As a consequence of the Lorentz transformations, time and space transform into each other when changing reference frame. This calls for a unified description: Minkowski spacetime.

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2
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0answers
64 views

Do cosmologically redshifted photons violate energy conservation? [duplicate]

I understand that, due to the Doppler effect, different frames of reference moving at different velocities relative to each other will measure different photon frequencies and hence energy. The ...
5
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5answers
543 views

How to prove that we are living in a 3D world?

Is there any scientific experiment that can lead us to conclude we live in 3 dimensions without the premise of the conception of limited dimensions? Thank you all who helped in the improvement of ...
2
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1answer
293 views

Can an object be infinitely small?

I read somewhere that the earth has to be smaller than 1 cm to become a black hole, according to Schwarzschild. Since big bang came from a singularity, I am wondering, is there any minimum volume for ...
1
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1answer
488 views

Can electromagnetic radiation (i.e. photons) produce gravity? [duplicate]

I don't want to play with physical laws in a frivolous way. Assuming that the nature of matter and energy is the same, can a high density of highly energetic photons produce a gravity force? We do ...
-3
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2answers
105 views

What is an $n$ dimensional space? [closed]

How an $n$ dimensional space looks like? Is it possible that we are really in a space of dimension greater than 3?
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3answers
139 views

How many seconds is a temporal meter?

Is there a proof that time is a 4th dimension? If it is, then why not measure it in units of the previous three? Logical right? How many seconds is a temporal meter?
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9answers
3k views

If an event happens 10 light years away and we observe it here, did it actually happen 10 years ago?

I'm sorry if this question has been answered a squillion times, I need someone with smarts to explain it to me. If an event happens 10 light years away, and we observe it here, did it actually happen ...
0
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1answer
50 views

Tighten rope around cylindricaly shaped space

Imagine we live on cylinder(we are 2d creature), put a rope around that cylinder and start pulling both ends of the rope against each another. Will the space get deformed? I guess it will, I have to ...
1
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1answer
119 views

Relationship between lightlike and spatial compactification

The compactification of a spatial dimension, say $x^1$ given by the identification $x \sim x^1 + 2\pi R$ is said to be related to the lightlike compactification by a Lorentz boost : $$ \left( ...
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1answer
183 views

What is the smallest increment of space and the smallest increment of time? [closed]

I believe that every point in space is a surface point. And if it was possible to break through or tear a point in space, it will create a black hole. I believe that's why a black hole can exist ...
0
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1answer
443 views

What does a point in space mean? What we humans think a point in space is in scientific term? (a broader picture)

I am a first year and general student. I Am just curious about the vacuum or space. I just don't get what actually space is. Well, I know our scientists are still working on it but still I just want ...
1
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3answers
1k views

How energy curves spacetime?

We know through General Relativity (GR) that matter curves spacetime (ST) like a "ball curves a trampoline" but then how energy curves spacetime? Is it just like matter curvature of ST?
3
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2answers
287 views

Restriction of a Lagrangian

I'm wondering if anyone could help me with the following questions. Let $M$ be the Minkowski spacetime, given $f\in C^{\infty}(M) ; f(m)=x^{0}(m)$, with $\{x^{\mu}\}$ being a global Cartesian ...
1
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1answer
79 views

What is *uplift* in respect to extra dimensions and their stability?

What is uplift in respect to extra dimensions and their stability? It's notoriously hard to find something on this, as all possible keyword combinations pull up plethora of unrelated Google hits.
0
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0answers
124 views

What about continuity of Space and possible discreteness of Time? [duplicate]

Is time continuous or discrete? Is even this question a valid question? If you say, it all depends on resolution then assume the best possible resolution achievable. If it is discrete, then what about ...
2
votes
1answer
192 views

Planck length implies lattice structure of space? [duplicate]

There is known to be a lower limit on space, which can be derived from the Planck units. It can describe the minimum distance resolvable between two points; but what then would the structure of space ...
-3
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1answer
118 views

Time relative to pressure? [closed]

We all know the effects of speed on time, and we have a formula for that, but I have a hunch, that time also is relative to pressure, and that by increasing the pressure on matter, in fact time will ...
1
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2answers
341 views

In which direction do gravitons travel? Do they originate from mass or are they collected by masses?

