As a consequence of the Lorentz transformations, time and space transform into each other when changing reference frame. This calls for a unified description: Minkowski spacetime.

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Looping fractal paradox

Is it popular belief in the scientific community that all matter is infinitely fractal in a looping manner, if so where does this loop wrap? Particle equals universe? Would all particles contain a ...
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2answers
65 views

Why does time stop its flow? [duplicate]

According to the "list verse" time gets to a pause when someone or something travels at the speed of light. But a question still lies in my mind, if time always travels forward and does not stop at ...
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53 views

Is it known what the necessary and sufficient conditions are for the existence of a “3+1 split” (by means of a foliation) of a (Lorentzian) manifold?

When trying to do physics on a more general pseudo-Riemannian manifold we want to require that there is a foliation of this manifold into three-dimensional subspaces. By this I mean we would like to ...
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37 views

Could time consistently flow in reverse?

Could time consistently flow in reverse? Here is an article about the subject of quantum asymmetry of time and space. Thoughts?
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2answers
52 views

Space-time and gravitational fields

I am reading a book by Carlo Rovelli, Seven Brief Lessons On Physics, and would like to check if I have understood something. Apologies if my question is badly phrased, feel free to edit where ...
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1answer
49 views

Evaporating black hole Penrose diagram

The context for this is the diagram from From where (in space-time) does Hawking radiation originate? - the more I think of it, the less it makes any sense ) This particular question is about ...
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1answer
41 views

What if--the universe is closed and very small? [duplicate]

Closed--you can come back to where you started by going all the way in one direction. Very small--the expansion of the universe, if inevitable, will not be able to prohibit this kind of round-about ...
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2answers
93 views

Does time have a minimum 'speed'?

Sorry if this is an ignorant question, but I've been having some trouble grasping some concepts related to time dilation. So far, my understanding of the concept says that if I am in a certain frame ...
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0answers
42 views

Could a perfect vacuum exist at the boundary of the universe?

Space is not truly a vacuum because of our observation of quantum foam, but if causality does not exist outside our universe, could that mean that quantum foam cannot exist outside our observable ...
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1answer
70 views

Big Bang Quarks Travelling at Light Speed [closed]

When I think of an explosion it lasts a fraction of second. When the entire mass of the universe explodes how much time passes before the perfect sphere slows from traveling at/near the speed of light ...
3
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1answer
59 views

Universe vs Multiverse. Time and Space

Wikipedia defines a multiverse as a hypothetical set of finite and infinite possible universes. Similarly, it defines the Universe is as "all of time and space and its contents". On the surface, ...
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1answer
21 views

What is the meaning of the particle horizon in conformal diagrams?

I'm reading "Physical Foundations of Cosmology" (Mukhanov) and in Chapter 2.3 conformal diagrams get introduced. They seem to be a (graphical) tool to understand the causal structure of the universe. ...
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1answer
35 views

light in black holes and space time

I watched videos, read articles, learned a lot about black holes and got confused: Lets say that a light is doing its way inside a black hole toward the singularity. If it's inside the event ...
3
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1answer
60 views

Most efficient speed to travel at, considering the effects of time dilation; according to Special Relativity

I understand that this question has recently been asked, and yet not answered to the greatest and most understandable extent, but I was wondering whether travelling at the speed of light is really the ...
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1answer
35 views

Why do we look at non-flat geometries in Cosmology?

In Cosmology we use the Robertson-Walker-Metric which follows from the cosmological principle & mathematics. This metric leaves three cases for a possible curvature (or geometry) of space (not ...
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1answer
71 views

Mass and time relativity [duplicate]

In the space between galaxies in the absence of matter, would time run faster than inside a galaxy? A black hole can slow time. Is there a cosmic opposite of that effect on time? Like the following ...
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1answer
30 views

Do wormholes only allow FTL travel in “folded” spacetime?

Faster than light wormhole travel depicted in science fiction and in popular science articles seems to assume that rather than being flat (with dimples centered around large masses), spacetime is ...
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45 views

If black hole is equivalent to a planet of same mass for a distant observer, then why does 'excess radius formula' require uniform mass density?

I understand that the spacetime curvature of a non-rotating, uncharged black hole is identical to that of a planet with same mass/energy for an observer at a distance farther than the radius of the ...
2
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1answer
54 views

Gravity is Instant [duplicate]

Without being able to manipulate gravity. How do we know that gravity is restricted to the speed of light? or gravitational effects from an exploding star would be felt (if we were near) before we ...
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1answer
58 views

Theoretical implications of multidimensional Time [duplicate]

While the idea of extra spatial dimensions has been around for quite a while now, is there a possibility or any theory which proposes extra time dimensions? If so, what could be theoretical ...
3
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1answer
57 views

Why mass can distort spacetime? [duplicate]

Ok I knew nothing about the definition of mass but I do know that mass can be converted into energy and vice versa. And I read that anything that have stress, energy and momentum will bend ...
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1answer
48 views

What is the physical significance of taking derivative with respect to proper time?

I would like to know if there is any physical significance associated with the derivative of a quantity with respect to proper time or is it just a mathematical trick. Since proper time is measured in ...
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1answer
65 views

Gravitational Time Dilation vs Acceleration Time Dilation

I might be a little dense to this subject, but I would like to ask a question relating to this one ( Is gravitational time dilation different from other forms of time dilation? ) but asking if this ...
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0answers
35 views

Does entropy flatten spacetime?

Forgive me if this is a non-question, but I could not find anything regarding this. I only know parts of GR, and I am not familiar with the math. Since energy and matter density curve spacetime, ...
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99 views

If gravity is due to curvature, how does gravity work in situations with no curvature?

