The union of special (SR) and general (GR) relativity. Use this tag if both SR and GR apply.

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Feynman's proof for Liénard-Wiechert's potential of a moving charge

Feynman's proof utilizes a geometrical and fundamental integration argument. I like it, except this bit: What makes me unconfortable somehow is that in (c) we are counting in some of the charge we ...
4
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1answer
87 views

If Speed is Relative can Absolute Acceleration be Real

This is , I suppose not a good question , but I think I am missing something which confuses me in this question. So my question is - Velocity is relative. So suppose a car is moving at a speed 200 ...
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What did Einstein contribute to Special Relativity that hadn't already been done by Lorentz in 1904 and Poincaré in 1905? [duplicate]

What did Einstein contribute to what is now called Special Relativity theory that hadn't already been done by Lorentz in his 1904 "Electromagnetic Phenomena in a System Moving with any Velocity ...
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1answer
128 views

What would we see if a camera orbiting close to light speed beamed down images of us on earth?

If a camera was sent up in a satellite, put in orbit at close to light speed, and instructed to beam down images to earth, what would we see if we watched its video feed? (Ignoring the fact that ...
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0answers
67 views

“To question, is greater than to answer.” [closed]

I'm sorry if my questions have not been well-received. I'm sorry if i'm in danger of being blocked from asking anymore questions. I will question as I wish and I will likewise disregard any answer ...
4
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3answers
266 views

Relativity and predictability

My old theoretical physics professor used to say that (already) (special?) relativity shows that "the future is not predictable". Any ideas how this should be interpreted?
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3answers
720 views

How to prove the raising/lowering indices operation?

I've read this related question, though it didn't satisfy me; I hope this complements it. I know that if I contract a covariant tensor ${A_{\alpha\beta}}$ with a vector ${B^\beta}$, I get some other ...
3
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1answer
75 views

What is physical meaning of Lorentz boost?

Physical meaning of spatial part of Lorentz transform is, obviously, rotations in R-space. Does anybody have a nice physical interpretation of boosts though? I can understand to some extent off-...
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1answer
44 views

Symmetry, Space-Time interval, and Coordinate Time

I had the following question I was working from a book: Question: A physics professor runs across the hallway covering 120 ns of distance in 150 ns of time as measured in the frame of the earth....
5
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2answers
169 views

According to relativity theory, what is the force that two electrons moving radially apart exert on each other?

According to relativity theory, what is the most general expression for the force that two electrons moving radially apart exert on each other? I am looking for a function $$F(r(t)),$$ where $F$ is ...
2
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1answer
50 views

The speed of light and sound in materials

Obviously, nothing moves faster than the speed of light in a vacuum. Light propagates through materials slower than in a vacuum, and that rate is often related to the specific frequency. Is there a ...
6
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1answer
1k views

Is this the correct method for deriving E=mc^2?

So lately I tried to deriving Einstein's $$ E = mc^2$$ which later I found from this website : http://www.emc2-explained.info/Emc2/Derive.htm They use calculus based method, so I tried another way. ...
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1answer
40 views

Homogenity and Isotropicity of space

In school it is given that law of conservation of momentum is a result of homogeneity of space and law of conservation of angular momentum is a result of isotropicity of space but what is isotropicity ...
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1answer
60 views

Relativity theory - lower end of falling to Earth object moves slower or faster than higher end?

According to relativity, time slows close to gravitational field (I prefer to say the processes with which we measure Time slows). (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafele%E2%80%93Keating_experiment) - "...
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1answer
62 views

How to prepare mental skills to understand relativity theory? [closed]

Upto the high- school, I had to admit and write-on-exam the strange, counter-intuitive statements of relativity theory; those I could not believe. Now, I'm not a physics or math-student, (and indeed ...
0
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1answer
60 views

Relativity on a universal scale

Imagine there was a clock on a planet the same size as earth, travelling at the same speed through space, and that this planet was at the most distant part of the universe from earth. If we had a ...
0
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1answer
53 views

If I have a huge analog clock, what happens to the seconds hand if I build it longer than 2.864.788 kms? [duplicate]

