Solid-state physics studies how macroscopic properties of solids (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) result from their microscopic structure. It usually deals with the scale where quantum properties of the particles are substantial.

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variable range hopping

Having an Arrhenius plot for the logarigthm of conductivity vs 1000/T, I noticed a region in which i assume variable range hopping takes place. Then i draw the plot logarigthm of conductivity vs T^(-...
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Which crystal defects might single, very bright Reflexes in Laue Images indicate?

In a Laue X-ray crystallography , if you observe a single Laue reflex very bright, which is not one of the main reflexes, can that indicate a certain crystal defect or is it a peculiarity in the ...
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What is the equation of bending of the rectangular plate under the pressure?

I want to figure out bending shape of the glass window under the wind pressure, with these assumptions: Wind pressure is homogeneous. All of edges of window are fixed. Glass is isotropic material. ...
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48 views

Review article recommendation in the field of 2d materials

I am new to 2d materials. I tried to search related review articles in review of modern physics, but did not find anyone covering the whole of the 2d material area. Anybody can recommend some latest ...
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What is the best book for understanding solid state physics for undergraduates? [duplicate]

I have read Charles Kittel's book. But I thought it is higher than undergraduate level. Can any body suggest a best book which explains from the beginning of the topic?
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Proof that 1d lattice displacement by phonons is given $u_{n\pm 1}(t) = A_ke^{i\omega_k t} e^{i knd}e^{\pm i k d}$

I looked in «Kittel - Introduction to solid state physics», Wikipedia and Google for the derivation that: A phonon of wavenumber $k$ displaces the $s$-th atom in a monoatomic 1d crystal lattice by a ...
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Why photoluminescene spectrum is not identical to electroluminescence spectrum?

Electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra are not identical: there's a small red-shift of the PL spectrum relative to the EL spectrum. Why is this happening if both EL and PL are ...
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59 views

what does d spacing between planes in a crystal lattice mean?

I have trouble understanding the meaning of d-spacing. d spacing is supposed to give the interplanar distance. for a cubic lattice $$d_{hk \ell}= \frac {a} { \sqrt{h^2 + k^2 + \ell ^2} } $$ What i ...
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What is the Goldstone mode when rotation symmetry breaks in lattice?

In textbooks for introducing Goldstone mode, people usually consider about phonon as a Goldstone mode emerging from translation symmetry breaking in lattice. However, the rotation symmetry also ...
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How to determine the basis of any crystal

In the following example, I have a rutile TiO2. Here the basis of O with respect to Ti is (0.3*x, 0.3*y, 0*z), where a,b,c are the lattice vectors. So in order to build a crystal, I need the basis and ...
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Basic question about valence/conduction bands

In most introductions to solid state physics that I've read, they explain the origin, basically, of the band gap as follows: By doing a superposition of the standing waves inside a BZ, one can find ...
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243 views

Density of states for graphene

I have seen a lot of plots for the density of states for graphene: but have been unable to find the calculation explicetely. I know the dispersion relation for graphene is $E_{\pm} (\textbf{k}) =\...
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In what circumstances, can exchange interaction acquire temperature dependence?

Heisenberg exchange interaction (sometimes called as magnetic stiffness?), originating from the Coulomb interaction and the Fermion statistics, is widely used in theories of magnetism. Conventionally, ...
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20 views

Conductive n-type material in pn junction

I'm interested in this question from the point of view of a solar cell. In a pn junction (example, p: CIGS, n: CdS), when the n-type material is very conductive, why will the junction not be ...
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71 views

Why is amorphous classified solid?

Because it does not have a crystal structure, it is hard to find physical similarities with a solid. Why isn't it then another state other than solid? The physics of amorphous is also quite different ...
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Is it possible to derive the shape of the bending plates by use calculus of variations?

