As a consequence of the Lorentz transformations, time and space transform into each other when changing reference frame. This calls for a unified description: Minkowski spacetime.

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Difference between Distance and Space

So I take particle A and place it in space, then I place particle B 1,000,000 light years away from particle A. I strike a line between the two, and measure that line as having a length of 1,000,000 ...
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82 views

Do things move towards each other in space?

I watched a video once explaining space-time curvature, and it said that one of the things that made Einstein think of it is because objects in free fall move radially inward, so two objects falling ...
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83 views

proper time interval

We have two frames s and s' , s' moves with a constant velocity 'v' with respect to s in positive x direction, a particle B is thrown downwards from s' , and it collides with a particle A , the point ...
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92 views

Could time have tertiary directions?

This is a late night thought, but it seems interesting enough to ask: Has anyone considered the possibility that time might have more directions that forward and backward? Could time go sideways?
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2answers
84 views

Are fundamental particles just a trajectory in spacetime? [closed]

Long time ago Wheeler proposed an idea that there is only one electron, some kind of a closed(?) four dimensional knot in spacetime, and in one particular time we slice this knot with a plane and ...
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0answers
18 views

how to read the space time continuum plot

The space time continuum is shown a lot via a 3d plot with what looks like balls on a curved surface. How is it that all events in 4 dimensions can be drawn as just a curved surface? Is it because ...
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52 views

What are White Holes?

What are white holes? How do they affect spacetime? A black hole has extreme gravity which bends the spacetime fabric, but what does a white hole do? Also, what are they made of?
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1answer
179 views

Does the Michelson-Morley experiment disprove gravitational waves?

I may be misunderstanding gravitational waves, but doesn't the idea of a gravitational wave imply that spacetime is a field or "medium" through which waves propagate at speed $c$? Was not this idea ...
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1answer
104 views

How can a photon “stop”? What does its world line look like? [duplicate]

Einstein famously made a thought experiment: what would he see if he sat on a beam of light? His answer was -- it's impossible. Owing to him being a body with mass, he can never ever reach light speed ...
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79 views

Is each succeeding dimension time? [closed]

I have been researching but I have found nothing on this topic (at least after basic google searching and some deeper searching on this site), I'm not sure if this is a common sense thing or it is ...
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54 views

Outer Space & Universe Expansion: [duplicate]

Experts agree that the stuff within the universe is moving farther apart from all the other stuff in the universe--much like the dots marked on the outside of a balloon that is being inflated. We ...
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1answer
628 views

Why do people put exponentials there

In his book, Sean Carroll, says p. 194 chapter 5: To impose spherical symmetry, we begin b writing the metric of Minkowski space in polar coordinates $x^{\mu}=(t,r, \theta, \phi)$: $$ ...
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120 views

Would the speed of an object keep increasing if it keeps falling infinitely? Please check details [closed]

Assuming "A" and "B" to be two wormholes (Einstein-Rosen Bridge) inside the Earth's atmosphere, and Warmhole B be the opening to Warmhole A, would the speed of an object keep increasing if it enters ...
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3answers
372 views

Relative Time from a far place

I have read that whenever we see the sun we are seeing the sun as it was before 8 minutes ago. Meaning if the sun were to somehow go dark we would not know until 8 minutes after. Now I became ...
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1answer
60 views

It's a Hypothesis about the Beginning of the universe [closed]

Let's take a piece of paper and plot a couple of dots in it. If we shrink the paper infinitely, at some point it would reach a state of infinite density, that is; a Singularity. But even at that ...
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63 views

3D-representation of space-time

When I read something about GR, I nearly always see some pictures that look like trampolines, like this one. I know that the curvature of space-time is described by the Riemann-Tensor $R$. I was ...
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138 views

How to measure Torsion and Non-metricity?

In General Relativity, we most often work with the Levi-Civita connection (metric and torsion-free). What kind of experiment can we make to be sure that our physical space-time indeed is torsion-free ...
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3answers
6k views

Why should the Planck constant be a constant throughout all space?

