As a consequence of the Lorentz transformations, time and space transform into each other when changing reference frame. This calls for a unified description: Minkowski spacetime.

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Time. Is it really a dimension? [duplicate]

I have trouble accepting that time is a dimension, in the same way that space has three dimensions. Wherever there is space and matter, it has spatial properties. You can move back and forwards in ...
3
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2answers
152 views

Is curvature space-time has impact on the object geometry

When we have e.g. metallic cube of dimensions 1x1x1m and we put it on the space without gravitational force the cube has equal 1x1x1m and we can use Euclidean geometry. But when this cube move on ...
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2answers
97 views

A twin-like paradox, with no acceleration and no 3rd reference point. What would happen?

The following is a variation on the twin paradox, with no acceleration and no 3rd reference point (i.e. described purely in terms of relative motion). Imagine two observers initially located right ...
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1answer
173 views

Does Inertial time dilation demonstrate that Time is not a dimension? [duplicate]

If time is a dimension and 'now' simply an expression of your position with respect to that dimension, the progress of any object along that dimension should remain in step with all other objects. By ...
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0answers
29 views

Why doesn't electricity and magnetism distort space as well? [duplicate]

I think Kaluza/Klein was partly worked on to find additional dimensions to account for electric and magnetic fields. I am confused why the gravity field gets the privileged spot of distorting ...
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1answer
72 views

What happens to spacetime in a universe with no clocks?

For example, in the far future when all matter has been absorbed into BHs which have evaporated leaving only photons.
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2answers
246 views

What would have been the story of the Universe if there was no mechanism to produce massive fundamental baryonic particles? [duplicate]

Thanks for those of you who took their time answering my problem but it seems that there is a misunderstanding between us. Most answers are based on the assumption of Electroweak symmetry breaking ...
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2answers
2k views

Does the existence of “gravitational waves” (assuming they exist) imply that time exists as a 4th dimension in the universe? [closed]

I'm new to thinking about special and general relativity and I have no formal training as a physicist. However, I've been doing a bit of thinking about spacetime recently. I was wondering if ...
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1answer
48 views

Frame dragging resulting in an orbital plane?

In astrophysics today we talked about spinning black holes, ring singularities, and frame dragging. Is this also (to some degree) the cause of the milky way being as flat as it is? Does the spin of ...
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1answer
50 views

3 points in space, relative motion, and the speed of light

I'm new to thinking about relativity, as well as phenomena related to the speed of light, time dilation, length contraction, simultaneity, etc. I am pondering a paradox. Assumptions: Motion is ...
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3answers
145 views

Is time unidirectional because of 4th spatial dimension? [closed]

We heard about an expanding universe. Consider an expanding sphere. Consider the surface of the sphere as our 3 dimensional universe. Can time dimension be the radius $R$ of this sphere? And because ...
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1answer
44 views

Does volume of an object affect space-tme curvature? [closed]

If I have 2 bodies of same mass, let 100 tonnes, Both have different volume, let one of $1m^3$ and other of $10,00,000m^3$. Which would have more gravity. Consider here that affect of gravity by ...
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1answer
35 views

Lorentz Invariants and Time dilation/Distance contraction?

If distances contract in direction of motion and time dilates at high speeds, why are the rest mass $m_0$ and proper time $t_0$ called "invariant" under Lorentz transformations. Since depending on ...
2
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0answers
41 views

Could a 3+1 space be embedded in a 4+1 space and retain its 3+1 characteristics? [closed]

I'm confused because I can conceptualize this embedding scenario in two seemingly incompatible ways. Which of the following scenarios are possible?: 1) 4+1 space automatically enforces 4 dimensions ...
2
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2answers
41 views

How object's movement is separated from the space-time movement?

In Issues related to expansion of the universe while space-time itself is moving how it is possible to calculate the speed of an moving object? In other words how object's movement is separated from ...
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3answers
109 views

How/why does gravity affect spacetime? [duplicate]

I've always heard that gravity warpes spacetime, but I've never understood why and/or how. I'm only 12 so please keep it simple if possible.
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1answer
43 views

Could the rest mass be somehow considered as a very exotic kind of kinetic energy?

