Change in the direction of propagation of a wave when its transmitting medium changes.

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How can a 360 Degree Rainbow be formed? [duplicate]

Just a while ago while I was reading news paper, I saw an amazing article. Someone had caught a photo of a 360 Degree Rainbow. But how is it possible. I mean after refraction the only rainbows that ...
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2answers
2k views

How does light speed up after coming out of a glass slab?

As I learned today in School, my teacher told me that when light enters a Glass Slab it slows down due to the change in density and it speeds up as it goes out of the Glass Slab. This causes a lateral ...
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0answers
14 views

Prism formula base question [closed]

An equilateral prism has a refractive index of $\sqrt{3}$. A ray of light is traveling parallel to base of the prism. What is angle of incidence?
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1answer
32 views

What's the relationship between velocity factor and refractive index?

Wikipedia on velocity factor explains: For optical signals, the velocity factor is the reciprocal of the refractive index. On refractive index, Wikipedia also has an explanation of refractive ...
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48 views

Why phase velocity is related to deflection angle?

Refractive index is a function of velocity in the medium.How is this related to deviation angle inside the medium?
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3answers
64 views

Does light change phase on refraction?

I have seen a lot about when light undergoes a phase change when it is reflected. But does it undergo a phase change when refracted and if so why and if not why not?
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0answers
25 views

What property of medium is directly related to light propagation speed in that medium? [duplicate]

Refractive index is used to calculate phase velocity of light in medium, other than vacuum. Recently I had a discussion with somebody claiming that light is slower due to magnetic field of atoms. I ...
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2answers
59 views

Penny dropped in the water: What would you see if transmitted light is parallel to the incident surface

I'm working on a problem which asks what is the greatest diameter of a paper you can use to totally shield a penny dropped in the water from view. The question claims that if the transmitted ...
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0answers
40 views

Why can't we see Rainbows from its end points? [duplicate]

We see Rainbows many times, but we always see them Horizontally or from Sideways. Why can't we see it from under it?/From the point where it starts or ends(end points)? I also want to stress on that, ...
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1answer
38 views

Total internal reflection angle [closed]

For what angle does total internal reflection happen? I think that it happens for angle=k*pi where k is an integer with the possible values: 0, 1, 2, 3... Is my assumption correct?
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2answers
30 views

How is light trajectory affected by the trajectory of environment it passes through?

There's a sci-fi concept of slow light that I find very amazing: Imagine a glass material that has index of refraction $n$ say, $3,000,000,000$ which means: $$v_{glass} = \frac{c_{vacuum}}{n} = ...
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1answer
54 views

Two layers of glass reflection related to wave interference [closed]

A highly reflective mirror can be made for a particular wavelength at normal incidence by using two thin layers of transparent materials of indices of refraction $n1$ and $n2 (1 < n1<n2 ) $on ...
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1answer
18 views

if you're wearing goggles, will the light beam appear to travel straight?

if person A is outside a pool and person B is inside a pool with goggles, won't the light beam travel closer to the normal inside the pool but then away from the normal when it enters the goggles (due ...
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1answer
30 views

Any material to have a significant difference for different colors?

I am looking for a material whose refractive index for the colors green, red and blue to have a significant difference to be visible in simple geometrical optics experiments?! We use a microscope and ...
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0answers
23 views

Atmospheric refraction approximation

I am studying atmospheric refraction, reading ITU P.834 Effects of tropospheric refraction on radiowave propagation, and I have a question about an approximation. They say that refraction correction, ...
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1answer
56 views

Why doesn't frequency change? [duplicate]

I've seen a mathematical example where a wave was made from same source in water and air. but in both medium frequency was same but wavelengths were different in each medium. we know that velocity of ...
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2answers
42 views

Why does electromagnetic refraction happen?

Why does refraction happen? In high school textbooks, it is stated that it happens because the speed that electromagnetic waves propagate in the media change. But why cant they continue propagating in ...
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2answers
108 views

Can we get the refractive index of a prism by using white light?