Our value for the Planck constant $h$ can be found on experiments on Earth, but how do we know that the Planck constant doesn't change throughout space, for instance it depends weakly upon the ...
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2answers
123 views

Falling with same acceleration and meaning of gravity

My question is what does falling with same acceleration has to do with what Einstein concluded concerning the gravity in terms of the curvature?
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2answers
61 views

Big Bang: Initial velocity of all matter in four dimensions? [closed]

Consider this hypothesis: Two objects A and B, are able to maintain their spatial distance. Object A is near a neutron star, and thus it clock is running at a different speed than object B, and both ...
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27 views

Minimum amount of space [duplicate]

I always believed that there were no limits in the world and then I learned that a minimum temperature exists, and maybe a maximum speed. And now I am wondering about the boundaries of the world. Is ...
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0answers
18 views

Resources on the discreteness of space and time

Does anyone know any books or other sources of information on the discreteness of space and time? The only ones I've managed to find require graduate level physics knowledge, which sadly I do not ...
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4answers
210 views

Is there a geometric interpretation of the spacetime interval?

In Euclidean space, the invariant $s^2 = x^2+ y^2+ z^2$ is equal to the length square of the position vector $r$. This is easily understood and can be represented geometrically in a graph. On the ...
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3answers
119 views

Can space and time separately be curved?

How can I imagine curved time, if it is not a part of four dimensional spacetime? Similarly for space. What are the measurable, observable consequences of these two phenomena in a laboratory or in ...
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1answer
73 views

How does the expansion of the Universe affect Black Holes?

As know our Universe is expanding, which I have always visualised as some stretching of the metric of space-time, which "flattens" it. In the same time. our theoretical perception of Black Holes ...
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2answers
152 views

Is Bekenstein entropy limit inconsistent with universal continuity?

It is unknown whether the universe is discrete or continuous in its intricate quantum level structure. See for example: Can universal continuity be experimentally falsified? Is the universe finite ...
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1answer
82 views

Could this be a valid reason for why the universe could be infinite?

So, special relativity says that every frame is as good as any other frame, and there is no absolute frame of reference. All good. Suppose there is a finite universe (let's just assume the universe ...
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95 views

Can less gravity speed up time? [closed]

We know more gravity slows down time per Einsteins Theory of Relativity. However will a significantly less gravitational pull speed up time? Or is "our time" aka earth standard of time the fastest ...
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114 views

How fast does space/time travel?

It is said that before the big bang there was no before, as space/time was created in the big bang. The big bang creates a rapid expansion of space/time... so how fast is rapid?
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21 views

Given the intervals of a punctured flat spacetime how to reconstruct the intervals of the complete flat spacetime?

A set $\mathcal S$ of events can be characterized as a flat unbounded spacetime through a function $s^2 : \mathcal S \times \mathcal S \rightarrow \mathbb R$ which assigns spacetime interval values to ...
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1answer
60 views

Einstein space - proper definition [closed]

Excuse, this is my first question at this forum, I try to be clear and short. What is the exact definition of Einstein spaces? It's enough to say $$ G^{\mu\nu}_{;\mu}=0~? $$ Where $$ ...
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36 views

Is there a bound on spacelike intervals between the trajectories of a pair of chronometrically rigid participants in flat spacetime?

Considering, in flat spacetime, two participants, $A$ and $B$, who were "chronometrically rigid" with respect to each other (i.e. $A$ found constant ping duration with respect to $B$, and $B$ found ...
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1answer
87 views

According to general relativiy, why does earth revolve around the sun? Does the earth follow geodesics in spacetime caused by sun?

I know according to classical theory, its centrifugal force. Also, I need to assure that mass curves spacetime, not space. Now, if mass curves spacetime, how can an apple which follows geodesic in ...
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2answers
125 views

How do we know we live in 3 dimensions?