Of course the main idea to solve this problem is find the physical quantity which is have smallest or largest value. I’ve tried some, such as area of surfaces, But I think it can’t be a solution. Does ...
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31 views

Generate exciton with parallel/anti-parallel spin

How can I experimentally generate excitons, controlling the spin-polarization of the participated electron and hole to be either exclusively parallel or anti-parallel?
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What is the status of energy storing battery technology? [closed]

Most of electronic devices work off electric mains for short time (e.g., on smart phones - for a day or less). It is disappointing the solid state battery technology is moving slowly while othe ...
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What's the difference in the film between sputtering deposition and an ebeam evaporator?

I know the differences between the two deposition techniques, but what about the difference in the properties of the resulting films? All things being equal (such as substrate temperature), would ...
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Intersection of $\rho_{xx}$ and $\rho_{xy}$ in Drude magnetotransport

Okay, so I've recently been working through the rather elementary derivation of the Hall effect in a 2 dimensional electron gas, using the Drude model. The idea is that with an E field in the x ...
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105 views

Simple questions about reciprocal lattice and brillouin zone

I have few simple questions about Brillouin zone. I will take the example of a 1D lattice with a period of "a". If I have well understood, the reciprocal lattice shows all the point in "k-space" ...
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77 views

Symmetry and Group theory book

I would like to start learning about symmetries in physics and how they affect physical quantities. As far as I know, the mathematical language that describes symmetries is the Group Theory. So, I ...
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122 views

Reciprocal lattice and bloch waves

I have a simple question (but I precise that I am very a beginner in solid states physics). I know that the reciprocal vectors have this form : $ \overrightarrow{G}=n_1\overrightarrow{b_1}+n_2\...
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160 views

Density of states for arbitrary dispersion relation

If I have a 3D dispersion relation $E=E(k_x, k_y, k_z)$ I have an equation for the density of states, which is $D(E)=\frac{1}{\nabla_k E}\int\frac{dS}{(2\pi)^3}$ 1) I am confused about the ...
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Why are pressure/potential differences across a barrier measured from inside to outside?

I don't know if I'm asking clearly, but I'm a Medical Student who is trying to intuitively understand pressure differences and electrochemical gradient (across a semipermeable membrane) differences. ...
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79 views

Why are Brillouin zones for graphene and monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides the same?

The geometrical model of graphene is the flat honeycomb lattice, so the Brillouin zone is also flat honeycomb lattice. However, monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenides is not flat as it consists ...
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124 views

Simple Explanation of Kondo Effect

Does anyone have a simple explanation of the Kondo Effect? (i.e. a simple physical picture + maybe equations to think of?) My current understanding is this: If we consider an electron scattering ...
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type of photoluminescence depending on the FWHM

Depending on the FWHM of CdSe quantum dots, is it possible to estimate the type of dominant photoluminescence in question, as in excitonic luminescence is supposed to have a narrower spread than ...
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Do LEDs that require a higher forward voltage (at the same forward current) also use more power?

Why do some LEDs require a higher forward voltage than others for the same forward current? Is it defects, band-gap, etc? Does a higher forward voltage at the same current mean the LED is using more ...
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About the orthogonality catastrophe

I am reading the book of Mahan. In the section of orthogonality catastrophe, I can understand that the two N-particle Slater determinants ($\Phi_i$ and $\Phi_f$) are almost orthogonal as $N\rightarrow ...
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Will using the WKB method for tunneling current give incorrect results for specifically low applied voltages?

I am simulating quantum tunneling through a rectangular potential barrier, as a function of applied voltage across the barrier as well as barrier thickness. I am following the theory from the book "...
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Can electroluminescence be theoretically used for RF communication?

I know that photon energy of radio frequency, 3 kHz (1.24e-11 eV) to 3GHz (1.24e-3 eV), is much smaller than the thermal energy $k_B T$ at 300K (25.8e-3 eV), which in turn is much smaller than typical ...
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Does momentum space have a speed limit?

