Change in the direction of propagation of a wave when its transmitting medium changes.

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1answer
204 views

How would we see the earth if refraction of light was significantly stronger?

On worldbuilding.SE there is a question about the cosmological consequences of a world with super-high refraction and atmosphere opaqueness. I'm assuming the easiest way to minimally change the laws ...
3
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1answer
96 views

Is refraction of light a thermodynamic process?

Is refraction of light a thermodynamic process? Can it be explained by conservation of energy? If so, does temperature has an effect on refraction of light?
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1answer
37 views

Odd order of colour fringes around cloud

The other day I took this photograph of a thundercloud that moved between myself and the sun. Around the edge of the cloud there were some coloured fringes that I first took to be a variant on a ...
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1answer
84 views

Refractive index of prism

The formula for the refractive index of a prism is: $$\mu = \frac{\sin (\frac{A + D_m}{2})}{\sin (A/2)}$$ However, this requires me to find out the angle of minimum deviation ($D_m$). This would ...
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1answer
79 views

Why the image is being formed at the surface?

Last week I encountered a very cool optical phenomenon. A photo was sandwiched between the two glass plate to make the paperweight. The cool part is the picture seems to have been pasted on the top ...
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1answer
24 views

Refraction and Internal Reflection

When a light is incident on the boundary of a medium with an angle greater than the respective critical angle, we obtain the angle of the refracted or reflected ray to be equal to the angle ...
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1answer
34 views

point particle explanation of refraction

Is there an explanation of refraction using the point particle model? Most explanations I have seen use the wave model or particles with width.
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38 views

Breakdown of Snell

I have reason to believe that if we are using an accurately formed thin prism, then very near the working apex, where there are few atomic layers in a latticed prism, there will be inaccuracies in the ...
3
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0answers
102 views

False sunset and false sunrise time estimation

False sunset and false sunrise are described . Here is a sample day rise and set time according to AccuWheather site and calculated value of sunrise and sunset in my country. Could you please help ...
3
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0answers
83 views

Mathematical approaches to atmospheric refraction

Understanding atmospheric refraction, particularly of ultraviolet, and into the blue part of the visible spectrum is of great interest to me. Although, I have a strong background in trigonometry and ...
2
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0answers
183 views

Why should angle of incidence be equal to angle of emergence for minimum deviation in a triangular prism?

When I was solving questions on Ray optics I encountered a question wherein I had to prove that when a ray of light undergoes minimum deviation through a triangular prism then both the angles of ...
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0answers
44 views

Aquarium/refractive indices/detector

Quick question: I'm currently fiddling around with this homework of mine and I seem to be lacking some basic optics knowledge apparently. An aquarium is filled with a fluid as seen in the figure ...
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0answers
48 views

Is Snell's Law valid even for on any curved surfaces?

Proof of Snell's Law can also done by using Fermat's principle of least time on plane surfaces. Can we prove the same result for any curved surfaces ?
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0answers
202 views

What happens when light is reflected from a surface moving in a medium with a huge refractive index?

Imagine a mirror is moving away from a light source in a substance through which the speed of light is very slow -- so slow that the speed of the mirror is close to being the same as the speed of the ...
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0answers
555 views

Nonlinear refraction index of vacuum above Schwinger limit

This question is more about trying to feel the waters in our current abilities to compute (or roughly estimate) the refraction index of vacuum, specifically when high numbers of electromagnetic quanta ...
2
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0answers
167 views

Modeling a spray painted polyurethane surface reflection

I'm modeling light interaction/reflection from a fiberglass surface with polyurethane epoxy (that is very reflective) that has been spray painted with a matte black paint. I'm looking for some input ...
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0answers
45 views

WHY do waves diffract - what is the mechanism behind the diffraction?