Can we get the refractive index of a prism by using white light ? I guess since white light is non chromatic, it is not possible.
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26 views

Laser Refraction

Can you take a laser beam of high intensity and refract it in a way to convert it to a safe level? White light traveling through a prism refracts into the individual wavelengths, could something ...
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2answers
67 views

light ray undergoing total internal reflection thrice inside a prism

Can it ever be possible that a light ray going inside a triangular prism of refractive index n having refracting angle A undergo total internal reflection thrice before emerging out? Note:I know it ...
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1answer
43 views

Dependence of scattering on particle size and refractive index

How does the intensity of light scattered by a medium depend on the refractive index and the size of the particles dispersed in the medium? I found plenty of literature about the dependence of ...
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2answers
125 views

Why can't we reach the ends of rainbow?

Rainbows are spectacular things. But I imagine why we can't reach to the ends of rainbows. Do rainbows have no ends ? If so, why can't we reach at them? If you go closer,they will go further. Why?
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24 views

In the analogy of turning car wheels related to bending of light while entering glass through air, does that imply that two photons are “connected”?

There's a famous analogy that explains the bending of light when it enters glass from air. But doesn't that imply that two photons, represented by the adjacent wheels of the car, are connected by ...
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0answers
62 views

Can time pass for a photon if it's moving in a medium? [duplicate]

If time does not pass for a photon traveling at the speed of light, which can only occur when traveling in a vacuum, what happens when it is slowed down by traveling through non vacuum space like ...
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20 views

can wave length changes if there is a change in refractive indices? [duplicate]

can we change the wavelength of the light that incident ? IF it is possible then after the incident wave entered and refracted through a medium into the emitted medium will the wave's wave length ...
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0answers
52 views

How would we see the earth if refraction of light was significantly stronger?

On worldbuilders there is a question about the cosmological consequences of a world with super-high refraction and atmosphere opaqueness. I'm assuming the easiest way to minimally change the laws of ...
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2answers
67 views

Sellmeier Refractive Index of Standard Air

The question: What is the Sellmeier description of the refractive index of air at some reasonable temperature, pressure, and water content? The description must be in the following form:$$ ...
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1answer
29 views

Refraction through converging lens: finding image distance and image height

So in this situation there is a 1.79 meter tall person standing 30 meters from a 150 mm converging lens and I'm trying to find where the image will form and how tall it will be. My problem is in ...
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1answer
63 views

Why is a particular wavelength favored by transmission through a thin film?

A sheet of glass is coated with a $500\text{ nm}$ thick layer of oil ($n=1.42$). For what visible wavelengths of light do the reflected waves interfere a) constructively? b) destructively? ...
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1answer
37 views

How to get the direction of bending light?

When light passes from a more dense to a less dense substance, (for example passing from water into air), the light is refracted (or bent) away from the normal. My question, is there any ...
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3answers
122 views

What “exactly” happens when a ray is incident at the critical angle?

The question arose when my physics teacher taught me geometrical optics and told that the phenomenon of both refraction and $reflection$ occur by change in medium. First of all, I'm not sure about the ...
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3answers
267 views

How can a particle in a medium ever travel faster than light? [duplicate]

In some media, mass-carrying particles can go faster than light: Cherenkov radiation, ... is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle... passes through a dielectric medium at a ...
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1answer
40 views

Broken Thin Lens Algorithm [closed]

We all know the thin lens equation. For $o$ being a horizontal object distance and $f$ being the focal length, the horizontal image distance $i$ is described by: $$\frac{1}{f} = \frac{1}{o} + ...
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46 views

What is the refractive index of air at high temperatures (> 200 °C)

Is there a method/formula to calculate the refractive index of air at high temperature (e.g. 400 °C - 800 °C)? I could only find formulas specified up to 100 °C and our physicist at university ...
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2answers
51 views

How to define a convex surface in case of refraction?

