A model of the basic particles and forces featuring six quarks, three charged leptons, three massless neutral leptons and four fundamental force carrying bosons. The twelve fermions are arranged into three generations, while the bosons serve to explain the electromagnetic interaction plus the strong ...

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Higgs mechanism preserving supersymmetry

It is said that if supersymmetry was unbroken, masses of the superpartners would be equal. But at least for MSSM there are no SUSY-invariant terms that would allow the electroweak SSB, as far as I ...
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31 views

General framework of Supersymmetry [on hold]

Even the people who are skeptical about SUSY are happy with the SUSY searches going on at LHC because they recognize that SUSY's general framework is quite flexible and the search strategy used in ...
3
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2answers
94 views

Feynman diagram, which virtual particle?

Hi I have been asked to produce the lowest order Feynman diagram for the following scattering process: $$a.~~~ \mu^-+\mu^-\rightarrow \mu^-+\mu^-$$ $$b.~~~ \mu^-+\mu^+\rightarrow \mu^-+\mu^+$$ The ...
2
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0answers
24 views

Why do mesons like the J/Psi or Y exist? Shouldn't the quark/anti-quark pair annihilate? [duplicate]

q/qbar->photon is part of Drell Yan, so it's kinematically allowed. Is this somehow related to the difference in speed phenomenologically between a strong and a weak decay? As in is this annihilation ...
7
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127 views

What are the remaining obstacles to low-energy quantum gravity?

In a 2003 review Burgess outlined how the QFT perturbative methodology is being extended to gravity, and described some effective quantum gravity expansions that reproduce general relativity in the ...
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1answer
46 views

Help me understand Lepton universality

I understand that we have three pairs of Leptons (generations). $(\nu_e , e^-), (\nu_{\mu}, \mu), (\nu_{\tau}, \tau^-)$ But what is this principle of Lepton universality? I have obviously tried ...
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1answer
77 views

why does the higgs mechanism need to exist?

I feel like this is kind of a pleb question but I'm gonna ask it anyway. As far as I know, mass is fundamentally the property that a field has when it can have energy without having momentum. But why ...
4
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0answers
174 views

750 GeV diphoton resonance: KK graviton?

As everybody of you may know at LHC they found this probable resonance (https://cds.cern.ch/record/2114808, https://cds.cern.ch/record/2114853?ln=en). It may be a scalar or a KK graviton mode. Now, ...
4
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1answer
110 views

SU(2) confinement picture

Preamble: In section 2 of these lecture notes (Gerard 't Hooft, 1998) an alternative interpretation of the weak interaction is presented, in which the weak force is confined, much like the strong ...
3
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2answers
98 views

Quark composition of the neutral pion

I wonder why the neutral pi meson is $$ | \pi^0\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\left(\vert u\overline {u}\rangle - \vert d \overline{d} \rangle \right) $$ and not $$ | \pi^0\rangle = ...
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1answer
123 views

Is it true that the standard model does not predict the mass of the electron?

I read that the standard model has parameters that have to be put in such as the mass of the electron, because nobody has been able to calculate the mass of the electron. Is this true?
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27 views

Charge Conjugation for $SU(N)$?

For $SU(2)$ the charge conjugation operator $C$ reads explicitly $$ C \Psi = i \sigma_2 \Psi^\star ,$$ where $\sigma_2$ is a Pauli matrix. What is the generalized charge conjugation for $SU(N)$?
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2answers
60 views

Is there any stable hadron?

Neutron can decay into proton and I think some hypothesis claim that proton can also undergoes decay into subatomic particles... Is there any hadron that never decays?
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0answers
85 views

Feynman amplitude for electron-positron annihilation and $W^{\pm}$ production

I'm working with this interaction Hamiltonian density $$ H_{int}(x) = ig\bar{\Psi}_{\nu_e}(x)\gamma^\rho P_L \Psi_e(x)V_\rho(x) + igV^\dagger_\rho(x)\bar{\Psi}_e(x)\gamma^\rho P_L \Psi_{\nu_e} $$ ...
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1answer
77 views

Why are quarks elementary particles? [closed]

A neutron decays into a proton by changing one of its down quark into an up quark and releasing energy, positron and neutrino particle. If a down quark can decay into an up quark, why is it ...
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1answer
40 views

What exchange particles can change lepton flavor?