This is a kind of silly question, that mostly goes unanswered: are gravitons detatched from the objects they act on, like photons in free space. Maybe gravity or gravitons are collected by mass ...
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0answers
95 views

Can universe be a closed manifold?

I had a question at MSE which gave a rise to another question. Maxwell equations can be written in form $$d\star F = J$$ Then by Stokes theorem we have $$ \int_U J = \int_U d \star F = ...
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1answer
70 views

Is the universe we know just shaped due to time? [closed]

Call me a daydreamer, but I could not stop myself for asking this question. I was idle when something ticked me and struck my head. I was thinking about universe, speed of light, and how time works. ...
20
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4answers
2k views

Is space “real”, or is it some sort of accepted postulate?

sorry for this very naive (layman) question. What is space? It seems to be every where in the equations of physics (as some sort of postulate or hidden hypothesis). We also have a direct experience ...
1
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1answer
385 views

Gravitational field strength and Horizon in Rindler coordinates

I came across the following statements in 't Hooft's black holes notes, but not being able to justify them. The metric in the Rindler coordinates $x=\tilde{x}, y=\tilde{y}, z= \rho \cosh{\tau}, t= ...
2
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2answers
178 views

How much faster would a Clock without gravity run?

Pardon the misleading title. It is to my understanding that moving/heavy clocks run slow. The Earth itself is under gravitational influence from many sources, and is moving. Is there a way to know ...
1
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2answers
85 views

What is a geometrical object?

From the Wikipedia link for Geometry: Geometry (Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position ...
1
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0answers
80 views

Wick rotation and special relativity

CMIIW, but as I understand it, Wick rotation replaces the Minkowski basis (t,x,y,z) with the Euclidean basis (it,x,y,z). Suppose that $t_2=t_1 \cosh \beta+x_1 \sinh \beta$ and $x_2=t_1 \sinh \beta+x_1 ...
0
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1answer
154 views

How many dimensions are there in total? [duplicate]

I happened to get my hands on a string theory book where its been said that the universe's fundamental particle i.e. the string, takes about ten dimensions for specifying itself under symmetry. What ...
4
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1answer
2k views

Is time quantized? Is there a fundamental time unit that cannot be divided? [duplicate]

Is the present just a sharp line between the past and the future with no time at all, or is the present a short frozen unit of time? Could time be quantized into a fundamental units? Like Planck ...
4
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1answer
91 views

Are there any restrictions on building the topology of spacetime out of the complement of open balls?

I assume that for a Lorentzian manifold (i.e. with Minkowski signature), the analog of an open ball is the interior of a light cone. My question is motivated by the observation that whereas any point ...
0
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0answers
184 views

Does a point exist in the real world [duplicate]

In mathematics we can have an infinite number of points between two integers. This is really circular logic since a point is defined as infinitely small. Does a point exist anywhere in the physical ...
5
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2answers
110 views

Which causal structures are absent from any “nice” patch of Minkowski space?

Which "causal separation structures" (or "interval structures") can not be found among the events in "any nice patch ($P$) of Minkowski space"?, where "causal separation structure" ($s$) should be ...
2
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1answer
124 views

Can the vanishing of the Riemann tensor be determined from causal relations?

Given a Lorentzian manifold and metric tensor, "$( M, g )$", the corresponding causal relations between its elements (events) may be derived; i.e. for every pair (in general) of distinct events in set ...
2
votes
1answer
112 views

Synchronization of clocks and observations of time in special relativity

I have thought up a situation that I cannot understand with my understanding of special relativity. I don't know general relativity, but as the situation doesn't involve gravity or acceleration, I'm ...
10
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2answers
552 views

How fast can time flow? A question of time dilation

(I would describe myself as an illiterate physics enthusiast, so I hope you'll forgive me if my ignorance is borderline offensive.) If I've understood anything of the concept of time dilation, your ...
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2answers
125 views

Points in Spacetime

Assume there are two points in spacetime $a=(t,x,y,z)$ and $a'=(t',x',y',z')$. Let's say that the first one is in the origin of spacetime i.e. $a=(0,0,0,0)$. The point $a'$ has two possibilities ...
1
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4answers
335 views

How can the big bang occur mathematically?

