The special theory of relativity describes the motion and dynamics of objects moving at significant fractions of the speed of light.

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Graphene and relativistic dynamics

Is it possible to rewrite the Lorentz-transformations (for quantum particles) in terms of effective mass m* known from condensed matter physics? "From pencil lead to relativistic quantum physics" "A ...
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4answers
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Time dilation derivation of special relativity

In almost all of the derivations using the postulates of special relativity (SR), we use experiments involving light signals. For example, we make a clock using a light signal or measure lengths using ...
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Travelling at a relative speed greater than the speed of light

I've wondered about this since I was a kid. I've been told the speed of light is a constant ($c$), which would mean that light always travels at the same velocity. Now, here's what interests me: if ...
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1answer
42 views

Twin paradox, with a meeting at a halfway point

Suppose body A, at rest in its reference frame, is passed by body B which is travelling at a constant 0.6 c, heading toward Z, a point 6 light years away by A's reckoning, and as bodies will, they ...
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5answers
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Does coordinate time have physical meaning?

I have always been a little confused by the meaning of the "$t$" which appears in spacetime intervals or metrics in general relativity. I concluded that $t$ was just a mathematical thing which allow ...
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4answers
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How to derive $E=mc^{2}$?

Is there some way to derive $E=mc^{2}$? I can understand that energy in something is proportional to its mass, but the $c^{2}$ part. I have no idea. It seems like the way the units are going it would ...
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1answer
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How do I transform onto a relativistic rotating frame of reference?

In classical mechanics, the usual formula to translate the evolution of a quantity as seen from an inertial frame of reference to a rotational frame is: $$\frac{d \textbf{A} }{dt} \vert_{Inertial} = ...
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Relativity and observable universe

Will cosmological horizon "expand" for an observer approaching the speed of light (at least in the direction of observer's motion) ?
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What speeds are “fast” enough for one to need the relativistic velocity addition formula?

In this question the accepted answer says: For objects moving at low speeds, your intuition is correct: say the bus move at speed $v$ relative to earth, and you run at speed $u$ on the bus, then ...
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1answer
48 views

Has the effect of magnetic fields on time ever been examined experimentally?

Relativity of time can be examined with satellites as gravitational or acceleration. Is there any similar experiment with intense magnetic fields?
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Speed of light, comparison of two light waves travelling side by side

okay so.here is setup of my question...say we have two observers A and A'..A is fixed to origin of coordinate axis x,y while A' is inside a hollow box (shown as rectangle MNRP) whose one side MN has ...
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3answers
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Negative energy of free particle: classical and quantum picture

Classically, the energy of a free particle consists of only the kinetic energy given by $E=\frac{|\textbf{p}|^2}{2m}$ Since $|\textbf{p}| $is real and $m>0$, $E\geq 0$. However, since ...
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1answer
309 views

Theoretically if you passed the speed of light in a medium, would there be a sonic boom equivalent?

I know that it is technically impossible to reach the speed of light in vacuum since the mass of the object traveling would reach infinity. However in a medium, would there be some sort of theoretical ...
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1answer
28 views

Time for two relativistic objects to meet

How do you prove that the time for two objects traveling towards each other at relativistic velocities is still d/(v1+v2). Answer seems to have something to do with velocity addition but I'm ...
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2answers
477 views

Exact definition of momentarily comoving reference frame (MCRF)

Consider a particle $P$ in the framework of special relativity with position $r(t)=(ct,x(t),y(t),z(t))$ respect to an inertial reference frame $\Sigma=(ct,x,y,z;O)$. I need to know if the following ...
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0answers
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Trajectories in Rindler space with zero net time dilation

I've discovered a family of curves in Rindler space that have zero net time dilation. However I struggle to see why this should be so, i.e. what the physical significance of these curves is. My ...
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1answer
54 views

Superluminal speed?

