Solid-state physics studies how macroscopic properties of solids (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) result from their microscopic structure. It usually deals with the scale where quantum properties of the particles are substantial.

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Determining if a semiconductor is n-type, p-type or intrinsic

The probability that an energy state in the conduction band is occupied by an electron is 0.001. Would this semiconductor then be n-type, p-type, or intrinsic? Notation that I use: $E_F$ represents ...
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174 views

Connecting Fermi levels and band diagrams to potential diagrams?

I'm trying to make sense of how you can find the potential diagram given the band diagrams of a few adjacent materials. As a simple example, in semiconducting heterostructures, if you have sandwich ...
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52 views

Why can I see the 5D0 to 7F3 transition in the trivalent Eu?

According to the selection rules of the intra-configurational f-f transitions, if the J of the initial or final state is zero, a transition with $\Delta J = 3$ is forbidden by electrical dipole, ...
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What is the difference between lattice vectors and basis vectors?

Google has not been very useful in this regard. It seems no one has clearly defined terms and Kittel has too little on this.
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351 views

Ashcroft Mermin Solid State Physics Eq. 2.60ff

I'm trying to follow the steps in Eq. 2.60 of said book. What I cant seem to figure out is how to change the integration variables from 'k' to 'E', as they state. The equation is $$\int ...
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Mobility in semiconductors

Good afternoon everybody. I am reading on a book about semiconductor mobility. I have fully understood the definition, but I also noticed that often one talks about high or low mobility. My question ...
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186 views

Does anyone know the difference and relation between $k\cdot p$ method and tight binding (TB) method?

Among the methods of calculating energy bands for crystals, first-principles method is the most accurate. Besides first principles, two commonly used modeling methods are the $k\cdot p$ method and ...
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475 views

Energy band diagram of a system of Silicon Quantum dots

Suppose that we have a system of Silicon nanoparticles embedded in ZnO dielectric matrix. i'm thinking about how to construct the energy band structure of this system , suppose that we already have ...
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799 views

How is contact resistivity defined for a Schottky contact, or the Schottky barrier height for an ohmic contact?

Based on the transfer length method (TLM), one can accurately calculate the contact resistivity for an ohmic contact, by evaluating the absolute resistance measured through the test structure and ...
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35 views

What exactly are crystal planes and how do they reflect x-rays?

What exactly are crystal planes and how do they reflect x-rays? Are crystal planes real physical planes or just an abstract concept? What are these planes made of? If they are an abstraction, what ...
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46 views

Relationship between Polarizability and Conductivity

I've seen in the literature the relation: $\sigma (q,\omega) = \frac{i e^2 \omega}{q^2}\chi(q,\omega)$ where $\sigma$ is the conductivity and $\chi$ the polarizability. However my attempt to derive ...
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149 views

Bloch's theorem

I am studying Bloch's theorem, which can be stated as follows: The eigenfunctions of the wave equation for a period potential are the product of a plane wave $e^{ik \cdot r}$ times a modulation ...
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49 views

How does band gap vary with the cell volume?

How does band gap vary with the cell volume? is there a relation? If the volume is compressed, the interaction between atoms would be more, therefore the perturbation is higher hence the splitting ...
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156 views

Energy dispersion in graphene

Given that graphene has linear energy dispersion near the Fermi level and the dispersion is given by $E=\hbar \nu_F|\vec{K}|$, I would like to determine the density of states. I think it is equal to ...
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61 views

Frequency dependence of permittivity — why not monotonic?

