Physicists classify matter according to the state of matter, which are gas, liquid and solid. A material is either in one of these states depending on the temperature and/or pressure applied to it. One characterises the state of matter by the mechanical response of a material under pressure.

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Is Marshmallow solid or liquid?

A marshmallow is a sugar candy that, in its modern form, typically consists of sugar, whipped to a spongy consistency, molded into small cylindrical pieces, and coated with corn starch. Link ...
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Can I plot a phase diagram (P against T) of a mixture if the mole compositions are known?

Is it possible? Or do I have to actually experiment it in a lab? If it's possible, what data would I need? I'm right now only given the mole percentages and the weight percentages. I do know I can ...
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4answers
52 views

What is the state of water at exactly 0°C?

Theoretically speaking, what is the state of water at bang on 0°C - not any lower or higher? Any lower would make it a solid whereas any higher would make it a liquid. But what about bang on 0°C? ...
3
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5answers
145 views

What compounds or elements only have one phase or two phases?

Wood appears to be one. I think gases like helium and hydrogen cannot exist in the solid state under normal pressures, correct? And why do those "phase cheaters"-- those elements/compounds which ...
3
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1answer
32 views

Is there an Ideal Liquid Law? Or Solid Law?

There is an Ideal Gas Law, but why isn't there one for liquids or solids? Is it because they are much too hard to predict or that solids and liquids vary drastically in their reaction to temperature ...
3
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3answers
121 views

Do different plasmas from different elements have different properties?

If so, what are some differences? Like between iron and gold? EDIT: Sorry, I need to clarify: By 'difference' I mean... do they retain their chemical properties from more normal temperatures? Like is ...
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1answer
39 views

Is it possible to have frozen clouds floating in the sky?

Not really a spoiler, but in the movie Interstellar there was a planet that had frozen clouds. Is this actually possible? I know ice is less dense than water and so can float, but I'm having a hard ...
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1answer
31 views

What distinguishes the difference states of matter from solid to BEC and perhaps fermionic condensate? [closed]

Is it something to do with the behavior of electrons? How many states are there either discovered or predicted?
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1answer
156 views

How does the notion of topological order relate to the Landau-Ginzburg theory of phase transitions?

As per Landau-Ginzburg (LG) theory, we write down a theory (Hamiltonian) with all possible interactions/operators (in terms of some order parameter) that respects certain symmetries. The ground state ...
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4answers
212 views

Can a single molecule have a state?

I was studying a book about thermodynamics of nanosystems and I got stuck with this question in my mind which I couldn't find an answer for. For instance, does a single water molecule have a state, ...
5
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3answers
117 views

What would happen if you open a bottle of fizzy drink in a weightless environment?

On Earth, pouring a fizzy drink into a glass or opening a bottle, you see the gas start to condense out into bubbles which rise upwards. You can't pour a Coke into a glass on the ISS but you could (I ...
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1answer
84 views

Can a fuzzball collapse into a singularity?

I've been reading Kip Thorne's Black Holes and Time Warps and got curious about extreme states of degenerate matter; a little research reveals that since the book was written quark and preon ...
2
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1answer
59 views

Electron degeneracy and helium flashes in stars

I have a question regarding the above mentioned. When a star have a mass of about 3-8 it does not go through the so-called helium flash phase, but instead just run along as nothing had happened, turn ...
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1answer
89 views

What does a sample of the Sun look like? Does it look like fire or gas?

Suppose that in the future a highly resistant spacecraft went to the Sun and collected three samples of the Sun: one from its surface, one from its core, and one midway. The three samples were put ...
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0answers
33 views

What does high-pressure ice look like? [duplicate]

Suppose one had a pressure chamber of extreme strength, strength enough to hold 100s of MPa worth of pressure inside. So you put some ice cubes in the chamber (regular ice), keeping the temperature ...
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2answers
207 views

Why does iron sink in molten iron instead of floating?

Why does iron sink in molten iron whereas ice floats on water? Both are solid states of their own form, so why is one floating and the other sinking?
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6answers
4k views

Is there a state beyond gas?

If you could boil water in a sealed container until it became vapor and you still kept applying heat to it would something happen? Maybe gas to super-gas? This has been on my mind for a long time I ...
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1answer
330 views

To what extent can the superconducting order parameter be thought of as a macroscopic wavefunction?

I know that the order parameter does not obey the Schrodinger equation; it instead obeys the Ginzburg-Landau equation. However, I am unclear as to the situations under which the view of the ...
7
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5answers
189 views

What keeps water molecules in air from falling down?

I was thinking about evaporative cooling, how the particles in water with the most velocity fly out of the water, leaving it colder. But then I thought, how come these water molecules stay in the air ...
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3answers
769 views

Is a plasma necessarily made of monoatomic ions?

Is it possible to have a plasma made of polyatomic ions instead of monoatomic ions? I want to know all the details why such a thing may be attainable or not and, if possible, what methods we can use ...
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2answers
90 views

(Why) is dumping liquid nitrogen on your head dangerous?

A chemist who dumped liquid nitrogen on his head described the act as very dangerous; yet, at the same time, he mentioned that the Leidenfrost effect would protect him from the dangers of this act. ...
3
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0answers
42 views

Quantum description of Raman effect

In the classical description of Raman effect the object of study is the electric polarizability of the system. Since I'm interested in learning the quantum description of the Raman effect and in ...
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1answer
102 views

Density of Solid States of Compounds

One of the wonderful properties of water (as my high school biology teacher would say) is that in its solid form, it is lighter than its liquid form. This means that when temperatures drop below 0 ...
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2answers
34 views

Pellet of lithium in a vacuum

What would happen to a grain of sand sized pellet of lithium in a vacuum? Because there is no pressure, would it become more like a sticky liquid?
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1answer
75 views

Stellar remnants in a state of matter denser than neutron-degenerate

When discussing the stellar life cycle, it's often stated that if the collapsing core of a star is bigger than the mass limit for a stable neutron star, it must collapse to a black hole. However, ...
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1answer
37 views

How to account for the huge difference in susceptibility of liquid and gaseous oxygen?

