Change in the direction of propagation of a wave when its transmitting medium changes.

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How to solve this problem : A glass sphere of radius 1 m and refractive index 1.5 is silvered…? [closed]

Problem: A glass sphere of radius 1 m and refractive index 1.5 is silvered at its back. A point object is kept at a distance of 1 m from the front face, as shown in the figure. Find the position of ...
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Application of Snells law

What i know about snell's law: It is applied when a ray of light meets the interface of some other medium and we can find the fourth quantity if we know any of the three quantities in the following ...
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2answers
82 views

How is refractive index related to the density of a medium (for example, air)?

I have a question regarding refractive index dependency on the density of a dielectric, specifically air. Background Let us start from Newton's second law form of driven harmonic oscillators ...
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41 views

Determining focal length and positions of principal planes [closed]

I have been stuck on this problem for a few days now, and I am still not confident which approach to take with this question. I am consider using the Gullstrand Equation, but I hear some of my ...
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2answers
29 views

Total internal reflection in a simple pane of glass - why can we see through?

Consider looking through a glass window pane at high angles of incidence. At the front face of the pane, there is no total internal reflection since the light is traversing an air to glass interface. ...
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WHY do waves diffract - what is the mechanism behind the diffraction?

Having recently studied wave diffraction at an introductory level, I don't feel that I understand why waves diffract like they do. What is it about the obstacle or the waves interaction with it which ...
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54 views

Why should angle of incidence be equal to angle of emergence for minimum deviation in a triangular prism?

When I was solving questions on Ray optics I encountered a question wherein I had to prove that when a ray of light undergoes minimum deviation through a triangular prism then both the angles of ...
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1answer
40 views

Calculating angle of refraction of water in this lab setup? [closed]

The setup of the experiment is as drawn in the picture (where the red circle is a rotating disk, the box is a laser and the straight line the laser beam and the semi circle in the middle of the ...
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26 views

What happens to the group and phase velocity of light as it travels through a medium?

We have all been told that when light travels from, say, a vacuum through water it slows down. What I want to know is what happens to its phase velocity and group velocity. Refractive index is $n = ...
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1answer
30 views

Does the speed of the Refracted Ray change if the angle of Incidence is 0 degrees?

While studying about Refraction, the following doubt came into my mind. The author of the textbook mentions that if the light wave is incident normal to the surface, it will travel "undeviated" in the ...
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24 views

Refraction and Internal Reflection

When a light is incident on the boundary of a medium with an angle greater than the respective critical angle, we obtain the angle of the refracted or reflected ray to be equal to the angle ...
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1answer
53 views

How to determine the radius of curvature of a convex lens?

Suppose there is an equi-convex lens made of glass which has a focal length ($f$) of 30cm. Then, can we not say that the radius of curvature, $R$ of the lens is twice the focal length, i.e. $R = ...
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The image of an object through a curved surface

We have a curved surface, separating two different medium, with refractive index n1 and n2. We know the radius R of the curve,then how can we find the position v of the image? I read that the ...
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1answer
38 views

Kerr Effect; Electro-refraction

First post here. is is possible to observe the Kerr effect in transparent materials, at low voltages (such as 3.8V)? If so, can you refract light enough to distort an image, in a way similar to that ...
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1answer
55 views

Why does the wavelength gets shorter in the denser medium in refraction? [duplicate]

In the refraction, the wavelength gets shorter if it enters denser medium. Why is that happening? Is it just a phenomenon?
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38 views

Confusion with Fermat’s principle of least time [closed]

Here is an illustration used in my book to prove format’s principle of least time. My book says that ACB will be the shortest path. It is obvious that light reaches E first, and then X. If the ...
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2answers
54 views

Mirages under water?

In Polynesian shallow water, the temperature difference from short place to place is so high that one can see the same trouble refraction that exist in air above fire or metal sheet in summer. So I'm ...
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1answer
22 views

Refraction inside a refracting medium

After a light ray gets refracted at the boundary of a refracting medium, why do sent the light ray keep refracting inside. Cause if you divide the medium into many boundary layers then light should ...
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29 views

point particle explanation of refraction

Is there an explanation of refraction using the point particle model? Most explanations I have seen use the wave model or particles with width.
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Polarized light in single mode fiber

In single mode fiber the light propagates in two orthogonal planes. Input will be linearly polarized light, which state of polarization will be on output and why? And if there will be some different ...
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1answer
87 views

How do opaque materials have an index of refraction?

The index of refraction defines how much light is bent as it passes through an object, right? So how can opaque objects, which don't transmit light, have a value for the index of refraction? (e.g., ...
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1answer
29 views

Will the ray of light follow the laws of reflection at the interface of two media?

Suppose at the boundary of two optical media,of different refractive indices a mirror is kept perpendicular to surface of the boundary.If a ray of light travels through one of the media and then ...
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2answers
83 views

Is it possible to create an optical medium where sound can travel faster than light?

The speed of light decreases with increase in the density of the optical medium whereas the speed of sound increases with increase in the density of the medium. So is there any possibility to ...
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Let's suppose I am to display the letter R on mirror as well water , will I get the same images?

As far as my practical experience goes both look quiet the same when an image of any object is formed on them, yet I wanted to be ascertained is there any actual visible differences between both the ...
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176 views

If refraction slows down light, isn't it possible to hold light still?

