A reference frame is a particular coordinate system chosen to represent physical entities. The notion is most often used in special and general relativity to dentoe particular coordinates chosen on the spacetime manifold.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

3
votes
1answer
20 views

Tidal effects in Global Positioning System?

Are tidal effects from the Sun and/or Moon taken into account in GPS systems? More broadly, is the heliocentric system used somehow in GPS?
-1
votes
3answers
113 views

Isn't a physical frame of reference useless for calculating speed?

Please ignore relativistic effects and the effects of the expansion of space-time due to the expanding universe theory for the purposes of this question. Whenever someone asks what is the speed of X, ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Constancy of speed of light $c$ with perpendicular motion [duplicate]

Suppose light is travelling in a straight line parallel to $y$-axis takes time $t$ to reach from $y_1$ to $y_2$ in a reference frame $S$. Let there be another frame, $S'$, which is travelling parallel ...
0
votes
2answers
77 views

Special and general relativity and space time

I have a question. I'm reading The Elegant Universe and it's talking about the special and general theory of relativity. One of the things it mentions is that time and the three dimensions of space ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

How does Foucault's pendulum work in a place other than the poles?

I find it easy to understand how Foucault's pendulum works at the poles, the pendulum oscillates in a fixed plane and we, along with the earth, rotate around it. So it appears that the pendulum's ...
0
votes
3answers
172 views

If traveling at the speed of lights stops time, why does it take light 8 minutes to reach Earth?

I just learned that, according to Einstein's relativity theory, time reaches zero for an observer (light) when traveling at the speed of light, so everything is supposed to be at the same place in the ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

I need a good book for learning mechanics in non-inertial frames [duplicate]

I'm studying classical mechanics, but without those stuffs Lagrangians and Hamiltonian mechanics...just Newtonian..the problem is a find hard to learn this non-inertial frames system, like ...
0
votes
2answers
38 views

Non-inertial system [duplicate]

Supposing I am in a non-inertial system and I don't know what forces are acting. How can I test EXPERIMENTALLY and in practice to be in a non inertial system? If I am in a system and I don't know how ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Radius of apparent event horizon for accelerating observer

This question is related to my last question on the Unruh effect, which can be found here. First, recall the quote from the Wikipedia article on the Unruh effect: An accelerating observer will ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Unruh effect and relative acceleration

This is how I understand the Unruh effect: if a person (say, Bob) is moving with acceleration $a$ in his spaceship, then he will see an apparent event horizon around him--that is, the vacuum will ...
2
votes
2answers
104 views

Twin paradox caused by gravitational difference in space

I am not a physicist, but have always been curious about the twin paradox. So, here is my question. There are two twins in space - Twin A and Twin B (both stationary). They are apart from each other ...
21
votes
6answers
5k views

Does a person inside a falling bus fall to the front of it?

So I was watching Final Destination 5 and something caught my attention. There's a part where a bridge collapses and everything falls apart, so there's this bus that has a person inside (unaware of ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Kinetic Energy and reference frame

Two space ships A and B moving through space in the same direction. Space ship A moves 2m/s faster than B, its weight is 1kg and it has a 2 Watt engine. It is accelerating with full power for one ...
0
votes
2answers
108 views

Does an orbiting body accelerate?

Wikipedia says that : "Transverse acceleration (perpendicular to velocity) causes change in direction. If it is constant in magnitude and changing in direction with the velocity, we get a ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Don't photons pass photons move away at speeds faster than light? [duplicate]

I understand there is a longstanding rule that nothing travels faster than the speed of light... but if you had two flashlight aimed at each other and turned them on inside a vacuum the photons from ...
14
votes
5answers
1k views

Can we find actual rest mass of things on Earth

Earth moves around the Sun and the Sun moves around the galaxy and the galaxy moves with unknown speed and direction. We have speed so the mass of us all altered. Can we know the real rest mass? If ...
0
votes
1answer
119 views

Ηow does a current density becomes a charge density?

