Change in the direction of propagation of a wave when its transmitting medium changes.

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41 views

Why do electrons on the surfaces of a lens focus photons instead of scattering them in all directions?

Compton tells us electrons on the surface of a lens should scatter photons, not focus them. Imagine a photon traveling from a pinpoint on the surface of a source object to a silicon atom on a lens ...
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1answer
220 views

Snell's law demonstration

I'm a bit confused about a Snell's law demonstration. I'm reading Communication Systems from W. Tomasi. In the chapter 11, the author applies the Snell's law to θent, and -here comes my problem- he ...
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3answers
291 views

How to improve the visibility of light without increasing the brightness?

I am not sure whether or not this is the right SE site to post this question on but I'm sure someone will inform me of my mistake soon enough if it is wrong. Basically I am an Electronic Engineer and ...
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0answers
207 views

What happens when light is reflected from a surface moving in a medium with a huge refractive index?

Imagine a mirror is moving away from a light source in a substance through which the speed of light is very slow -- so slow that the speed of the mirror is close to being the same as the speed of the ...
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1answer
118 views

How does one show specific thickness and wavelength determine full transmission of electromagnetic waves?

How does one show that thickness and wavelength determine the full transmission between two different dielectric media if the boundary condition equations between two dielectric media are independent ...
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0answers
31 views

What does the refractive index depend on? [duplicate]

I've always thought refractive index is dependent on the density of the material. The more denser, the more refraction. But kerosene whose density is higher than water has refractive index less than ...
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2answers
213 views

how to trace light after refraction by a camera lens?

I am a programmer and I am doing a camera simulation, I am stuck in a matter of how to know where arrives every ray of light after traveling through the lens and being refracted. Every point of the ...
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2answers
149 views

When does a monochromatic beam of light on a reflective surface get completely transmitted?

My book says when when a monochromatic beam of light is normally incident on reflective surface it gets completely transmitted. I am bit confused could you explain me?
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2answers
69 views

What polarizes a rainbow?

What polarizes the light from a rainbow. I already did some search and couldn't get a clear answer. All I could find was the light is polarized on the direction light is entering. What happens to the ...
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4answers
174 views

How confident can we be that the speed of light in a medium is constant?

I have recently found this article http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/1999/02.18/light.html it tells that physicists have been able to slow the speed of light. Is this hokum? If not how is it possible to ...
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2answers
158 views

Why does the ray bend only in one direction?

By snell's law , the refracted ray bend away or towards the normal according to refractive index of the medium. But it can be seen that the refracted ray bends to the right by an angle when a ray of ...
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1answer
96 views

Is the speed of photon always $c_0$? [duplicate]

The propagation of light in medium is sometimes interpreted as the photons moving with $c_0$ (the speed of light in vacuum), occasionally absorbed by particles and released again by transition, ...
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3answers
109 views

How can frequency be constant during refraction? [duplicate]

When entering from a rarer to a denser medium, the speed of light decreases.I know that the frequency remains constant.But if frequency is cycles/sec then doesn't that mean more speed will lead to ...
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1answer
298 views

How would a fractal refract light?

A fanciful Pink Floyd reference has led me to wonder what white light passing through an object with an infinitely complex surface would do. Would it exit from a single chaotically-chosen point on the ...
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4answers
578 views

How can a 360 Degree Rainbow be formed? [duplicate]

Just a while ago while I was reading news paper, I saw an amazing article. Someone had caught a photo of a 360 Degree Rainbow. But how is it possible. I mean after refraction the only rainbows that ...
31
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3answers
5k views

How does light speed up after coming out of a glass slab?

As I learned today in school, my teacher told me that when light enters a glass slab it slows down due to the change in density and it speeds up as it goes out of the glass slab. This causes a lateral ...
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1answer
459 views

What's the relationship between velocity factor and refractive index?

Wikipedia on velocity factor explains: For optical signals, the velocity factor is the reciprocal of the refractive index. On refractive index, Wikipedia also has an explanation of refractive ...
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2answers
108 views

Why phase velocity is related to deflection angle?

Refractive index is a function of velocity in the medium.How is this related to deviation angle inside the medium?
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3answers
5k views

Does light change phase on refraction?

I have seen a lot about when light undergoes a phase change when it is reflected. But does it undergo a phase change when refracted and if so why and if not why not?
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0answers
29 views

What property of medium is directly related to light propagation speed in that medium? [duplicate]

Refractive index is used to calculate phase velocity of light in medium, other than vacuum. Recently I had a discussion with somebody claiming that light is slower due to magnetic field of atoms. I ...
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2answers
503 views

Reflection coefficient as a function of frequency

I am trying to relate the equation for reflection coefficient in oblique mediums to the frequency but can't figure out how the frequency affects the reflection of light. $n_1$= intrinsic impedance of ...
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2answers
138 views

Penny dropped in the water: What would you see if transmitted light is parallel to the incident surface

I'm working on a problem which asks what is the greatest diameter of a paper you can use to totally shield a penny dropped in the water from view. The question claims that if the transmitted light ...
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0answers
91 views

Why can't we see Rainbows from its end points? [duplicate]

We see Rainbows many times, but we always see them Horizontally or from Sideways. Why can't we see it from under it?/From the point where it starts or ends(end points)? I also want to stress on that, ...
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1answer
116 views

Total internal reflection angle [closed]

For what angle does total internal reflection happen? I think that it happens for angle=k*pi where k is an integer with the possible values: 0, 1, 2, 3... Is my assumption correct?
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1answer
65 views

How is light trajectory affected by the trajectory of environment it passes through?