So I know that in the standard model $W^+$ and $W^-$ can change lepton flavors but $Z^0$ cannot. I don't think photons can (is this correct?) and gluons can't because they would not interact with ...
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1answer
42 views

Is there a name for leptons that are not neutrinos?

Is there a name for leptons that are not neutrinos? Not sure if its exists, its not particularly easy to search for. Is there a name for the set of charged leptons (or leptons that are not neutrinos)? ...
4
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1answer
391 views

Are there weak force waves?

In the same way as there are electromagnetic and gravitational waves that update the information on their respective field, is there an analogue for the weak and strong forces?
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1answer
50 views

Interpretation of 4-vector quantum field operator

Peskin and Schroeder, on page 24, quotes the following expression for a generic (scalar) field operator: $$ \phi(\mathbf{x})|0\rangle = \int ...
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2answers
66 views

Negative Mass Square

I'm reading a book about neutrino physics (from 1997). In the chapter about neutrino mass they list results of certain experiments. All of them get a negative value for $m(\nu_e)^2$ but a positive one ...
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0answers
29 views

What is the form of Higgs potential, when written using higgs mass and quartic coupling.

Usually we write Higgs potential as $V=-\frac{1}{2}m^2 \phi^2 + \frac{1}{4}\lambda \phi^4$ What are the present reliable values of parameters '$\lambda$' and '$m$'? Is '$m$' used here Higgs mass? If ...
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2answers
89 views

What is the difference between toy models and normal models?

Here is the short description of scientific model: an imperfect or idealized representation of a physical system And the definition of toy model: a simplified set of objects and equations ...
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0answers
43 views

Measuring expectation value in quantum field theory and in quantum mechanics

There is a way of calculating the vacuum expectation value $\langle 0|\hat\phi|0\rangle$ theoretically in a quantum field theory like there is a rule to compute expectation value of any operator A ...
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0answers
17 views

Subnuclear reactions: combining quarks

When you try and pull two quarks apart, you don't get two separate quarks, but instead: the energy stored in the field between them gets high enough to create more quarks, and instead of two ...
4
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2answers
207 views

Are antimatter particles made of ---?

Consider some particle P, and the antiparticle aP. Is it the case that: aP is made of the "usual" elementary particles, and indeed the same elementary particles as P, but arranged (or something) in ...
3
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2answers
120 views

Feynman diagram for attractive forces

I’m looking at Feynman diagrams for attractive forces and I'm thoroughly confused. Below are three diagrams from HyperPhysics: These all illustrate instances where the forces are attractive. ...
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1answer
49 views

What is the gauge field in Bose-Einstein condensation?

The Hamiltonian for bosons has $\phi^{\dagger}\phi$ terms in it which makes it U(1) invariant. Bose-Einstein Condensation apparently breaks such symmetry by choosing a definite phase, even though I ...
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1answer
48 views

Why aren't all possible VEVs of the Higgs field in (quantum) superposition?

It is is usually said the the Higgs field chooses a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), around which we now expand our field operators. From this a mass term emerges, and one or more gauge fields acquire ...
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4answers
63 views

Change in the half-life of a neutron

What would happen if the half-life of a neutron was much more less than it is now? How could this affect the nuclei?
4
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1answer
226 views

What does the discovery of a pentaquark signify?

at a particle collider a pentaquark was discovered. My question in short is what does the discovery of a pentaquark signify? Is there a theory that it supports or something like that?
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2answers
33 views

Pair annihilation - can annihilation be moderated?

I recently asked this question: How close does a particle-antiparticle pair need to be for annihilation to happen? And that received a good answer. But there was a second part to my question that ...
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0answers
28 views

Anomalies, neutrino condensate and neutrino masses

Is neutrino number conservation not affected by the U(1) QCD and QED anomalies due its zero U(1) charge? Is this the reason why the neutrino should be massless and there should be no lepton family ...
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0answers
18 views

QCD condensate and lepton mass

I read that the QCD U(1) anomaly is caused by the QCD condensate giving rise to quark masses. Does the QCD condensate also give masses to leptons (electron, mu, tau, neutrinos), or are these masses ...
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37 views

Chiral anomaly and fermion number conservation

Chiral anomalies in QED and QCD violate fermion number conservation, since a U(1) vector symmetry corresponds to fermion number conservation. However, only the LH and RH fermion numbers are not ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Feynman diagrams and gluon collisions/interactions?