As we know time began with the big bang. Before that there was no time, no laws, nothing. Mathematically how can an event take place when no time passes by? How did the big bang took place when there ...
4
votes
3answers
252 views

How does relativity explain gravity, without assuming gravity [duplicate]

I have seen the "objects pull down on space-time" explanations, but they assume a "pull down" force themselves. Could anyone explain the space-time explanation without assuming gravity in the first ...
4
votes
5answers
731 views

Does the expansion of the universe soon after the Big Bang affect the amount of time that light takes to reach us?

If faster than light travel is impossible, how is it that light emitted from matter so close together in the time soon after the Big Bang is only now just reaching us? I would assume that there would ...
1
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1answer
131 views

Killing vector argument gone awry?

What has gone wrong with this argument?! The original question A space-time such that $$ds^2=-dt^2+t^2dx^2$$ has Killing vectors $(0,1),(-\exp(x),\frac{\exp(x)}{t}), ...
0
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1answer
212 views

Does the actual curvature of spacetime hold energy?

My understanding of GR is that curvature of spacetime reflects the density of energy-matter. Does the curvature itself have energy? Or if energy is assigned to curvature it simply reflects the energy ...
3
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2answers
359 views

Excluding big bang itself, does spacetime have a boundary?

My understanding of big bang cosmology and General Relativity is that both matter and spacetime emerged together (I'm not considering time zero where there was a singularity). Does this mean that ...
8
votes
1answer
276 views

Our Universe Can't be Looped? [duplicate]

With reference to the Twin-Paradox (I am new with this), now information of who has actually aged comes from the fact that one of the twins felt some acceleration. So if universe was like a loop, and ...
0
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0answers
53 views

metric extension outside the light cone

Could anyone explain what "extending the solution" beyond the past light cone means? Say, for example, if I have a metric (no coordinate singularities), how can I extend it to the outside of the past ...
0
votes
2answers
159 views

Limit on velocity in Minkowski Spacetime geometry

Let A be a rocket moving with velocity v. Then the slope of its worldline in a spacetime diagram is given by c/v. Since it is a slope, c/v = tan(theta) for some theta > 45 and theta < 90. Does ...
4
votes
2answers
843 views

Are all points in the universe connected?

Is it true that every point in the universe is connected or could be so theoretically? If so how is this mediated? Is it through the quantum nature of the fabric of space or is it through the ...
3
votes
1answer
281 views

The most general form of the metric for a homogeneous, isotropic and static space-time

What is the most general form of the metric for a homogeneous, isotropic and static space-time? For the first 2 criteria, the Robertson-Walker metric springs to mind. (I shall adopt the (-+++) ...
0
votes
1answer
607 views

Spacetime and Timelike Intervals

The difference between a “timelike” spacetime interval and a “spacelike” spacetime interval can be understood in the following way: If the spacetime interval between two events is timelike, there ...
0
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0answers
54 views

Has Time in the Universe been found to be Discrete or Continuous? [duplicate]

I have a question, has the Universe been found to come in Discrete Quantum, like Quantum Physics or is it Continuous in Nature? I was wondering if time was like a Continuum, like the fluid in a soft ...
1
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0answers
170 views

Do we expect that the universe is simply-connected? [duplicate]

I heard recently that the universe is expected to be essentially flat. If this is true, I believe this means (by the 3d Poincare conjecture) that the universe cannot be simply-connected, since the ...
4
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1answer
454 views

Questions about angular momentum and 3-dimensional(3D) space?

Q1: As we know, in classical mechanics(CM), according to Noether's theorem, there is always one conserved quantity corresponding to one particular symmetry. Now consider a classical system in a $n$ ...
2
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3answers
198 views

What is the cause the light is affected by gravity? [duplicate]

I know that photons have no mass and that a photons exist only moving at the speed of light. So what is the cause that a massive astronomical object can bend a ray of light? I have two thoughts, but I ...