Suppose I'm able to build a huge analog clock, with a seconds hand very long. I want have hand end running at light speed (300,000 km/s). Needle then has to be 300,000km*60s/(2pi) = about 2,864,788km (...
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2answers
57 views

How does rotation of a mass affect the geometry of space? [closed]

I understand (or rather, I have been told, but do not understand) that a large mass can distort space by its rotation. While I am somewhat familiar with the concept of a mass distorting space and ...
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2answers
45 views

Expansion of the Universe and Relativistic Mass

First let's say that all velocities are relative to the centroid of mass of the Universe. Given that every body in the universe is accelerating apart from every other, and mass increases with velocity ...
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0answers
53 views

How do I draw the Minkowski diagram of a event in two inertial systems when t=t'=0?

An Introduction to Mechanics" by David Kleppner & Robert Kolenkow, 1st Edition, 12.1 Assume that v= 0.6c . Find the coordinates in S' of the following events: a). x=4 [m], t= 0[s] b). x=4 [m], ...
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2answers
71 views

An unknow atom has the shown energy levels

In an excersice i found, a supposed atom called fictitious (Fi) has the following energy levels: Then i´m asked: A) The energies of the emitted photons after a gas of Fi is bombarded with ...
2
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2answers
53 views

Merging black holes makes them less dense, so

According to What is exactly the density of a black hole and how can it be calculated? (more specifically, John's answer here made me think: if you merge a whole load of chunks of an element heavier ...
3
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1answer
65 views

Fastest Speed of Sound

Obviously, sound (like every other causal phenomena) may not travel faster than the speed of light. I know that materials with a high bulk modulus and low density will typically have faster speeds of ...
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3answers
79 views

How can time be a dimension when it is relative? [closed]

I understand that by definition dimension is defined by just another coordinate to pin-point something in space-time. Therefore we need to know not only where but when. At the same time, this somehow ...
2
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1answer
160 views

relation between speed and temperature in relativistic gas

What is the correct formulation of the relation between the speed and temperature in the relativistic kinetic gas? I have found one mentioned in problem 3.24 of the third edition of Pathria's ...
3
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1answer
109 views

Usage of tensors in physics [closed]

As I understand it, tensors are multi-linear maps that map vectors (and dual vectors) to real (or complex) numbers, but I'm hoping to gain some intuition as to why they are useful in physics. Is it ...
3
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3answers
168 views

Is it possible to express various nonlinear motions as straight lines in transformed spacetime?

I am trying to understand simple examples of space-time curvature. Assume for the moment that $c$ is infinite (classical curvature due to Newton's laws). Also, I will only consider 1+1-dimensional ...
0
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1answer
27 views

If we actually conducted a twin paradox experiment using a rocket launched from earth

Does the equivalent acceleration / deceleration required to reach whatever speed then come back and rest in the original frame of reference zero out the time dilation effects for each party? So if we ...
15
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3answers
2k views

Does Heat Cause Time Dilation?

Since heat is defined as the movement of molecules, and because of relativity time slows for faster moving objects, would a hot object be in a slower time frame then a cooler object, because the hot ...
2
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3answers
617 views

Proper time for an accelerating object

As far as I have read so far, proper time is the time measured on the clock of an inertial frame moving uniformly with respect to another inertial frame. The concept and the mathematical expression ...
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0answers
38 views

Frame dragging VS Mach's principle: rotating body in an empty universe

What I understand about Mach's principle VS modern physics: According to classical physics, there are ways to distinguish weather a body is rotating or not. For example if it is rotating, the ...
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4answers
3k views

Space-like and time-like: where do the names come from?

Space-like separated events are events that, in a well-chosen reference frame, can take place at the same time but never happen at the same location. On the other hand for time-like events, one can ...
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1answer
142 views

After proving that the photon remains stationary in the fourth dimension, must we conclude that the fourth dimension is moving at c? [closed]

Firstoff, in his general relativity Einstein showed that dimensions could bend, curve, and move. This is an experimentally proven fact. Dimensions can, and do, move. In an earlier post we ...
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1answer
96 views

According to Einstein & Brian Greene, does the photon remain stationary in the fourth dimension? [duplicate]

According to Einstein and Brian Greene, does it logically follow that the photon remains stationary in the fourth dimension? In An Elegant Universe, Brian Greene writes: “Einstein found that ...
2
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3answers
112 views

Would a particle the size of a neutron, if it had enough mass, collapse into a blackhole?