In its rest frame a free system of invariant mass $m$ has energy $E=mc^{2}$. That frame is moving in spacetime with a four-velocity whose magnitude is $c$. Inside my brain something asks: Would ...
12
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3answers
1k views

How does gravity truly work? [duplicate]

I Am only 12 years old and I'm constantly wondering and trying understand how gravity really works. On YouTube everyone always talks about objects wrapping space time around themselves and uses the ...
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1answer
69 views

Wouldn't it take an infinite amount of time to create an infinite universe? [duplicate]

I have heard many people say that the universe is possible infinite. But, if it takes time and energy to create bodies such as planets and stars and the universe has only existed for 13.7 billion ...
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0answers
27 views

Parity and Time reversal when the number of space or time dimensions is even

There's a side remark in the middle of section 2.6 of Weinberg I that I find a bit unclear. Suppose that $L(p)$ is a boost that carries the four momentum $k^\mu=(0,0,0,M)$ to $p^\mu$, and that ${\bf ...
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1answer
87 views

Does mass compress space-time?

My understanding of relativity explains that the presence of mass warps space-time so that light travelling through the warp follows at straight line but the warp itself is curved and therefore the ...
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1answer
70 views

Questions about how the curvature of universe is described with a single number

I often read of physics talking about "the" curvature of the universe, giving it some letter $K$, and claiming that we have seen that $K = 0$ within such and such certainty. I have three questions: ...
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2answers
65 views

Don't rulers expand at the same rate as the universe they measure? [duplicate]

If you placed a giant ruler between the sun and our nearest star for example, wouldn't the divisions on the ruler expand at the same rate as the universe - therefore maintaining a constant distance? ...
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2answers
84 views

Can gravity prevent quantum superposition of positions for a massive object?

Theoretically, nothing prevents a really massive object to be in a superposition of two spatial locations, even far away one from the other. Then I guess spacetime would also show the superposition of ...
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1answer
46 views

Since Alcubierre drive moves a flat region of space, does it mean that space acts lika a liquid? [closed]

The Alcubierre drive would move a patch of flat space through space and, leaving exotic matter aside, is mathematically correct. Does that means that space-time is not a "solid" lattice i.e. not ...
2
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2answers
57 views

Could it be possible to bend space in more than one “way”?

Ever since the announcement of the discovery of gravitational waves, I have found myself pondering related notions of space. Recently, I was thinking about an analogy I've heard to explain how mass ...
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1answer
67 views

Black hole's singularity: Does it has to be multi-dimensional?

We assume that there is an infinite density at the center of a black hole. But we also know that if it was really infinite, it would apply an infinite gravitational force to masses even if they were ...
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3answers
222 views

Two “devil's advocate” questions related to LIGO measurement results interpretation

"If you would be a real seeker after truth, it is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things." Rene Descartes Laymen like me typically refers to Wikipedia ...
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3answers
95 views

How is Space-Time produced? [closed]

The parable of the ant walking on the surface of a balloon tells us that as the balloon expands, more of surface is created, hence more place for the ant to walk. Space-Time is also in the same ...
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2answers
86 views

How do you know what kind of space(time) you have when solving the Einstein Field Equations?

I'm experimenting with the EFE, and I ''invented'' a metric; a diagonal non-zero metric, and I discovered that the Riemann tensors are equal to zero which implies the Einstein tensor $G_{mn}$ equals ...
0
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1answer
58 views

What dictates the rate in which time passes? [closed]

I understand that special relativity tells us that our perception of the passage of time can change depending on reference frames. But why does time pass the rate at which it does in my reference ...
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0answers
96 views

What is the justification for continuing to model space-time as a manifold in string theory?

Background The question I have arises from taking seriously the idea that, in a physical theory, one should first define all physical quantities via (thought) experiment. Justification and ...
3
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1answer
56 views

Is the cosmological horizon expanding faster than space itself?