I have a quick question about the refraction of light, and I'm sorry if it seems a bit simplistic or even stupid, but I'm still learning. We know that when light passes through a denser medium, it ...
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2answers
74 views

How the speed of light is constant in the universe if it decreases in water and glass and some other objects? [duplicate]

My teacher told me that speed of light is constant in the universe. But in optics it is clearly shown that speed of light slows down in some objects. Please help.
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59 views

Why phase velocity of light is slower in a dielectric than vacuum?

Why does light speed suffer a reduction when it passes through a homogeneous dielectric medium? I know my math says so, i.e.- a highly polarizable ($\chi$) medium is associated with high $\epsilon$ ...
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2answers
76 views

Why does the critical angle for refraction exist?

When light moves from a medium with a high refraction index to a medium with a low refractory index (water to vacuum), that there exists a "critical angle" at which no more refraction occurs. What is ...
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82 views

Special Relativity in water

If there are 2 observers in water moving relative to each other as well as to water, they measure different speeds of light. So does time dilation occur for them? (since Time dilation is based on ...
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1answer
33 views

How are neutron refractive indices calculated?

I have been informed of the fact that neutrons refract similarly to light in accordance to Snell's Law. How would one calculate the refraction index for a neutron?
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36 views

What will the point of view be when you move faster than light in a medium?

In water the light become slower to the point where electron in water moving faster than light (in the same medium). So in electron frame of reference what will electron's point of view be? From what ...
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37 views

How does refraction work? [closed]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YW8KuMtVpug&feature=iv&src_vid=CiHN0ZWE5bk&annotation_id=annotation_187211 Start the above video at 8:15. How does the phase velocity affect the apparent ...
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40 views

Aquarium/refractive indices/detector

Quick question: I'm currently fiddling around with this homework of mine and I seem to be lacking some basic optics knowledge apparently. An aquarium is filled with a fluid as seen in the figure ...
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45 views

Index of refraction for travelling EM wave problem

Let $n_1$ be the index of refraction of the first medium and $n_2$ be the index of the second medium. When $n_2>n_1$, then for an incident angle of $90^{\circ}$ we get a refracted light at a ...
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26 views

Gaussian beam with its waist lying on medium boundary

For $z<0$ the medium is air and for $z<0$ the medium has refractive index $n$ The waist lies on the $z=0$ plane with radius $W_0$. What is the solution in the medium? I take the distribution ...
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How can a slowed light ray bend?

If light is traveling through air, it slows down and ends up bending. But how? If I'm running straight, and I get slowed down, shouldn't I still be running straight?
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1answer
121 views

Explanation for Refraction of light (change of angle) and Reflection

Refraction: I want a qualitative Quantum Mechanical explanation of why do we see light rays -in the classical picture- bend when light goes from one medium to another. I read that it is due to ...
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15 views

Can measuring the refraction index in an object measure the strength of the quantum gravity between atoms of the object? [duplicate]

Is measuring the refraction index of an object a way of measuring the strength of the gravitational force between the atoms of the object (measuring quantum gravity)? From reading Snell's law of ...
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Is Snell's Law valid even for on any curved surfaces?

Proof of Snell's Law can also done by using Fermat's principle of least time on plane surfaces. Can we prove the same result for any curved surfaces ?
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55 views

How is that possible, that n is inversely proportional to both $\lambda$ and $\lambda^2$ during refraction?

We know refractive index of any material $n = c/v$ where $c$ is speed of light and $v$ is velocity of light in medium. Therefore, $$n= \frac{c}{f\lambda}$$ where $f$ is frequency of light and ...
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36 views

How long will the light exist inside the sphere?

Ok, so let's say we have a very thick, but hollow, metal sphere. The inside of the sphere has a radius of 100 meters. The sphere also has a door that can be opened and closed and when closed makes an ...
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221 views

Why is light energy 100% reflected in total internal reflection?

during reflection of light energy transfer is not 100%. when light from a rarer medium like air strikes a denser medium like glass slab, some part of light is reflected back and some of it is ...
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71 views

Refractive index of prism

The formula for the refractive index of a prism is: $$\mu = \frac{\sin (\frac{A + D_m}{2})}{\sin (A/2)}$$ However, this requires me to find out the angle of minimum deviation ($D_m$). This would ...
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3answers
350 views

Why does a ray passing through optical centre remain undeviated?

How can it be explained using the laws of refraction that a light through optical centre of a lens passes undeviated? If we assume the portion of the lens in the middle to be made of even number of ...
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88 views

Refractive index and color

Does the color of an object have anything to do with its refractive index, and if so, what is the relation? I tried googling this and searching through the questions on stack exchange, but I haven't ...
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1answer
38 views

Refraction under water

I have difficulties visualizing following task A diver is $d = 10 m$ below the water surface ($n_{water} = 1.33$). What is the diameter of the circle through which the diver can see the sky? ...
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1answer
46 views

Optics - how a lens distorts the image

If we consider a small object of length $b$ that is placed flat along the axis of a concave mirror, how will the image produced be different from the object? I know that a lens will magnify or ...
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What is A2L refractive index polynomial?

I'm working with a photonic modelling software and in the manual I saw that I can specify refractive index of modelled material with following polynomial: ...
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Does the ray transfer matrix for a gap change, based on the index of refraction of the medium?

The ray transfer matrix for a gap is typically: $$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & d \\ 0 & 1\\ \end{bmatrix}$$ If I know that my glass is a thickness $L$ does the ray of light that goes into it travel a ...
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117 views

How to interpret the complex index of refraction?

The index of refraction which represents how much light gets refracted when entering a medium is defined as $$n = \frac{c}{v}$$ I have seen it stated in several places, such as here, that we can ...