For example, a neutron is a particle that occupies a certain volume. If you pack enough mass into that volume, it would collapse into a black hole (I assume there is not enough mass now). At least if ...
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2answers
131 views

(Hyper)Surface of Simultaneity

How can I determine the surfaces of simultaneity if I know the metric? In particular, what are the surfaces of simultaneity for rotating disk with Langevin metric: $$ ds^2=-(1-\omega^2r^2)dt^2+2r^2\...
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2answers
73 views

Trouble understanding spacetime and invariant interval

First, how is the invariant interval useful? How can it help us understand things around us in the universe? Second, I know that they changed time into space or better say SPACETIME in order to ...
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1answer
27 views

Is the time for light to go a certain distance the same amount of time sped up through relativity?

If you were to stand on the tower of my Lemmon and had an atomic clock that was exactly synchronized with one at tucson, (6734 feet difference) for 24 hours, it was shown to be roughly a 20 nano ...
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2answers
52 views

How to show invariance using the Maxwell tensor?

I want to show the invariance of $E^2-c^2B^2$ under the Lorentz transformations. The obvious way to do this is to show that $$E^2-c^2B^2=E'^2-c^2B'^2,$$ where $E'$ and $B'$ are the Lorentz ...
4
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1answer
87 views

Are all diffusion-like processes described as wave-like in relativity-compatible formulations?

Citing from Wikipedia's article on relativistic heat conduction: For most of the last century, it was recognized that Fourier equation (and its more general Fick's law of diffusion) is in ...
0
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2answers
67 views

In relativity, perpendicular motion does not show contraction… Isn't the whole concept lost?

I read in HC Verma's Concept of Physics that a body moving in direction perpendicular to length, doesn't show Length Contraction. And Length Contraction, they said, is to maintain the velocity of ...
0
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1answer
141 views

Can a black hole move at speed of light?

Black hole comes in all sizes ranging from microscopic black hole on a quantum scale to supermassive black hole that resides in the center of probably every galaxy. Photon have no rest mass hence they ...
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3answers
29k views

How is light affected by gravity?

Light is clearly affected by gravity, just think about a black hole, but light supposedly has no mass and gravity only affects objects with mass. On the other hand, if light does have mass then doesn'...
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1answer
60 views

Finding a physics-made-simple book… A longshot

Years ago I had a book that explained at a high level a college physics 1 course. It touched in gas, light, gravity and relativity. It was about 250 pages, it didn't use very much math and the ...
4
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2answers
89 views

Plane wave shift in a differential operator

Does anyone can help me to prove the following equation \begin{equation} e^{-i\vec{k}\cdot\vec{x}}f(\partial_{\mu})e^{i\vec{k}\cdot\vec{x}} = f(\partial_{\mu}+ik_{\mu}) \end{equation} Where $\vec{k}\...
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4answers
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Does a box containing photons have more inertia than an empty box?

A box containing photons gravitates more strongly than an empty box, and thus the equivalence principle dictates that a box containing photons has more inertia than an empty box. The inescapable ...
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1answer
74 views

Why can an object not reach the speed of light by falling in a gravitational field with constant acceleration?

I recently learned in school that the gravitational potential energy of an object is equal to $mgh$. I also learned that the kinetic energy of an object is $\frac12 mv^2$. If an object falls in a ...
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1answer
205 views

Time Dilation Question

I know physicists don't often like to hear about "photon's frame of reference", so I apologize in advance :) If the time dilation at the speed on light is infinite, it should mean that if Bob is ...
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1answer
203 views

Time dilation triplet paradox

Here is the twin paradox with a twist. Scenario 1: An observer (A) leaves from the equator of the earth and travels with an acceleration of $9.8\,\mathrm{m/s^2}$ in a north direction ( i.e. in the ...
8
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3answers
663 views

Speed of gravitational waves vs speed of light

I own an educational YouTube channel on physics and astronomy. I am currently working on a gravitational waves video extension to my "How Fast Is It" video book on relativity theory. I have a question ...