I read that the rate of expansion of the universe is still a mystery. But if it's actually decelerating, wouldn't it mean that our cosmological horizon is expanding faster than space, and that one day ...
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0answers
22 views

Time in the early universe [duplicate]

When it is said, for example, that grand unification took place "Between 10−43 second and 10−36 second after the Big Bang", how are these figures of time derived? Moreover, do these figures have any ...
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1answer
101 views

Time slows down as you approach the speed of light, travelers observe speeds faster than light travel? [closed]

If I was on a spaceship traveling almost at the speed of light, my time would slow down relative to the time for a stationary external observer. My question is, since we measure distances between ...
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0answers
60 views

Scale factor of the universe

Do we impose that the scale factor $a(t)$ of the Universe is a continuous function? Or there is a physical meaning? Usually in physics we define functions to be continuous, such as the velocity of a ...
4
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0answers
89 views

Aren't black holes required to exist forever in our frame of reference?

I know that for an observer far away, nothing ever crosses a black hole horizon (due to time dilation), while in the frame of reference of a falling observer the horizon is nothing special on its way ...
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4answers
147 views

Does light in vacuum actually travel at the speed of light? [duplicate]

I know my question sounds like a joke (and I suppose on some level it is) but I'm confounded by the following: As the thought experiment goes, if I'm in a spaceship flying rapidly the people on earth ...
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1answer
21 views

Energy to move in space-time

Disclaimer : I am quite a beginner in physics, so very sorry if this is too much basic of a question but I have never read anything about what I am going to ask now. Or maybe I have but did not ...
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1answer
63 views

Is it correct to think about a point in time as the set of positions of all “things”?

Is it correct to think about a point in time as the set of positions of all "things" (photons, electrons, etc) that exist in the universe at that moment, despite the fact that simultaneity is ...
1
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0answers
38 views

Do relativistic frames imply different realities? [duplicate]

From Einstein's principle of relativity space-time and mass are relative to the frame from which they are being observed. Now would that mean a ball moving at the speed of light wrt to earth would ...
5
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1answer
122 views

How do we choose how to discretise spacetime in loop quantum gravity?

In LQG we choose a two-complex (or other) on which to discretise GR before quantising. I'm a little uncertain about the nature of this choice. Is the two-complex an a priori property of the universe ...
1
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1answer
114 views

What are gravitational waves relative to? [closed]

I have been having trouble picturing what kind of waves say Sun and Earth would make. Looking from top perspective Sun is in the middle and denting space while Earth is moving which is also denting ...
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2answers
89 views

Is Time Dilation in GR Simply a Consequence of Curved Space?

My understanding of time dilation in General Relativity is that it is the consequence of particles traveling at the speed of causality following longer, curved paths. Since it takes longer for two ...
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1answer
74 views

Is it possible to travel faster than the speed of light under extreme warping of spacetime?

The event horizon of a black-hole is defined as the point at which light itself cannot escape, supposedly due to a black-hole's immense gravity and effect on spacetime. However, would this not require ...
1
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0answers
41 views

Measuring distance in a spaceship moving with 0.5c [closed]

If there are a spaceship moving at a speed of 0.5c that sent a photon when an asteroid was exactly $3\times 10^8$ m away, will the distance between the spaceship and the asteroid when the photon hits ...
0
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2answers
79 views

How is the universe flat?

I have real trouble visualising what is meant by the descriptor 'flat' when referred to the shape of the observable universe. Which one of the below is more accurate? a) It is flat in a 2D way, like ...
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3answers
86 views

Time in spaceships near the speed of light

I know that the time on a moving object moves slowly compared to a stationery one, but if someone on a spaceship that moves at V=0.5c and a person is driving it. Will he notice that the clock on his ...
4
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3answers
230 views

Gravitational self-interaction

Today, someone asked me why "the warped space-time warps itself" (he read it in Kip Thorne's: The Science of Interstellar). I guess this is related to the gravitational self-interaction. But I don't ...
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1answer
57 views

Turbulence in gravitational waves

I want to understand physical meaning and possible implications of few terms often used in physics specially with regards to gravitational waves / space-time fabric Space-time fabric is disturbed by ...