Having recently studied wave diffraction at an introductory level, I don't feel that I understand why waves diffract like they do. What is it about the obstacle or the waves interaction with it which ...
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0answers
26 views

optical homogeneity of organic thin films

Prior to further analysis (like variable angle ellipsometric spectroscopy) I check thin films of organic materials vacuum deposited on glass substrates for their optical homogeneity under lineraly ...
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0answers
67 views

How does light manage to change its course at the boundary of two media of different optical densities?

This is a conceptual question. I already know the law of refraction but I need something like an idea of the Physical process from both particle and wave theory standpoints. Why does a ray of light ...
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0answers
47 views

Model of scattering in wet things

You know that clothes and some surfaces become darker when wet (covered in an earlier question: why wet is dark?), because of the disordered reflections or of the refractive index of water or ...
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0answers
33 views

wave equation for a homegeneous prism object

Are there any textbooks showing how to get the solution to Maxwell's equation of a uniform prism object with refractive index n? I'm asking because I want to see the explicit connection between wave ...
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0answers
55 views

Laser travelling through a radially graded index of refraction

A laser beam propagates through a region whose refractive index varies as $\mu=\mu_0(\frac{r}{r_0})$. At a distance of R the beam makes an angle of 30° with the normal. Find the minimum seperation ...
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0answers
35 views

Making sense of sinogram of perspex block in air

I'm confused trying to visualize what happened exactly during this experiment: Setup with a laser and a photo diode on the opposite side. A perspex block (2x2cm) in between. Take 200 measurements ...
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0answers
24 views

Hildring - Influence of vertical temperature gradient on light beam curvature

In special atmospheric condition it is possible to see coastline that normally is behind the horizon. It is apparently lifted to become visible. In Scandinavian the phenomenon is called 'hildring', a ...
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0answers
37 views

How much can a thin layer of hi-speed material within a low-speed volume block a wave due to total internal reflection?

Consider a block of isotropic material with compression wave velocity associated with it, $v_1$. Consider a thin flat layer of high compression wave velocity $v_2, v_2>v_1$ that is buried within ...
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0answers
167 views

If a beam of light follows the path $y(x)=y_0\sin(x/y_0)$, what is the index of refraction?

An exam question that showed up while I was studying: A plane wave refracts and follows a ray given by the equation $y=y_0\sin(x/y_0)$ where $y_0$ is a constant. Find the refractive index $n(y)$ ...
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87 views

Energy distribution between long- and shearwaves after refraction of sound

From this explanation, I learn that sound is refracted according to Snell's Law upon passing a border between materials of different sound speed. I also learn that upon passing the border, a mode ...
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0answers
382 views

What defines the thickness of a Nomarski prism?

Lets say I want to design a Nomarski prism that would split the ordinary and extraordinary beam by an angle of 0.32 mrad. I used a raytracer to find the internal angle between the quartz wedges. ...
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19 views

wave propagation modelling

what is the best modelling technique for modelling mm-wave propagation in electromagnetic environment. Right now,am working on how to use use Transmission-line matrix (TLM) and ray-tracing techniques
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16 views

Where can i find the complex index of refraction in the radio spectrum for aluminium?

I am looking for the (complex) index of refraction or the dispersion relation of aluminium for frequencies/wavelengths roughly between 30Mhz/10m and 30GHz/1cm. I have found a few sources that give ...
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0answers
24 views

Refraction Explanation From Particle Perspective

I was wondering if there was an intuitive way of understanding refraction from a particle perspective. By this I mean, that before entering a lattice, a photon has some momementum, it then enters at ...
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0answers
42 views

What happens to the group and phase velocity of light as it travels through a medium?

We have all been told that when light travels from, say, a vacuum through water it slows down. What I want to know is what happens to its phase velocity and group velocity. Refractive index is $n = ...
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0answers
16 views

The image of an object through a curved surface

We have a curved surface, separating two different medium, with refractive index n1 and n2. We know the radius R of the curve,then how can we find the position v of the image? I read that the ...
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0answers
44 views

What will the point of view be when you move faster than light in a medium?

