8
votes
1answer
82 views

Would a high energy bottom quark 'decay' to a top quark?

The reason for the long life time of $B$-hadrons is that the CKM element $|V_{tb}| > 0.999$, meaning that the preferred decay of the $b$-quark is to a $t$-quark (and vice versa). However because ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Why are quark up and down an isospin doublet?

I have some difficulties in understanding the isospin of quarks. As far as I am concerned, the isospin formalism is used to express the physical property of electric charge. I mean: what I know ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

How to find Lepton Number? [closed]

is a Standard Model particle with (u, d, b) quark content. What are the electric charge, baryon number and lepton number of this particle? Is this the only particle expected to exist with this quark ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

How can a pion with neutral charge exist? [duplicate]

A $\pi^0$ consists of an up and anti-up quark. However, I also learned that when a particle and its anti-particle meet, energy is produced. So, my question is that how can $\pi^0$ exist? Won't it ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Could elementary particles join to create bound states?

I recently had question, can 2 elementary particles be "attached" together using Strong and weak nuclear forces to create a bound state. For example can Electron and some other stable elementary ...
4
votes
2answers
181 views

If nature exhibits symmetry, why don't up and down quarks have equal magnitude of electric charge?

I always hear people saying symmetry is beautiful, nature is symmetric intrinsically, physics and math show the inherent symmetry in nature et cetera, et cetera. Today I learned that half of the ...
5
votes
4answers
885 views

If the quarks in a neutron are (up,down,down), why isn't it negatively charged?

If the quarks in a neutron are (up,down,down), why isn't it negatively charged? Excuse the silly question, just wondering.
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Why did it take a long time to discover top quark?

In high school physics, I learned that it took a long time before the top quark was discovered. One of the reasons that was given in my book was that the top quark has a large mass, much larger than ...
3
votes
0answers
31 views

flavor splitting of quark masses

It seems pretty clear that flavor symmetry splits the quark masses. It seems extremely odd that a global gauge symmetry of the Standard Model fields could or would produce such extreme splitting as ...
9
votes
1answer
251 views

Why does the eightfold way work?

Last year I attended an introductory particle physics course, in which the Eigthfold Way for classifying hadrons has been discussed. The main idea consists in grouping hadrons in multiplets (i.e ...
53
votes
8answers
19k views

What's inside a proton?

What constitutes protons? When I see pictures, I can't understand. Protons are made of quarks, but some say that they are made of 99% empty space. Also, in this illustration from Wikipedia, what's ...
1
vote
1answer
174 views

What makes the quarks stay inside the proton?

Inside a single proton for example, what is the force(s) that keeps the quarks together? Why don't they leave the proton? If they do, how does that even happen? And maybe an additional sub question: ...
7
votes
2answers
687 views

How do I know the proton isn't made of 3 anti-down quarks?

I have a proton, how do I know that it is made of 2 up quarks and 1 down quark or if it is made of 3 anti-down quarks, each with different color charges? This question is also applicable to the ...
6
votes
3answers
882 views

Why do quarks have a fractional charge?

I am aware that evidence exists that strongly suggests the existence of quarks and do not doubt it. It is just simply really weird to me that they can have a fractional charge. While other ...
6
votes
2answers
303 views

How quark electric charge directly have been measured?

How quarks electric charge directly have been measured when quarks never directly observed in isolation? (Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement.)
1
vote
2answers
174 views

What is mass of free up and down Quark?

Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei. Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks ...
6
votes
3answers
441 views

Origin of lepton/quark generations?

What theoretical explanations exist for the fact that there are three generations of leptons and quarks? I'm not so much asking why there are exactly 3 generations, but rather what makes electron, ...
7
votes
2answers
596 views

About free quarks and confinement

I simply know that a single free quark does not exist. What is the reason that we can not get a free quark? If we can't get a free quark then what is single-top-quark?
1
vote
2answers
418 views

Quark compositions in $\pi^+$ to $\pi^0$ pion decay

Pions can undergo a rare beta-like decay into leptons: Pion beta decay (with probability of about $10^{−8}$) into a neutral pion plus an electron and electron antineutrino (or for positive ...
-6
votes
2answers
380 views

Cramer's rule, Origin of Quarks Fractional electric charge? [closed]

In linear algebra, Cramer's rule is an explicit formula for the solution of a system of linear equations with as many equations as unknowns. 2u+1d=1 1u+2d=0 $$a_1d+b_1u=c_1$$ $$a_2d+b_2u=c_2$$ ...
-4
votes
1answer
345 views

Pion Decay and Fractional electric Charge disappeared, why?

Since the charged pions decay into two particles, a muon and a muon neutrino Fractional electric Charge disappeared, why? The decay proceeds by the weak interaction $W^{+}$ and can be visualized in ...
-9
votes
2answers
1k views

Could the fractional model of Quarks electric charge turn out to be false? [closed]

The delta baryons (also called delta resonances) are a family of subatomic hadron particles which have the symbols $\Delta^{++}$, $\Delta^{+}$, $\Delta^{0}$, and $\Delta^{−}$ and electric charges +2, ...
0
votes
1answer
489 views

What is the relationship between the Higgs field and quarks?

I have some difficulty considering the relative size of each and the meaning behind the shape of Higgs boson. I ask relating to the structures of both the Higgs field and quarks. How is it that the ...
2
votes
5answers
412 views

Could Quark model turn out to be false?

Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei. Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Quark Radius Upper Bound

If quarks had internal structure (contradicting current beliefs), what is the lowest upper bound on their "radius" based on current experimental results? If possible, I'd prefer to only consider ...
0
votes
1answer
89 views

Future of colliders and technical limitations

Are there any technical limitations (theoretical or technological) that prevent quark based colliders? ie. Colliding two quarks together.
1
vote
1answer
154 views

Particle mixing and indistinguishability

Neutral kaons have two flavor combinations: $\mathrm{d}\bar{\mathrm{s}}$ and $\mathrm{s}\bar{\mathrm{d}}$. They can also be weak eigenstates: $\mathrm{\frac{d\bar{s} \pm s\bar{d}}{\sqrt{2}}}$. But ...
7
votes
2answers
512 views

Neutrino oscillations versus CMK quark mixing

I wish to describe in simple but correct terms the analogy between the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CMK) and Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata (PMNS) matrices. The CMK matrix describes the rotation ...
19
votes
5answers
6k views

Why do electron and proton have the same but opposite electric charge?

What is the explanation between equality of proton and electron charges (up to a sign)? This is connected to the gauge invariance and renormalization of charge is connected to the renormalization of ...
2
votes
1answer
249 views

What is meant by the rest energy of non-composite particle?

When talking about the rest energy of a composite particle such as a proton, part of the rest energy is accounted for by the internal kinetic energy of its constituent quarks. But what is physically ...
2
votes
1answer
356 views

Why are the quarks so named?

Quarks have a variety of names (or flavours): Up Down Strange Charm Bottom or Beauty Top or Truth Why do they have such odd names?
8
votes
1answer
500 views

Do color-neutral gluons exist?

If I'm correct a quark can change color by emitting a gluon. For example a blue up quark $u_b$ can change into a red up quark by emitting a gluon: $$u_b \longrightarrow u_r + g_{b\overline{r}}$$ ...
7
votes
2answers
830 views

What is the difference between 'running' and 'current' quark mass?

When looking at the PDG, there is a difference between the 'running' and the 'current' quark masses. Does anyone know which is the difference between these two?