The strength of the gravitational field falls off as the inverse square of the distance from a spherical source. It only falls off as the inverse of the distance from an extended cylindrical or line ...
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1answer
77 views

Why do we introduce the idea of manifold in GR books

After reading Timaeus answer here: http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1302672/compound-map-in-manifolds, I got an idea that spacetime we usually talk about in GR can be described as a manifold. ...
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2answers
122 views

Why time slows only for moving object and not stationary observer? How the “stationary” & “moving” are decided? [duplicate]

Explanation for the questions in the title: According to the the (special theory of) Relativity, if an observer is stationary and sees a fast moving object then time runs faster for the observer ...
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1answer
42 views

Using wormholes to see out of the visible universe

As is commonly known, using our telescopes, we can only see so much of the universe because of its faster than light expansion. However, although under normal circumstances it is impossible to see ...
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2answers
76 views

Is space expanding equally in every direction?

Does space expand equally in every direction, so that it draws a perfect sphere or is expansion asymmetric, so it creates "bubbles" (when seen from the outside)?
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1answer
78 views

Geometry of spacetime and spinor bilinears

In this paper (http://arxiv.org/abs/0704.0247) p.20, the author says in the section titled Geometry of spacetime the following: In order to obtain the spacetime geometry, we consider the spinor ...
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43 views

Direction of Gravity [duplicate]

I ran into a pde that has a parameter in it that can be either $+1$ or $-1$. They say the $+1$ case corresponds to gravity pointing upwards, whereas the $-1$ case applies to gravity pointing ...
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1answer
91 views

Bigger Galaxies = Faster Clocks [closed]

There are in all about 100 known galaxies with blueshifts out of the billions of galaxies in the observable universe. We have Blue-shifted galaxies are in our own local group, and are all bound to ...
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3answers
206 views

Time Dilation Equals Red Shift looking in or blue shift looking out

We can see the center of our galaxy. With more density near the center of our galaxy is red shifting observed from our perspective? From the center of the galaxy looking at us would a blue shift be ...
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1answer
61 views

Is an event formally a 4-vector? [duplicate]

An event is a 4D point in spacetime. At every point in spacetime there is a tangent space. 4-vectors live in the tangent space. One can contract two events using a metric tensor. Is there a process ...
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1answer
46 views

Empty space and velocity

If there was a universe without anything in it except you in a space rocket how you would you know what your velocity if you kept the engine on?
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40 views

How confident are we that we live in a universe that has at least a 4th spatial dimension?

Modern pop culture would have us believe that there is such a thing as the 4th spatial dimension. And yes it's easily shown that $n$ dimensions is possible using math alone and 3 just happens to be ...
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2answers
118 views

Can multiple timelines exist according to theoretical physics? [closed]

Multiple timelines is not a reality yet (as of 2016's science and technology), but exists only in Marvel/DC universe. It is something that is used to explain the paradox of time-travel. If you go back ...
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2answers
60 views

What does “spacetime becomes dominated by quantum effects” mean exactly?

I have read about Planck length on wikipedia. In some forms of quantum gravity, the Planck length is the length scale at which the structure of spacetime becomes dominated by quantum effects, ...
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2answers
112 views

Is causality a total order?

I've read that it is physically not possible to violate causality defined as a total order on the spacetime graph. So I was wondering if at least causality can be broked down to a partial order and if ...
2
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2answers
75 views

Gravity spacetime visualization [duplicate]

When gravity spacetime is visualized, it's a sag with the lowest point in the middle of the planet/star as you can see here: For all planets and stars, there is zero G in the core due to that the ...
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1answer
22 views

Is the hypothesis “at some level, spacetime becomes discrete” falsifiable?

Suppose I conjectured that, at some length scale, spacetime was discretized into "cells", Minecraft-style. For simplicity, I guess let's say they're cubes with side length $n$. Presumably we can put ...
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Can an event occur before or after the other one depending on what frame of reference we are in?

Two buses moving relative to each other with 30% the speed of light (4 light-min apart). Now by some mysterious way bus 1 comes to the knowledge that after 3 min-bus 2 time bus 2 is going to explode. ...
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2answers
416 views

How do I describe the order of events in spacetime?

In Newtonian mechanics, we have 3-space and time. Time allows us to order events. For example, I hold a ball in the air at time $t_0$. Then I drop it at some later time $t_1 > t_0$. Finally it hits ...
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2answers
100 views

Why can't gravitational force have repulsive counter part?

The valleys in the space-time curvature signifies the existence of an attractive body which causes the curvature. So why can't we say that the hills in the fabric of space-time is a source of ...
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2answers
49 views

Time dilation and freefall (follow up and simplification) [closed]

A person is four miles up in the atmosphere, and freefalls towards earth. Another person is standing on earth, watching them come down. During this period of freefall, which person experiences more ...
3
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1answer
61 views

When is a circle not a circle?

Imagine a 2D uniform circular motion of constant magnitude but changing direction in an area of zero g. The forces will be equal all the way round - it will be a perfect circle. Now imagine the same ...
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3answers
201 views

How can the past, the present and the future coexist at the same time? [closed]

We all heard it many times, the theory of Time suggest it is parallel rather than being linear. This leaves the door opened for alternate realities and well, immortality. However, even after reading ...
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1answer
92 views

Black hole merger orbital speed

If a ship is close to a black hole and we see it getting slower to the point if could see them not for red shift would almost stop moving. Then how fast is the little black hole moving in this video? ...
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1answer
50 views

See behind the black hole

Why in this video does the 2nd black hole appears to change size and appear larger the farther away it gets? How can you see behind it? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ENd8Sz0AFOk
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Spacetime as a coset of a symmetry group

In the introduction to his nice PNAS paper on symmetry, David Gross said Einstein’s great advance in 1905 was to put symmetry first, to regard the symmetry principle as the primary feature of ...