I came by the quotation below. I'm confused: does it mean that it's actually possible for light and even material objects to move faster than light? Gravitational fields are present the velocities ...
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1answer
48 views

What would happen to the human body if we went almost at the speed of light? [duplicate]

If we were to travel almost at $299\,792\,458~m/s$, or the speed of light, what would happen to the human body? Would we be fine or would there be consequences? Would our body shut down? I've been ...
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0answers
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Travelling twin's clock in twin paradox on the way back

Suppose the situation of the twin paradox: twin A stays on Earth, the other (B) goes to a star with velocity $v$, and at the beginning of the journey their clocks were synhronized. We know that when A ...
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A Relativity question about radial acceleration? [duplicate]

How do you calculate the radial acceleration of a stationary observer in the Schwarzschild coordinates? I have calculated the 4-velocity and 4-acceleration but not sure how to proceed?
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1answer
130 views

Can two distinct events occur at precisely the same moment in time?

I am writing a simulation and am having difficulty resolving the order in which two distinct forces occur. The simulation will give different results if the forces are applied to the state in ...
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2answers
63 views

Lorentz Transformations and time of event

Consider two inertial frames, $F$ and $F'$, such that $F'$ moves at $\mathbf{v} = (v,0,0)$ with respect to $F$ (assume $v > 0$). Suppose tat $x = x\prime = 0$, when $t = t' = 0$, where $x,t$ refer ...
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Minkowski Diagram for Time-Like Separated Events

A while ago, I asked a question if two events are always simultaneous in some reference frame. I received excellent answers. The point is that if $E_1$ and $E_2$ are time-like separated with time ...
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0answers
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Special relativity question [on hold]

I have a problem. I´m trying to solve this, but I have no idea how to start, how to understand it. We have two objects moving away from each other, each has a speed $v$. We measure time in the system ...
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1answer
258 views

How come the concept of an instant of time is such a controversial topic with relativity, but with entanglement it's completely acceptable?

When talking about relativity most people say that a universal instant of time doesn't exist, but when talking about entanglement most will say that the particles are both measured instantaneously. ...
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special relativity with four vectors [closed]

I am new in the group and I have an exam on electromagnetism with special relativity tomorrow and I really stack on four vectors. It's the first time that I encounter four vectors. I got formulas in ...
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1answer
127 views

Why doesn’t the Sagnac Effect disprove relativity?

It was my understanding that the speed of light is supposed to be constant for every observer, as in the classical mental experiment of the guy in the train with the flashlights which explain the ...
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1answer
48 views

A general relativity question about 4-velocity? [closed]

In a general spacetime with metric $g_{\alpha\beta}$ where there exists coordinates such that there are observers with 4-velocity $u^{\mu} = \{1,0,0,0\}$, show that $$ g_{00} = -1 ...
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3answers
437 views

How does the solar sailing concept work?

Wikipedia describes solar sailing as a form of spacecraft propulsion using a combination of light and high speed ejected gasses from a star to push large ultra-thin mirrors to high speeds. I ...
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3answers
121 views

How is it possible for the wavelength of light to change in a medium?

So my physics class has just finished a long unit on optics while at the same time I've been trying to teach myself relativity. I admit my understanding is probably rudimentary, but I figured all the ...
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0answers
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Could unfound matter travel faster than light? [duplicate]

Is it impossible to go faster than the speed of light or is it just that we have not yet found anything that travels faster?
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0answers
34 views

Theoritical outcome of rotating a disk of infinite strength at or near the speed of light [closed]

If you rotate a disk of infinite strength at, or near, the speed of light; will this produce something with a fourth dimension?
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2answers
301 views

The definition of transpose of Lorentz transformation (as a mixed tensor)

In the appendix of the textbook of Group Theory in Physics by Wu-Ki Tung, the transpose of a matrix is defined as the following, Eq.(I.3-1) $${{A^T}_i}^j~=~{A^j}_i.$$ This is extremely confusing for ...
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1answer
73 views

Does scale invariance imply massless or continuous mass distribution?