We have been given this question which essentially asks us to draw the lowest order Feynman diagrams for various processes. One of them is: $$ g + g \rightarrow \bar{t}+t $$ Now, I am not an expert ...
29
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1answer
1k views

How close does a particle-antiparticle pair need to be for annihilation to happen?

I've most often seen the statement that the annihilation of a particle and its antiparticle occurs when they 'collide' with one another. So in other words when they get very close to one another ...
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31 views

Massless Dirac Field Chirality and CP

I have some very basic questions about Quantum Field Theory. So let's assume we have massless fermions. In 4 spacetime dimensions, due to the Group Structure of $SO(3,1)$ there exists the famous ...
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1answer
60 views

Fundamentals for predicting the standard model? [closed]

. Now, the question(s). What must a theory include to be consistent with the standard model? What concepts/ fields must be predicted?(such as predicting a Higgs field, gauge groups, particles being ...
3
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1answer
75 views

Spontaneous symmetry breaking of anomalous global abelian symmetries and $U(1)$ of QCD

Let me restate the $U(1)$ problem of QCD: Let us forget about the $s$ quark, and consider the $u$ and $d$ massless. This is a good approximation since $m_{u,d} \ll \Lambda_{QCD}$. Then ...
2
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0answers
81 views

Is there any additional complexity in the physical laws that seems unnecessary for us to exist? [closed]

I am wondering if the universe is as simple as possible, at least given the constraint that humans exist on Earth. This is my second attempt at this question, which was marked as too broad, since I ...
3
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3answers
157 views

Are field theories special?

Our best descriptions of the microscopic world, that satisfy many fundamental requirements (as we know them today), are field theories. Is there something fundamental about field interactions, or are ...
2
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2answers
118 views

Simulation of everyday life based on standard model [closed]

If I were to model the standard model, say on a super powered computer (which does not necessarily have to exist in the real world), would I get molecules, chemistry, life? I want to understand the ...
1
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1answer
55 views

Three gauge bosons vertex

I was told that two $Z$ bosons could not decay to one (virtual) $Z$ boson at any loop level. Is it true? if so, why? Does it also hold for photons? Could we generalise the statement to "There cannot ...
3
votes
1answer
101 views

Quark mixing vs neutrino mixing, mass eigenstates, weak states and detection

I have some doubts regarding the CKM matrix in the quark sector and PMNS matrix in the leptonic sector. Let us call $(d^\prime, s^\prime, b^\prime)$ the weak basis for quarks and $(d,s,b)$ the mass ...
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2answers
315 views

Can all fundamental forces be repulsive?

If the electric force can be attractive (with opposite charges) or repulsive (same charges), and the magnetic force acts like this too, can all forces be repulsive in some cases? For example, could ...
2
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1answer
55 views

Evidence for standard model description of neutrons

as I don't know too much about experiments I have the following question concerning the evidence about the quark constituents in neutrons. After a quick google investigation I found some sentences ...
31
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7answers
2k views

How can the unstable particles of the standard model be considered particles in their own right if they immediately decay into stable particles?

How can the unstable particles of the standard model be considered particles in their own right if they immediately decay into stable particles? It would appear to a layman such as myself that these ...
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3answers
61 views

What are the six quark mass values when extrapolated to Planck energy?

Let us assume that the standard model is correct up to Planck mass. (Yes, I know, this is a big assumption.) If we continue the running of quark masses with energy (due to renormalization), what are ...
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45 views

What are the dominant decay products of upsilon meson?

Upsilon meson may decay to phi or omega meson but these should be OZI suppressed as in this case, bottom and antibottom quarks of upsilon meson will have to first annihilate to high energy gluon. ...
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1answer
137 views

Why is neutral sigma baryon more massive than lambda baryon?

Neutral sigma-star baryon, neutral sigma baryon and lambda baryon have masses 1387 MeV, 1192 MeV, 1116 MeV respectively, whereas each of these 3 particles are composed of 1 up, 1 down and 1 strange ...