In an exam at high school level, it was said, "ray goes from optically denser to rarer medium through a convex surface. It forms a real image...." this was a part of the question. Now I thought that ...
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2answers
108 views

Light-Matter Interaction and Object's Appearance

I am taking a course in Computer Graphics, and the teacher said we could put materials in there main categories: mirror like glossy or specular diffuse He suggested that the law of reflection is ...
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1answer
91 views

How to calculate the refracted light path when refraction index continuously increasing?

Suppose an incident light from vacuum ($n_1=1.0$) into some media ($n_2=n_1+\mu\; x^2$) as in the figure below. How to calculate the refracted light path curve in closed form? Update: Try to set ...
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2answers
129 views

Refractive index of dielectric in different frames of reference

The setup A transparent isotropic dielectric medium moving in the negative $x'$ direction at speed $v$ in frame $S'$ is stationary in frame $S$, where it has refractive index $n$. In other words, ...
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1answer
76 views

Gravitational lensing of massless photons

I recently got a more complete proof of photons having no mass. (I knew it before, but now I really know it.) But now, I'm curious how gravitational lensing can occur without a mass to act on. I have ...
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1answer
30 views

How does Ptolemy's table, of angles in air and angles in water, fit perfectly on a parabola?

In "The Feynman Lectures on Physics" Vol.1 Optics Ch.26, Table 26-1 Ptolemy's list of angle in air and angle in water are given, in connection with Snell's law of refraction. I quote below values from ...
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1answer
638 views

why does the optical media have different refractive indices?

Optical density is a measure of the refracting power of a medium. In other words, the higher the optical density, the more the light will be refracted or slowed down as it moves through the medium. ...
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2answers
180 views

Which electromagnetic radiation is faster in water, microwaves or light?

Well I've been asked this question, but I haven't been able to come with an answer yet using books and some web searches. The point is as the title says, to answer the question with the whole ...
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1answer
56 views

Can refraction of the atmosphere be so high that the surface of a planet seems concave to its inhabitants?

In their novel Inhabited Island by brothers Strugatsky, the inhabitants of a planet think they live on the inner surface of a giant sphere because the refraction of the atmosphere makes the surface ...
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2answers
201 views

Which of these theories on why light slows in media are true?

This question is similar to previously asked questions, but the responses to them are confusing and I think it may be better covered by listing out all the potential answers for clarity. It's a ...
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1answer
27 views

Index of refraction appearing in the radiative transfer equation

In this publication the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) (eq. (7)) contains the following emission term: $$n_i^2\kappa_{d,i}L_{b,i}(\mathbf{r})$$ where $n_i$ is the refractive index of component ...
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26 views

Refractive index variation with colors [duplicate]

To explain the spectrum formation in the prism, my teacher said that different colors have different speeds in a medium, so, refractive index is different for all. So, angle is different. But I don't ...
2
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1answer
101 views

Why does the speed of the Electromagnetic wave in the material depend on the frequency of the wave where as they are constant in vacuum (freespace)? [duplicate]

I am confused on why would the propagation speed of any EM waves at ANY frequency is constant in the free space (vacuum) but they seem to disperse in any other materials as the propagation speed of EM ...
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1answer
69 views

Reflection from multiple thin films: accounting for lost light due to small surface area

I have a problem similar to reflection of multiple thin films. I have light coming in from medium 1 and I want to find the total reflected intensity after being reflected inside 2 layers. However, I ...
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3answers
82 views

Double rainbows

In my garden, when I'm watering the plants I sometimes see a rainbow or two. How did two rainbows appear? Why can't I see three rainbows then, or how can I see three rainbows?
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1answer
33 views

Color in Different media

When a light wave passes from one medium to other, the wavelength of the light wave changes and the frequency remains constant. If then color of the light waves depends on changing wavelength or ...