$\newcommand{\ket}[1]{\lvert #1 \rangle}\newcommand{\bra}[1]{\langle #1 \rvert}\newcommand{\scp}[2]{\langle #1 \vert #2 \rangle}$ In his 2008 slides Unparticle Phenomenology (PDF), Tzu-Chiang Yuan ...
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1answer
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Camera on the ground vs camera in a train

A couple days ago my history teacher was explaining special relativity with the train example, where you are in a train close to light speed and you see a clock on the train terminal and the clock ...
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0answers
87 views

Faster than light [closed]

I have been reading Professor Feynman's QED and I have a question.I hope this is the right place to ask it. In the book the Professor states that the speed of photons that is light can be more than ...
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2answers
101 views

“Derivation” of Minkowski metric?

Is there a deeper meaning behind the the Minkowski metric? Does it just come from the SR formulae? Or is there some deeper geometrical meaning, maybe in the context of GR?
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Vector representations of Lorentz transformation in terms of $E$ and $p$

Hello everybody the things I understand are the transformation properties of a four vector given as $\tag{1} p^\mu = \Lambda^\mu_{\,\,\nu} p^\nu.$ and an arbitrarily boosted transformation is of the ...
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4answers
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Does a photon in vacuum have a rest frame?

Quite a few of the questions given on this site mention a photon in vacuum having a rest frame such as it having a zero mass in its rest frame. I find this contradictory since photons must travel at ...
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0answers
60 views

Does Special Relativity Define a Number divided by 0? [duplicate]

As a new student of special relativity, I am confused by the statement light experiences no time, because $$∆t = {∆t_0\over\sqrt{1-{v^2\over c^2}}}$$ Wouldn't that imply that ${1\over0}= ...
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1answer
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Lagrangian for free particle in special relativity

From definition of Lagrangian: $L = T - U$. As I understand for free particle ($U = 0$) one should write $L = T$. In special relativity we want Lorentz-invariant action thus we define free-particle ...
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1answer
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Time dilation problem [closed]

A person on Earth signals with a laser beam at 6 minute intervals. Another person on a rocket moving away from Earth at 0.600c detects the signals. At what time intervals does the person on the rocket ...
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0answers
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Is macroscopic causality an issue in the context of certain quantum experiments?

In order to formulate my question properly I need to explain a few things. Cramer_Herbert Zych_Brukner Reference 1. - John Cramer, Nick Herbert, "An Inquiry into the Possibility of Nonlocal Quantum ...
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2answers
48 views

Watching a LIVE stream in spaceship traveling away from earth close to speed of light

My name is Dennis. This might sound just straight up ignorant of basic concepts of physics. I was having a conversation with my friend in regards to streaming a LIVE event on earth to a spaceship ...
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3answers
108 views

Time dilation. Why?

We are able to predict, measure and mathematically demonstrate time dilation, but are we able to explain 'why' it happens? what would be that explanation? Edit1 Think the question backwards: After ...
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1answer
1k views

Why magnetic field lines and force are not orthogonal with magnets?

The below explanation why magnetism exists is superb in this video. The explanation about magnets is also great in this video. A magnet has atoms with unpaired electrons forming mini magnets. The ...
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1answer
42 views

Traveling near the speed of light

If I travel near the speed of light, form a stationary observer perspectives, I will take 1 year plus to travel 1 light year, but in my perspective, would I take less than 1 year to travel to that ...
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1answer
78 views

Is cause-effect always preserved in relativity?

I guess most of you are familiar with the "paradox" of the train passing through a tunnel smaller than itself on a speed close to the speed of light and 2 guillotines (1 in the exit and 1 in the ...
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1answer
56 views

Is Lorentz transformation applicable of light itself?

I've just studied Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity and have followed most part of it. I was just wondering that whether the equations of Lorentz transformation are applicable on light? i.e. can ...
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Frames of reference and why are they different

Here is a quote from "The Elegant Universe" by Brian Greene. Imagine two countries that have been at war are sitting down to sign a treaty ending hostilities while traveling aboard a train that is ...