I had always learnt that temperature does not change during change of state.
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37 views

Pumping water vapor into liquid water [closed]

Do liquid water and water vapor count as different types of matter? How does Second law of Thermodynamics apply when I pump water vapor into liquid water? What would happen when water vapor goes into ...
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1answer
141 views

Does high heat make a boiling pot of water evaporate faster?

According to another answer, the rate at which water evaporates depends on the temperature of both air and water, the humidity of the air, and the size of the surface exposed. The air ...
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9answers
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Why does matter exist in 3 states (liquids, solid, gas)?

Why does matter on the earth exist in three states? Why cannot all matter exist in only one state (i.e. solid/liquid/gas)?
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228 views

Why does Triple point exist?

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. Is ...
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2answers
53 views

Why is there ice at the Earth's poles? [duplicate]

I beg your pardon for such a silly question, but I've never really understood the explanation they gave in the Geography textbooks. If the slanting Sun's rays due to the Earth's axial tilt can cause ...
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3answers
181 views

How does pressure cooker work?

If you increase the pressure, the boiling temperature increases as well. In the other direction: if you decrease the pressure enough you could even make water boil at 18 dergees C. However I met this ...
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Gaseous ionic compound = plasma?

I know that ionic compounds have a boiling point and a melting point. Like for example sodium chloride melts into individual NaCl units at 801 degrees Celsius. It boils at 1,413 degrees Celsius. Since ...
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220 views

Red Photon Blue Photon

Why in space red light travels farther and is more observed in dying stars before a star becomes a black hole? while on Earth in water and air the blue light travels the farthest. For example: a ...
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1answer
46 views

What happens when an astronaut opens cork of a bottle with water at 30°C on moons surface? [closed]

The answer to this question is given as : water will start to boil and freez ultmately . How and why is it like this.??
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1answer
55 views

Does paraffin wax solidification makes melting point increase or decrease or none?

Does paraffin wax on solidification makes temp increase or decrease ? Or it is not related woth solidification ?
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116 views

Relation between boiling, vapour pressure and atmospheric pressure

The boiling point of water is always defined as the temperature at which the vapour pressure of water is equal to the atmospheric pressure. How does the definition relate to why there is intense ...
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1answer
73 views

How does a physical knock initiate freezing of supercooled water? [duplicate]

I just stumbled across this YouTube video: http://youtube.com/watch?v=iihz16t6MHs What's the mechanism behind it? With a knock, I added some energy. So what? With a knock, I also increased ...
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5answers
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What is a state in physics?

What is a state in physics? While reading physics, I have heard many a times a "___" system is in "____" state but the definition of a state was never provided (and googling brings me totally ...
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0answers
25 views

Why does heating eggs not change the State of matter from solid to liquid [duplicate]

i'm not sure how much sense this question makes, but my physical education is not very great, so i'm just curious. Normally, when we heat matter, it changes the state it at some level, but eggs don't ...
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3answers
107 views

Can a single particle be “heated” by radiation?

From the point of view of statistical thermodynamics, a single particle doesn't have a phase (state of matter), nor temperature. What would happen if heat is transported to this single particle via ...
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1answer
80 views

What is the phase (state of matter) of a single particle? [duplicate]

Compressing a gas (or reducing its temperature) can form "agglomerations" in the form of liquid drops and solid grains. But if there's only one particle in the system, can it be assigned with a phase ...
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1answer
246 views

Does matter found at densities of white dwarfs “feel” more like a solid, liquid or gas?

I'm wondering what it would be like to touch or interact with very dense degenerate matter like this found at white dwarfs. I understand that white dwarfs are initially very hot, but for the sake of ...
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329 views

Do any substances have the same density when solid and liquid

I know that as you heat something it expands, but this is proportional to the change in temperature, so if I compare the density of a liquid right before freezing and right after then the thermal ...
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Does every particle/ substance belongs to one of the state of matter?

Does every particle/ substance belongs to one of the state of matter? If yes, then which of the state does these belong to?: Light (consider it as matter or wave) Nucleons Electron
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1answer
559 views

Can solids behave like liquids?

Basically, the more I look at things the more it seems like there's entirely no difference between a liquid and gas, it all just depends on the relative density of what's around it. This being said, ...
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2answers
55 views

Compression of non-gaseous substances

I learned about gas laws and their ability to compress. My science teacher told me that solids and liquids are incompressible. But when I learned about nuclear fission in bombs, it talks about ...
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36 views

Do exotic states of matter have high fusion cross-sections?