I naively thought that most materials were transparent to radiation of frequencies above their plasma frequency, and opaque to radiation below it. The most intuitive (and analyzed lightly in ...
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207 views

Absorption of a gas into a solid

When a gas interacts with a (crystalline) solid, some scenarios may happen: scattering: gas atoms will not stick or penetrate (do not interact with the solid) Adsorption: gas atoms stick to the ...
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451 views

How to interpret band structures

I'm currently taking a Solid State Physics class, and is currently reading about the quantum mechanical description of solids. I then came across the following figure: It's supposed to be the band ...
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627 views

Partition Function for Two Level System

I have a system with $N_s$ sites and $N$ particles, such that $N_s >> N >> 1$. If a site has no particle, then there is zero energy associated with that site. The $N$ particles occupy the ...
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67 views

Why do excitonic absorptions have small bandwidth?

Below is an image of the optical density (proportional to the absorption coefficient) of KBr crystal at low temperature. Indicated at 6.6 ev and 7.7 eV are the absorption by excitons. As you can see, ...
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339 views

Derivation of Matrix Components of Hamiltonian in Tight Binding Method

Im currently struggling with the description of the tight binding method in the original paper by Slater and Koster from 1954 (where a free version of the paper can be found under this link). In ...
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184 views

A few questions about the Fermi Level/Energy

My first question is, how is the Fermi Energy for a material actually determined? I know this derivation, but it seems to say that the Fermi Energy is just based on the electron density (and maybe ...
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211 views

Difference between charge density wave and charge distribution

We can always see modulated charge density, the Friedel Oscillation, around an probe charge due to other electrons' response. Can this be called charge density wave (I believe not)? If not, what is ...
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295 views

valence bands in graphene

In Graphene, each carbon use 3 electrons to form sp2 bonding with neighboring, and in a unit cell, there are 2 carbon atoms, so at least these 6 electrons contribute to 6 valence bands. Then my ...
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103 views

Is this 2D structure triclinic?

The only rotation axis obvious to me is rotation by 360 degrees, the identity. Vertical mirror planes I've been dicing and cutting it through several planes and I still see none. Yet, the structure ...
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184 views

What are the rainbow and ladder approximations in a solid state physics context?

All references I find talk about quarks and gluons, where I have only very limited knowledge about. From it's name (rainbow) I guess it applies to fermions coupled to bosons and we're interested in ...
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231 views

I can't figure out crystal planes with negative intercepts

As seen above, I don't follow how you figure out those planes. It seems they're not using the origin labeled. I'm not really sure I understand spatially what's going on in the left figure so let's ...
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138 views

Electric current streamlines in induction cooking vessel

I am looking for a plot of the typical streamlines of the electric induced currents ("eddy currents") in a induction cooking vessel. How can one theoretically predict the streamlines? How is it ...
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75 views

Estimate the difference between two sets of atoms

I've been working on amorphous structures derived from a crystalline one (using MD) containing $N$ atoms. I want to prove that these structures are different and to quantify their "differentness". One ...
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170 views

Dispersion relation in continuum mechanics

I'm looking at the vibration of a solid having a lattice structure, they obey the following equation: $$\rho\partial_t^2u_i = C_{ijkl}\nabla_j\nabla_ku_{l}$$ with $u(\vec{x},t)$ the displacement to ...
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117 views

How creation of point defects in semiconductors is affected by strain?

When the effect of the strain on solids is discussed, normally the explanation is the following: increasing stress, first point defects created, then dislocations, then plastic deformation starts, ...
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213 views

Inhomogeneous Effective Mass in a 2D Lattice

Consider a tight-binding square lattice in 2D. This lattice has two different nearest neighbor tunneling rates along the x and y directions; call them $J_{x}$ and $J_{y}$. All longer range tunneling ...
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611 views

How robust is Kramers degeneracy in real material?

Kramers theorem rely on odd total number of electrons. In reality, total number of electrons is about 10^23. Can those electrons be so smart to count the total number precisely and decide to form ...
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1answer
293 views

A question about definition of Fermi energy

Wikipedia states the definition of Fermi energy as for "a system of non-interacting fermions". If we have to assume free electrons in a solid behave this way before we are able to calculate Fermi ...
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1answer
204 views

Fourier analysis in crystallography

What is the best reference for an introduction to the use of Fourier analysis in crystallography?
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742 views

Effective mass in Aluminium lattice?