In ordinary $xyz$ space, the maximum velocity of propagation for mass-energy and/or information is $c$. So, my question: Is there also a maximum velocity of propagation in momentum ${p_x}{p_y}{p_z}$ ...
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217 views

Tight binding Hamiltonian for 2D finite dimensional lattice and nanowire

The Hamiltonian of a 1D lattice having finite $N$ atoms, (if we consider one basis per atom) is given by the following $N\times N$ matrix- Here $E$ is the onsite energy and $t$ is the hopping ...
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Magnitude of the band gap

In Kittels book on solid state physics (Introduction to solid state physics, p. 167, 8th ed.), he defines the band gap energy $E_g$ as $E_g = \int_0^1 U(x) [|\psi (+)|^2 - |\psi (-)|^2]$ where $U(x)$...
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110 views

How to use Anderson's rule to construct band discontinuities in heterojunctions

I'm having some trouble in applying Anderson's rule to get a crude approximation for the band diagram of heterostructures. To make it more specific, I'm considering a donor-doped AlGaAs layer on top ...
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101 views

Band gap origin

Many introductory books on solid state physics use images that I find confusing. For instance, one picture I see alot when reading about the band gap, is similar to this one: I understand that the ...
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102 views

How do we get a 2DEG in a remote doped heterostructure?

I have a question regarding the way in which one often constructs a two-dimensional electron gas in heterostructures. I have a specific example in mind, although I believe this is quite a common way ...
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29 views

what is quasi-particle and its behaviour in solid?

I came across the term on several occasion while reading solid state physics and statistical mechanics. Didn't understand quite well. It'll be help if it's explained.
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Where does the lowered effective mass of electrons come from?

It is a known fact that electrons in the conduction band of a semiconductor can (in certain scenario's) be described as having an approximate parabolic dispersion relation of the form $E_c(k) = E_c + \...
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391 views

Why do we have heavy and light hole bands in semiconductors?

On the topic of the valence band of a semiconductor (in this example GaAS), it is the case that the valence band has some structure to it. As shown in the illustration below, we see that at the $\...
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Relation between energy bands and Brillouin zones

In almost every book about solid state theory, electrons in a periodic potential are introduced and calculations for the dispersion relation $E(k)$ are presented. One obtains the usual pictures in ...
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Thermodynamic / Thermal Property

What is the definition for (i) Thermodynamic Property & (ii) Thermal Property? What are the subtle distinctions in the Thermodynamic Properties and Thermal Properties? ...
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Many-particle operators in the occupation number representation

I've read that if we have a many-particle operator in the coordinate representation which is the sum of identical one-particle operators operating, however, on different particles, like $\hat{Q} = \...
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1answer
45 views

What does a bucked honeycomb lattice mean?

I was going through some literature where they have mention about bucked honeycomb lattice, but I was unable to understand about the bucked honeycomb term.
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Can a material made of a heavier isotope of an element become harder or stronger?

I was wondering if any experiments have been done to measure if there is a change in the hardness or strength of a material made solely of a heavier isotope of an element which is a constituent of the ...
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Can the occupation of Floquet bands be calculated from the Keldysh Green's function?

A periodically driven band structure can be semiclassically described by Floquet theory, resulting in photon-dressed Floquet bands (non-equilibrium steady states). Usually, for non-equilibrium systems,...
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Effect of Particle Mass on Thermal Conductivity

Fouriers law of thermal conductivity is $$ \vec{q} = -k\nabla T $$ where $q$ is the heat flux, $k$ is the thermal conductivity. Mass does not seem to appear in the equation. So I'm wondering what ...
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How do phonon modes and other collective atom processes fit in with the Clausius-Mossotti relation?

The Clausius-Mossotti Relation relates the molecular polarizability of a chemical (that is, how much an electric field polarizes the molecule) to its dielectric constant, which determines its optical ...
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compound bars in series

Compound bars 1 and 2 have lengths L1 and L2, areas A1 and A2, Young moduli E1, E2,thermal expansion coefficient a1 and a2. subjected to a change of temperature T. Two ends of the bar are fixed. The ...