In water the light become slower to the point where electron in water moving faster than light (in the same medium). So in electron frame of reference what will electron's point of view be? From what ...
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54 views

Index of refraction for travelling EM wave problem

Let $n_1$ be the index of refraction of the first medium and $n_2$ be the index of the second medium. When $n_2>n_1$, then for an incident angle of $90^{\circ}$ we get a refracted light at a ...
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31 views

Gaussian beam with its waist lying on medium boundary

For $z<0$ the medium is air and for $z<0$ the medium has refractive index $n$ The waist lies on the $z=0$ plane with radius $W_0$. What is the solution in the medium? I take the distribution ...
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14 views

What is A2L refractive index polynomial?

I'm working with a photonic modelling software and in the manual I saw that I can specify refractive index of modelled material with following polynomial: ...
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0answers
62 views

Proof of reflected and refracted waves being in the same plane as that of the incident wave and its projection on a planar interface

Please give a proof of reflected and refracted waves being in the same plane as that of the incident wave and its projection on an ideal planar interface between two linear, homogeneous, isotropic, ...
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134 views

How to calculate the Refractive index of a glass sheet

My question is how to find the $n$ of a glass sheet with just aiming a laser beam to that. I've got lot of ways that let me find the $n$ ( Refractive index ) but I need the whole part of the ...
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0answers
108 views

How to actually determine the Index of Refraction of an object in different colors of light?

I would like some guidance as to how the IOR of an object is determined in different colored lights. Taking for example diamond, I know that the base IOR is 2.417, and the respective wavelengths of ...
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32 views

What are the physical optical limitations photonic metamaterials can offer?

Modern technology has introduced new photonic metamaterials that can extend optical properties beyond what standard materials can offer. For example a negative index of refraction is now possible ...
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98 views

Why does pencil appear bent in water?

I know why: refraction. But I can't find a detailed explanation anywhere online. So I just asked. This is the most detailed image I can find, on physics classroom. But don't we see thing only when ...
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0answers
28 views

Is there a name for the squared refractive index?

In studying wave propagation through multilayers, the squared refractive index $n^2$ is a more pertinent parameter than $n$ itself. Is there a received name for $n^2$? Of course, as long as there is ...
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214 views

Refractive index and electric susceptibility

Suppose we have a complex refractive index $n_{ref}=n+ik$ whose value is given at a precise frequency $\omega_l$ from experimental data. We know that the imaginary part is responsible for the ...
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0answers
32 views

Atmospheric refraction approximation

I am studying atmospheric refraction, reading ITU P.834 Effects of tropospheric refraction on radiowave propagation, and I have a question about an approximation. They say that refraction correction, ...
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0answers
297 views

In the analogy of turning car wheels related to bending of light while entering glass through air, does that imply that two photons are “connected”?

There's a famous analogy that explains the bending of light when it enters glass from air. But doesn't that imply that two photons, represented by the adjacent wheels of the car, are connected by ...
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131 views

What is the refractive index of air at high temperatures (> 200 °C)

Is there a method/formula to calculate the refractive index of air at high temperature (e.g. 400 °C - 800 °C)? I could only find formulas specified up to 100 °C and our physicist at university ...
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0answers
424 views

Difference between the increase in optical path due to refraction and that due to reflection

If we place two glass plates of refractive index n and each having thickness t,on the way of a light ray the increase in optical path becomes (S2P-S1P)=2(n-1)t due to refraction through them,and the ...
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688 views

Question about the refraction of light in a swimming pool

Here is a homework question that I'm having a hard time understanding: Out of pure intellectual curiosity you have donned a snorkeling face mask and allowed yourself to sink to the bottom of the ...
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74 views

Planar Electric Field in Glass, how to express it?

The field must have properties such as planar wave and moving in glass so $$\bar E=E \left( \hat i t + \hat j \sin(kz-wt) + ...