I noticed this while studying magnetic fields in matter from Griffiths' Electrodynamics book. A table is provided in the chapter which shows the materials with their respective susceptibilities. Under ...
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1answer
174 views

Why is supercritical fluid not considered a separate state of matter?

As given on this link, supercritical fluids are viewed more as a continuum which has both liquid and gas properties. This continuum is obtained when a gas is brought to a pressure and a temperature ...
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Why does ice melting not change the water level in a container?

I have read the explanation for this in several textbooks, but I am struggling to understand it via Archimedes' principle. If someone can clarify with a diagram or something so I can understand or a ...
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3answers
91 views

Doubt about states of matter

What does exactly means "Small molecules may appear as solid, liquid, and gaseous phases without losing their molecular integrity"?, I can't image how just a molecule can be a gas, liquid or solid. ...
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2answers
837 views

Why can, or can not, a perfectly incompressible fluid exist?

Water is normally assumed to be an incompressible fluid - for example in the context of calculations involving water pressure. I wondered whether that is strictly true, or an approximation? Later I ...
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1answer
56 views

Do gases have a general upper limit of density?

Is there some limit for the density of gases, at which no change in condition could make it more dense without making it fluid, or solid - or something 'in between'?
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1answer
111 views

Why is copper a metal?

Context: Solid state physics Question: Can it be reasoned in the context of solid state physics (perhaps within the band theory of solids?) that copper is a metal ?
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2answers
51 views

Is there an analogue to the role of vapor in liquids and gases, but for solids and liquids?

It seems common for an ordered phase to have some amount of disorder present. For example, the average moment of a ferromagnet is less than maximum except at T=0 due to the presence of fluctuations. ...
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2answers
802 views

Why does my kettle only make a noise when it is turned on

Almost as soon as I turn my kettle on it starts to make the familiar kettle noise, yet very shortly after turning off the power the boiling noise stops and the kettle is totally silent. The ...
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1answer
50 views

States of Matter and Equilibrium

Can I say that, matter generally when cooled decreases in volume because, when it is cooled,i.e., we lower the temperature of the surroundings, then the avg. energy of our sample will be higher than ...
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242 views

Are there new states of matter at ultrahigh temperatures and densities?

Under extreme energetic conditions, matter undergoes a series of transitions, and atoms break down into their smallest constituent parts. Those parts are elementary particles called quarks and ...
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3answers
522 views

To which state of matter does the flame belong to?

I had this question from the day(9 years old, now 16) that i learned about states of matter. I have asked so many of my teachers some of them told me gas some as plasma etc. can anyone answer my ...
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1answer
974 views

Ice bath is always 3C, why?

I've always learned that a mixture of ice and water should reach equilibrium at approximately 0C. I've actually tried to create that a number of times in different contexts and always fail. First, ...
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1answer
134 views

What is the probability of ice in boiling water?

Ice crystals are spatially ordered, and in every randomness there is a low possibility of temporarily order. If given enough boiling water, and sufficient time, could local clusters water molecules ...
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1answer
108 views

Triple points for other substances

Can substances other than H2O have a triple point, where the three usual phases of matter (solid/liquid/gas) can exist?
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Potential energy for different states

While studying thermal physics at school, I have been taught that solids simply have more potential energy than the liquids and gases. Note that it was said that this potential energy is due to the ...
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2answers
232 views

Why do many books say quasineutrality is needed for a plasma to exist?

Many books on plasma physics (Chen, Goldston, Lieberman) say that quasineutrality must be satisfied for the matter in question to be a plasma. Yet, we know that non-neutral plasmas exist. So why do so ...
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1answer
178 views

Why does water ($\mathrm{H_2O}$) only have two distinct fluid phases?

Water (and other substances) can exist in many distinct solid phases (with different crystallic micro-structure), but only in two fluid phases - liquid and gaseous, in which the molecules are oriented ...
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1answer
727 views

What determines a state of matter?

Earlier I studied about the three states of matter-gaseous,liquid ans solid. Then, I came to know about Plasma and Bose-Einstein Condensate. Now, scientists are trying to explain superconductivity as ...
3
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2answers
2k views

Why does sweetness of coke change after freezing completely

I freeze my coke in a freezer completely to solid and then keep it out to melt and as it melts portion by portion I starts to drink, initially It will be very sweet and later it wont be sweet at all. ...
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1answer
1k views

Burning VS Melting: What is the relation in the atomic/molecular structure?

This has never been asked before on this site, so I thought I would ask this to help future searchers, passerbys, or others understand this better. What are the key differences between burning ...
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74 views

Microwaves and state of matter

Does the heating efficiency of a microwave oven depend on the state of matter that it heats? If yes, how?
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4answers
4k views

Can plasma turn back into gas, solid, or liquid?

I wanted to know if, since basic chemistry teaches you that states of matter can be changed, I was wondering particularly about plasma. I know that virtually all of the Sun is plasma, so I was ...
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2answers
4k views

Why is lightning considered a plasma?

I was wondering why a lightning bolt is coined as "plasma", or a "spark" from an electrical wire/device is as well, yet flares, molten lava, and burning buildings are not(flares are pyrotechnic, ...
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194 views

Cloud Microphysics - Does It contain Ice Or Water Or Both?

I'm not sure if this is the right site to post this on but I have a project where I have some cloud microphysical properties: ...