How do we calculate the effective mass of an electron in an Aluminium lattice? Is there any simple analytical way to work it out?
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In k$\cdot$p theory, how does one calculate the bulk inversion asymmetry coefficients given in table 6.3 in Winkler?

In k$\cdot$p theory, how does one calculate the bulk inversion asymmetry coefficients given in table 6.3 in Winkler? Winkler's book on spin-orbit coupling effects is available free online. In ...
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1answer
53 views

What are hot electrons?

What are they? How are they created? And what do they have to do with plasmons? I searched the web, but I would like more reliable and straightforward sources.
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1answer
88 views

Kronig-Penney model

I am studying the Kronig-Penney model as treated in the book by Kittel: Introduction to Solid State Physics. In this model one considers a period potential which is zero in the region $[0,a]$ ...
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49 views

What is $\epsilon_\infty$ in this equation and why can it be neglected in the IR?

I'm reading this paper (warning, PDF) and they mention that the complex permittivity $\epsilon$ and complex conductivity $\sigma$ are related through the equation $$\epsilon - \epsilon_\infty = (4\pi ...
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38 views

Force constant of metals - Kohn anomaly

In Introduction to Solid State Physics (Kittel), it assumed the force constant between plane $s$ and $s+p$ $C_p=A\frac{\sin pk_0a}{pa}$ in metals to represent a Kohn anomaly. It says such a form is ...
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1answer
59 views

Out-of-Plane Phonons

I am trying to derive the out-of-plane phonon dispersion relation for a membrane. As far as I can tell, one of the simplest ways to do so is with a Lagrangian of the form: ...
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29 views

Uncertainty principle characterizing metallic bonding?

So I was trying to think through the statement that the uncertainty principle can characterize metallic bonding. I know that the uncertainty principle is: $\Delta p \Delta x = \frac{\hbar}{2}$. And ...
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51 views

Does the Fermi sea have plane waves, or wave packets?

Consider a zero-temperature, one-dimensional crystal with allowed electron momenta $k_n = \frac{2\pi n}{L}$. Question: Which is the more correct way to think about the Fermi sea? Sharp plane ...
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105 views

Derivation of existence of energy band gap in semiconductor (solid State)

I am looking for both a mathematical and a physical reason for energy band gap in metals. For Physical reason, I was told that at each reciprocal lattice, you could have Bragg scattering, that would ...
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69 views

Fermi Energy and the Electric Potential

In an extrinsic semiconductor the electric potential is: $$\phi = \frac{1}{q}(E_{\mathrm{F}} - E_{\mathrm{Fi}})$$ where $E_{\mathrm{F}}$ is the Fermi energy, $E_{\mathrm{Fi}}$ is the intrinsic Fermi ...
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75 views

The origin of contact noise?

I was trying to measure the noise of a device with metal probes. I was not sure whether I should trust the results because I was told contact noise might contribute to some degree. I am a little ...
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38 views

Thermal expansion and conductivity

When thinking about how the lattice constant of silicon can be given up to eight decimal places without a remark for the temperature I realized that, it seems most insulators and semiconductors seem ...
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81 views

Questions on the elementary excitations in the resonating-valence-bond(RVB) states?

It is known that the RVB states can support spin-charge separations and its elementary excitations are spinons and holons. But it seems that there are some different possibilities for the nature of ...
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129 views

Typical time scales for spin dynamics and lattice vibrations in magnetic solids

In a paper from the 1990s ([1]) on magnetovolume effects in ferromagnets, it is written that in most real situations, the moment (or spin) autocorrelation time is much larger than the period for ...
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Hall effect with similar positive and negative carriers?

The Hall effect includes the transverse (to the flow of current) electric field set up by the charges which accumulate on the edges, to counter the magnetic component of the Lorentz force acting on ...