The transformations in special relativity of current and charge density fields are given as follows: $\bar J' = \begin{matrix} \gamma(J_x - Vρ) \\ J_y \\ J_z \end{matrix}$ $ρ' =\gamma (ρ - {V J_x ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Is distance always 0 relative to an object moving at speed of light $c$?

As I understand it, when an object is traveling at the speed of light, relative to itself all travel is instantaneous and the distance is zero. If a photon traveling from the sun was aligned with the ...
0
votes
2answers
79 views

The invariance vs constancy of the speed of light in vacuum

This is perhaps as much a question of semantics as of physics but it is something I have been thinking about recently and was wondering if anyone else had a perspective on this. Now, it could be that ...
0
votes
2answers
38 views

Falling into the sun, a thought experiment for trying to understand reference frames

If someone were transported out into empty space, idk like hundred of thousands of miles straight "up," would they fall into the sun? It would depend on their velocity right? If they were moving at an ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

Conservation of momentum and mechanical energy in different reference frames

I am a biologist developing an interest in physics. I am struggling with the implications of changing reference frames on momentum, mechanical energy and work done calculations. I invented the ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Proper acceleration of a stationary object

What is the proper acceleration measured for a stationary object? is it 9.8 or 0? Thank you.
1
vote
3answers
118 views

Shape of a rotating fluid surface

I was going through fluid dynamics and I came upon this section on the shape of a liquid surface in a rotating cylindrical vessel. The working in the book is something like this: It considers a mass ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Do Einstein's equations allow multiple solutions that agree in a neighborhood of a spacelike hypersurface?

This question is an extension of my a question that I have recently asked: Why doesn't a global frame of reference exist for GR?, where it was recommended that I post another question (so I am ...
2
votes
2answers
141 views

Why doesn't a global frame of reference exist for GR?

I only have at best a layperson's familiarity with GR, so forgive me if I am asking a basic question, but I have heard that in GR, we cannot have a global frame of reference, that is a frame of ...
3
votes
2answers
346 views

Do the planets really orbit the Sun?

This is a duplicate of this question on Space Exploration.SE. So why would I ask it again here? Read below. The question reads We often say that the planets orbit the Sun, which is usually a ...
-2
votes
1answer
37 views

Calculating time dilation

I'm writing a science fiction story where the protagonist's experience requires long intervals between events. My plan is to put him/her/it on a spaceship between events at an appreciable percentage ...
7
votes
2answers
198 views

Does a rotating disk develop a potential difference between the centre and rim?

This stems from thinking about the question If a perfect conductor where to move what happens to the electrons?. Suppose we have a rotating disk with no external magnetic field, so this is not a ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

'Eulerian' description of a rigid body submerged in fluid

In this paper, equations of rigid body motion (eq 4 and 5 in the paper) are written in Eulerian form (eq 12 in the paper). The rigid body is submerged in a viscous incompressible fluid. ...
-1
votes
2answers
63 views

Does special relativity happen in reverse when you freeze?

As you travel faster and faster you experience time at a slower rate, so if you travel slower and slower you should experience it at a faster rate right? My thinking is that even if you are ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Test bodies general relativity

I'm studying section 82 of the Landau & Lifshitz Field Theory vol.2 In this page it's written that the relative position of test bodies can't remain unchanged during time. And ok with this. But ...
3
votes
1answer
101 views

Is this one of the reason we can't travel in time? [closed]

I'd like to ask a question that is not in my field but it's bothering me. Based on that, I'm sorry if I make dumb mistake in my assumptions. The idea of travelling in time means "going" at some ...
-6
votes
1answer
57 views

How to find the period of a simple pendulum in an elevator going up with an acceleration?

