A system of coordinates used as the basis for describing the position and motion of objects

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Pseudo Force Other Than Centrifugal Force In A Rotating Frame

I read in HC Verma that if we are observing the motion of a body from a rotating frame and the body under the observation is NOT in motion with respect to our frame than centrifugal force is the ...
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Principle of relativity - a second, equivalent form, using invariants

Most people state the principle of relativity like this: "The rules of physics must take the same form in all inertial frames." Question: is this an equivalent way of saying the same thing: ...
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794 views

Difference between Eulerian and Lagrangian formulation of Fluid Dynamics

Difference between Eulerian and Lagrangian formulation of Fluid Dynamics. I am completely new to fluid mechanics. Until now definition $F = ma$ was sufficient for me to solve any rigid body problems ...
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158 views

Is it possible to have uniform proper acceleration along a large object without breaking it?

I'm learning about accelerating reference frames (to eventually get grasp of general relativity too). I've just read about the Rindler coordinates and this one caught my eye Note that Rindler ...
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228 views

Tensor equations in General Relativity

In the context of general relativity it is often stated that one of the main purposes of tensors is that of making equations frame-independent. Question: why is this true? I'm looking for a ...
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158 views

Twin Paradox in case of two twins that don't meet

If there are two twins. such that one of them goes on a space voyage maintaining a constant velocity, and that one never returns to earth, and the twins decide to never meet but send information about ...
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Centrifugal Force

When a body is in circular motion, realistically, it experiences only the centripetal force, created by gravitational pull, tension etc. , which gives it acceleration towards the centre. Now, assuming ...
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271 views

First Postulate of Special Relativity: What does it mean?

Wikipedia has this quote: Special principle of relativity: If a system of coordinates K is chosen so that, in relation to it, physical laws hold good in their simplest form, the same laws hold ...
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271 views

Is a preferred reference frame of the universe the old aether?

About two years ago I posted a question about a symmetrical twin paradox: Here. Recently a new answer was posted and an intense discussion ensued: Here. One of the points discussed concerns a ...
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If I travel close to the speed of light and come back, why is everyone else dead, and not me? [duplicate]

Consider the following scenario: I get in a spaceship, and travel really close to the speed of light for a while, and then come back. A lot of time has passed on the Earth, but since I was traveling ...
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1k views

What provides the centrifugal force for planets orbiting a star?

this is a question I had when I was a kid. I'm a bit ashamed because I think I am missing out on something very obvious since I have the same question despite almost being an engineer now! From ...
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249 views

What does 99.9% speed of light mean when there is no absolute velocity?

So when people say: 'I am approaching the speed of light, and to get to 100% light I would need infinite energy' they are essentially saying that this situation is impossible? I read this in ...
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Paradox of angular velocity

For a torque-free symmetric top, the Inertia tensor has an inverse $I^{-1}$, and $L=I\omega$. Which implies that $\omega=I^{-1}L$. But since $I, L$ are constants, $\vec\omega$ is a constant. However, ...
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The speed of light as it approaches a massive body

No matter how fast you go, you will aways perceive the speed of light as constant. Taking that as a fact, the special relativity theory was formulated. Now, for what I understand about general ...
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2answers
119 views

Time Slowing Down [duplicate]

I'd like to ask a question if I may about the relativity. When travelling at the speed of light(which is impossible for particles with masses) or very close to it, would it be me, myself, seeing my ...
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1answer
311 views

Reference frame involved in the Schrödinger's equation

I have a doubt as to in which frame of reference the Schrödinger equation is written? I think it is inertial but can't reason it out.
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Relation between coordinates and frames of reference

I always get a little uneasy that all the theories I can think of (at least since Newton) are constructed in a way such that they would be true in heaven and on earth ... but we can never go ...
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702 views

How fictitious are fictitious forces?

How fictitious are fictitious forces? More specifically, in a rotating reference frame i.e. on the surface of the earth does an object that is 'stationary' and in contract with the ground feel ...
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153 views

Conical vs Simple Pendulum

I don't understand why the Tension $T$ on a conical pendulum and a simple pendulum are different. In a simple pendulum, one would say that the tension of the rope is $T=mg \cos(\theta)$. However, ...
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79 views

Is a particular force different in different frames

Can a particular real force have different magnitude in different frames?
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180 views

Space time a function of itself, objects in it, or both?

Is spacetime a function of itself, objects within it, or both? I am struggling to understand just what is spacetime without objects in it (or theoretical reference points) and thus no frame of ...
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240 views

Why can we use just one angular velocity vector to describe the rotation of a whole non-inertial reference frame?

The other day in class the professor was explaining non-inertial reference frames. We were working out how to find the acceleration of a point as measured from the non-inertial reference frame, and ...
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54 views

Why is it that angular acceleration is constant in different instantaneous reference frames?