The Lawson criterion suggests that a chain fusion reaction will only occur in a confined plasma. Since it's a product of temperature and pressure (or density) a chain reaction would be virtually ...
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75 views

How much energy is released per unit mass from depressurizing degenerate matter?

A neutron star remnant consists mostly of neutron degenerate matter. If you happened to suddenly have 1 kg of it in your lap without the pressure necessary to keep it degenerate, I suppose it would ...
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1answer
198 views

If big bang theory is real.. then why do scientists do not accept “matter CAN disappear to Void”? [closed]

I believe in the big bang theory.. perhaps it was a big lightning not an explosion.. but even that is pretty much same as "big bang theory".. so matter came from "nothing" (zero). and existence is ...
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1answer
159 views

What is the viscosity difference between a solid and a liquid

The pitch drop experiment, for example, shows bitumen as a liquid, even though it appears to be a solid, and then there is the "glass: solid or liquid" debate. Is there a numerical value in viscosity ...
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1answer
109 views

Is it always true that solid state matter is made up of repeating patterns?

In the chemistry book that I'm reading, it says: At even lower temperatures, the molecular movement becomes even more sluggish. The water molecules begin to align in a regularly repeating ...
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1answer
53 views

Is plasma an intermediate stage of matter? [duplicate]

Can it truly be called a stable state? Fire is stable while it has fuel but isn't it really just a transition point for solid to gas?
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66 views

Is it possible to have a line rather than a point where the three states of a substance can exist?

Most of us are familiar with state diagrams that define which of the three states a substance will take given the pressure and temperature. And that some substances, such as water for example, exhibit ...
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505 views

Is Marshmallow solid or liquid?

A marshmallow is a sugar candy that, in its modern form, typically consists of sugar, whipped to a spongy consistency, molded into small cylindrical pieces, and coated with corn starch. Link ...
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51 views

Can I plot a phase diagram (P against T) of a mixture if the mole compositions are known?

Is it possible? Or do I have to actually experiment it in a lab? If it's possible, what data would I need? I'm right now only given the mole percentages and the weight percentages. I do know I can ...
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4answers
154 views

What is the state of water at exactly 0°C?

Theoretically speaking, what is the state of water at bang on 0°C - not any lower or higher? Any lower would make it a solid whereas any higher would make it a liquid. But what about bang on 0°C? ...
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578 views

What compounds or elements only have one phase or two phases?

Wood appears to be one. I think gases like helium and hydrogen cannot exist in the solid state under normal pressures, correct? And why do those "phase cheaters"-- those elements/compounds which ...
3
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1answer
617 views

Is there an Ideal Liquid Law? Or Solid Law?

There is an Ideal Gas Law, but why isn't there one for liquids or solids? Is it because they are much too hard to predict or that solids and liquids vary drastically in their reaction to temperature ...
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3answers
214 views

Do different plasmas from different elements have different properties?

If so, what are some differences? Like between iron and gold? EDIT: Sorry, I need to clarify: By 'difference' I mean... do they retain their chemical properties from more normal temperatures? Like is ...
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1answer
147 views

Is it possible to have frozen clouds floating in the sky?

Not really a spoiler, but in the movie Interstellar there was a planet that had frozen clouds. Is this actually possible? I know ice is less dense than water and so can float, but I'm having a hard ...
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1answer
100 views

What distinguishes the difference states of matter from solid to BEC and perhaps fermionic condensate? [closed]

Is it something to do with the behavior of electrons? How many states are there either discovered or predicted?
4
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1answer
304 views

How does the notion of topological order relate to the Landau-Ginzburg theory of phase transitions?

As per Landau-Ginzburg (LG) theory, we write down a theory (Hamiltonian) with all possible interactions/operators (in terms of some order parameter) that respects certain symmetries. The ground state ...
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4answers
441 views

Can a single molecule have a state?

I was studying a book about thermodynamics of nanosystems and I got stuck with this question in my mind which I couldn't find an answer for. For instance, does a single water molecule have a state, ...
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236 views

What would happen if you open a bottle of fizzy drink in a weightless environment?

On Earth, pouring a fizzy drink into a glass or opening a bottle, you see the gas start to condense out into bubbles which rise upwards. You can't pour a Coke into a glass on the ISS but you could (I ...
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1answer
178 views

Can a fuzzball collapse into a singularity?

I've been reading Kip Thorne's Black Holes and Time Warps and got curious about extreme states of degenerate matter; a little research reveals that since the book was written quark and preon ...