There's a sci-fi concept of slow light that I find very amazing: Imagine a glass material that has index of refraction $n$ say, $3,000,000,000$ which means: $$v_{glass} = \frac{c_{vacuum}}{n} = 0....
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1answer
221 views

Two layers of glass reflection related to wave interference [closed]

A highly reflective mirror can be made for a particular wavelength at normal incidence by using two thin layers of transparent materials of indices of refraction $n1$ and $n2 (1 < n1<n2 ) $on ...
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1answer
32 views

if you're wearing goggles, will the light beam appear to travel straight?

if person A is outside a pool and person B is inside a pool with goggles, won't the light beam travel closer to the normal inside the pool but then away from the normal when it enters the goggles (due ...
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1answer
44 views

Any material to have a significant difference for different colors?

I am looking for a material whose refractive index for the colors green, red and blue to have a significant difference to be visible in simple geometrical optics experiments?! We use a microscope and ...
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0answers
34 views

Atmospheric refraction approximation

I am studying atmospheric refraction, reading ITU P.834 Effects of tropospheric refraction on radiowave propagation, and I have a question about an approximation. They say that refraction correction, $...
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1answer
737 views

Why doesn't frequency change? [duplicate]

I've seen a mathematical example where a wave was made from same source in water and air. but in both medium frequency was same but wavelengths were different in each medium. we know that velocity of ...
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2answers
124 views

Why does electromagnetic refraction happen?

Why does refraction happen? In high school textbooks, it is stated that it happens because the speed that electromagnetic waves propagate in the media change. But why cant they continue propagating in ...
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2answers
652 views

Can we get the refractive index of a prism by using white light?

Can we get the refractive index of a prism by using white light ? I guess since white light is non chromatic, it is not possible.
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2answers
218 views

Laser Refraction

Can you take a laser beam of high intensity and refract it in a way to convert it to a safe level? White light traveling through a prism refracts into the individual wavelengths, could something ...
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2answers
294 views

light ray undergoing total internal reflection thrice inside a prism

Can it ever be possible that a light ray going inside a triangular prism of refractive index n having refracting angle A undergo total internal reflection thrice before emerging out? Note:I know it "...
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1answer
1k views

Dependence of scattering on particle size and refractive index

How does the intensity of light scattered by a medium depend on the refractive index and the size of the particles dispersed in the medium? I found plenty of literature about the dependence of ...
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2answers
696 views

Why can't we reach the ends of rainbow?

Rainbows are spectacular things. But I imagine why we can't reach to the ends of rainbows. Do rainbows have no ends ? If so, why can't we reach at them? If you go closer,they will go further. Why?
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0answers
326 views

In the analogy of turning car wheels related to bending of light while entering glass through air, does that imply that two photons are “connected”?

There's a famous analogy that explains the bending of light when it enters glass from air. But doesn't that imply that two photons, represented by the adjacent wheels of the car, are connected by ...
2
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0answers
174 views

Can time pass for a photon if it's moving in a medium? [duplicate]

If time does not pass for a photon traveling at the speed of light, which can only occur when traveling in a vacuum, what happens when it is slowed down by traveling through non vacuum space like ...
7
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1answer
223 views

How would we see the earth if refraction of light was significantly stronger?

On worldbuilding.SE there is a question about the cosmological consequences of a world with super-high refraction and atmosphere opaqueness. I'm assuming the easiest way to minimally change the laws ...
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2answers
966 views

Sellmeier Refractive Index of Standard Air

The question: What is the Sellmeier description of the refractive index of air at some reasonable temperature, pressure, and water content? The description must be in the following form:$$ n^2(\...
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1answer
2k views

Refraction through converging lens: finding image distance and image height

So in this situation there is a 1.79 meter tall person standing 30 meters from a 150 mm converging lens and I'm trying to find where the image will form and how tall it will be. My problem is in ...
2
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1answer
447 views

Why is a particular wavelength favored by transmission through a thin film?

A sheet of glass is coated with a $500\text{ nm}$ thick layer of oil ($n=1.42$). For what visible wavelengths of light do the reflected waves interfere a) constructively? b) destructively? ...
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1answer
167 views

How to get the direction of bending light?

When light passes from a more dense to a less dense substance, (for example passing from water into air), the light is refracted (or bent) away from the normal. My question, is there any theory ...
2
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3answers
2k views

What “exactly” happens when a ray is incident at the critical angle?

The question arose when my physics teacher taught me geometrical optics and told that the phenomenon of both refraction and $reflection$ occur by change in medium. First of all, I'm not sure about the ...
7
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3answers
1k views

How can a particle in a medium ever travel faster than light? [duplicate]

In some media, mass-carrying particles can go faster than light: Cherenkov radiation, ... is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle... passes through a dielectric medium at a ...
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1answer
126 views

Broken Thin Lens Algorithm [closed]

We all know the thin lens equation. For $o$ being a horizontal object distance and $f$ being the focal length, the horizontal image distance $i$ is described by: $$\frac{1}{f} = \frac{1}{o} + \frac{...
4
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1answer
2k views

Effective refractive index calculation of fiber core

Can someone pls explain what is effective refractive index of fiber core and how to calculate it theoretically? Suppose the fiber core refractive index=1.4446 and cladding refractive index is= 1.4271, ...
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0answers
138 views

What is the refractive index of air at high temperatures (> 200 °C)

Is there a method/formula to calculate the refractive index of air at high temperature (e.g. 400 °C - 800 °C)? I could only find formulas specified up to 100 °C and our physicist at university couldn'...
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2answers
138 views

How to define a convex surface in case of refraction?

In an exam at high school level, it was said, "ray goes from optically denser to rarer medium through a convex surface. It forms a real image...." this was a part of the question. Now I thought that ...
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2answers
384 views

Light-matter interaction and an object's appearance

I am taking a course in Computer Graphics, and the teacher said we could put materials in there main categories: mirror like glossy or specular diffuse He suggested that the law of reflection is ...