In a crystalline solid each atomic level 'splits' into n levels (n = number of atoms in the system). When the number of atoms is large each level becomes replaced by a band of closely spaced levels. ...
When a polarized light beam is directed to a phase-only LCoS system how is the phase modulated ? What is the physical effect behind ? Does voltage modulation has an impact on birefringence ?
How can I make a single crystal silicon wafer? What are the tools needed? What is the most diffcult part? Can I make it at home or at school lab? I am now interested on Czochralski process where you ...