How do we know that we are really living in 3 dimensional world? We can draw 3D in a paper that is one dimension. So, maybe the world around us just looks 3D! how can we prove that we're living in 3 ...
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1answer
49 views

Explanation and quantum gravity [closed]

Is spacetime accelerating? Is it accelerating within an acceleration ?Or is it a constant? (are different objects or particles influenced by other rates in spacetime compared to one-another and if ...
3
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3answers
295 views

Physically what does warping (of space-time) mean?

So there's general relativity and Einstein's field equations that tell us "mass(or equivalently energy) warps space-time, and the warping tells mass how to move", but I'm still having trouble ...
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2answers
81 views

Space and time quanta? [closed]

Is there a possibility the space and the time are not continuous, but rather, quantified (only some positions in the space exist, and some instants in the arrow of time) ? Hopes my question is clear. ...
4
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2answers
65 views

The twin paradox and positively curved space

I'm reading about the twin paradox in special relativity - if there are two identical twins, one of whom who sets off in a high speed rocket to a planet, and then heads back, will find the twin who ...
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4answers
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Could the black hole in the center of the galaxy be a white hole?

In the center of the galaxy there is a strong radio source which we call Sagittarius A*. Based on the high speed and orbit of nearby stars we have calculated that something with the mass of more than ...
4
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0answers
65 views

Question about $\alpha-$plane in twistor theory

In twistor theory, given the complexified Minkowski space $CM$ and the projective twistor space $PT$, an $\alpha-$plane is defined as the correspondence in $CM$ wit a point $Z \in PT$. But I found ...
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1answer
73 views

If everything in the universe doubled in size overnight, would objects in space appear to move slower? [closed]

I've been struggling with this question for a while. Imagine an object moving from planet A to planet B at a constant speed of lets say 10 m/s. If everything suddenly doubled in size, I would imagine ...
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2answers
94 views

Frame dragging in general relativity versus classical vorticity concepts

Can anyone please clarify what one means by a vorticity in Space-Time? I'm aware of the vorticity in Fluid Mechanics. Is it the same vorticity that appears in General Relativity? Is vorticity related ...
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1answer
81 views

Warp Drive conundrum - Speculative science question [closed]

Let me begin by stating that this question about Warp Engines/Drives, which i understand is a speculative, also I am not a Professional scientist or someone with a degree in physics. The question will ...
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2answers
99 views

Are all forces explained in terms of curved spacetime? [duplicate]

Gravity is explained in general relativity as curved spacetime. Can the other forces (electromagnetic and weak/strong nuclear) also be explained by this?
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1answer
56 views

expansion of space and time vs passage of time [closed]

Is passage of time is due to expansion of space and time?And the "dilation of time(by general relativity)" due to the force of gravity held against the expansion itself,like time slows down near ...
0
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1answer
53 views

Time it takes for a single unit of movement [duplicate]

I've just been wondering, what is the time that passes between one moment to another. Lets take an example that we have a single light source, so small that it emits only a single, constant beam of ...
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1answer
51 views

Singularity - Origin Point

How can it be said that the real beginning of the real universe involved a "singularity of zero size and infinite density of mass" when no space existed at all to define any density and when ...
3
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1answer
45 views

Are pairs of events characterized by spacetime intervals even if the spacetime containing these events is not flat?

In Wikipedia, spacetime intervals are presented explicitly under the heading "Spacetime intervals in flat space"; apparently including a presentation of spacetime intervals for (all) pairs of events ...
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1answer
69 views

Why $x=-ct$ line in a spacetime diagram?

I can understand why the $x=ct$ line is needed as follows: If $c \Delta t \geq \Delta x$ then the event can be causally related to your current position, so the event could not appear in reverse ...
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2answers
110 views

I have been thinking about the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics [closed]

I have been thinking about the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics. after giving it much thought I'm wondering if the problem is not in the formulas used but the numbering system. ...