How to find the period of a simple pendulum in an elevator going up with an acceleration of $a$. Don't just say, $T=2 \pi$ $\sqrt{ \frac l {g+a}}$ I want to know how the above equation is formed.
4
votes
1answer
71 views

Invariant equations of motion under Lorentz transformations

My question regards the statement that an equation of motion may be invariant under a Lorentz transformation I just finished watching the Stanford University special relativity lectures on special ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

The physics behind tilting trains

So I'm trying to get an intuition behind the physics behind banked curves (and tilting trains). I know how to do the calculations, but I'm still struggling with the "why". If I'm sitting in a train, ...
-1
votes
1answer
41 views

Time dilation: reference frame [closed]

So I'm calculating how long it will take for half of some muons to decay for in a stationary observers frame of reference. They have a half life of 2.2 * 10^-6 and are moving at a speed of .98c ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Coriolis Effect vs airplane

So, if I build a highway from north pole towards equator and sit in a car, speed pretty fast towards it, I should feel force with the Earths rotation due to the different rotation speeds of this ...
2
votes
2answers
109 views

If you fall in a black hole, when do you go past the event horizon? [duplicate]

Say I fall into the event horizon of a black hole. As I cross the black hole, I would appear to outside onlookers to freeze in time, and would never move from that point again. In my perspective, time ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

How does a spacecraft enter Earth's atmosphere?

If Earth whirls around the center of our galaxy at some 220 kilometers per second, how can a spacecraft, which is much slower, enter Earth's atmosphere when returning from Mars for example?
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Path of puck through a turntable

I was looking a problem which tells me to consider myself standing on the ground beside a perfectly flat horizontal turntable rotating with constant angular velocity w. Then I lean over and shove a ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Superluminal speed?

I came by the quotation below. I'm confused: does it mean that it's actually possible for light and even material objects to move faster than light? Gravitational fields are present the velocities ...
4
votes
1answer
155 views

Why doesn’t the Sagnac Effect disprove relativity?

It was my understanding that the speed of light is supposed to be constant for every observer, as in the classical mental experiment of the guy in the train with the flashlights which explain the ...
3
votes
2answers
107 views

How does the kinetic energy of a ballerina increase? [duplicate]

When a ballerina pulls her arms in, her rotational kinetic energy increases because angular momentum is conserved. That means that work must have been done on her. I saw somewhere that there is work ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Seeing in shell reference frame in general relativity

I'm trying to understand how an observer in a shell reference frame sees an object (star) near a black hole. I'm specifically trying to understand the equation: $$\tan \theta_{shell} = ...
0
votes
1answer
115 views

Understanding gravitational time dilation / Schwarzschild metric

I've had a look at the answers to these sorts of questions already, but feel like I'm still missing something. Starting with this question, and this one and even this one here. I'm looking at this ...
1
vote
2answers
107 views

Why do we feel resistance to gravity rather than the acceleration of gravity?

What's the reason it behaves differently from all other forces? What I mean is, if you're in orbit you're accelerating toward the earth at almost 9.8m/s^2, but you feel nothing. If you are riding a ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Symmetric Time Dilation in Uniform Relative Motion

I feel (and hope) this is an easily answerable question among physicists versed in GR. I promise that I searched for other answers on the forum. Here goes: Observer 1 starts at X distance from ...
2
votes
3answers
151 views

A very elementary question about centrifugal force

I was recently reading some Newtonian dynamics textbook, and then I came across with a problem about the centrifugal effect on mass free falling to Earth. I can mathematically appreciate the fact that ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Measuring Hawking radiation after the coordinate transformation

If an observer can measure the Hawking radiation or surface gravity in his co-moving/rest frame, what happens when we make a coordinate transformation to a moving frame of reference? Can we make such ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Will the Velocity of an object change if it moves fast,close to speed of light?

If an rocket moves with a speed of 0.5c. So, the speedometer in that rocket will show 0.5c. But there will be time dilation when someone sees it from the earth. Then it's Time dilation will be So, ...