Take the following example: A rod (of length L and mass m) is held horizontally at both ends by supports. One is instantaneously removed. The specific problem is to prove that the force on the other ...
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Can a simulated Universe simulate Special Relativity

I know there are theories (or postulates) that hold that our Universe could be a simulation. I was wondering, if Special Relativity states that two events which are not causally linked can be judged ...
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65 views

Primary direction in planet-centered equatorial reference frame

I am given the classical orbital elements of the orbit of a spacecraft around a planet which is not the Earth, say Venus. I assume those are referred to a reference frame whose fundamental plane is ...
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68 views

Do particles keep on emitting energy?

Accelerated electrons emit electromagnetic waves, but those at rest do not. So accelerated electrons emit energy and those at rest do not. (At rest hypothetically, I know it is not permissible ...
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192 views

Speed of light travel

I have just started special theory of relativity. The limiting speed known as speed of light fascinated me most. I asked my teacher: Consider two massless objects moving in the same direction at ...
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Why rendezvous attempt failed on Gemini 4?

It is said in Wikipedia, that On the first orbit, McDivitt attempted to rendezvous with the spent Titan second stage. This was unsuccessful for a number of reasons: NASA engineers had not ...
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164 views

Finding frame of reference where angular momentum appears zero

Consider a isolated system of $n$ non-interacting classical particles. We can easily select a barycentric frame of reference, where total momentum will be zero, so we have our $\vec x(i)$ — ...
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229 views

Frame of reference and big bang

I have read Brief History of Time in which he has wonderfully described the formation of universe. What is the frame of reference from which we are viewing the big bang? What is the frame of reference ...
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6answers
594 views

Does the (relativistic) mass change? Why?

I learned recently that when an object moves with a velocity comparable to the velocity of light the (relativistic) mass changes. How does this alteration take place?
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270 views

A relative time dilation paradox.

Let us assume that there are two astronauts A and B who are floating in space. A sees B passing by and vice versa. A sends signals to B every minute. According to A since B is moving his clock will be ...
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269 views

If time slows down when you move faster, does this give you an “effective speed” different from your proper speed?

Suppose you're travelling at 0.9c toward the sun, and you tag past the Earth and start a clock. Would Lorentz contraction/time dilation cause you to get to the sun faster than (about) 9 minutes ...
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4answers
73 views

Sum of acceleration vectors

If a point mass has some accelerations $\mathbf{a_1} $ and $\mathbf{a_2} $, why is mathematically true that the "total" acceleration is $\mathbf{a}= \mathbf {a_1}+\mathbf {a_2}$?
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Light in Different Reference Frames

I think I'm just confused, but for some reason I thought that light moving straight in one frame would have to move in the same direction in another frame. I know there are photons-but because I have ...
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99 views

Terminology for opposite null lines

Is there a name for two null lines that lie on the opposite sides of the null cone? Each line can be obtained from the other by reflection in the axis of the null cone (the time-axis). In terms of ...
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Is speed of light ( Sun-to-Earth ) related to the movement speed of solar system?

The speed of light has been measured to be 299 792 458 m/s. Now, the Solar System is traveling at an average speed of 828,000 km/h (230 000 m/s). Summing up the numbers we get close to 300 000 000 m/s ...
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4answers
87 views

Special Relativity moving in space

Given that time is 'just another' dimension and people get hung up on the fact that we cannot go back and forth in time like the other dimensions. Is there any proof that the corner of 8th Avenue and ...
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2answers
110 views

Increase in Mass with Velocity [duplicate]

I just had a confusion. Does the mass of the body actually increase when it is moving with a certain velocity? Or does it only look like the mass has increase to another observer. How can the actual ...
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1answer
202 views

Can we live forever by taking advantage of the time dilation effect?

I have been reading about Time dilation and twin paradox in Relativity. So,I thought that if It can be the difference of 10 yrs between the Girl in space and on Earth, then why can't anyone not age ...
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1answer
274 views

Thought experiment about acceleration

Case 1: two people wake up in spaceships accelerating at 1g. They can measure or observe anything inside the room but not outside. They couldn't determine if they were on a spaceship or on earth. ...
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2answers
166 views

What is wrong with considering the Atwood machine as a system?

I am confused about a method used in the following problem. There is an arrangement as shown below. The surface is smooth, and the pulleys are light. We have to find the acceleration $a_0$ of $m_1$. ...
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How long does it take for a black hole to form?

The well-known fable of an astronaut sending signals out to an external observer while falling toward an event horizon states that the time lapse between such signals becomes greater even if in the ...
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756 views

pendulum is a inertial frame of reference or non inertial frame of reference? [closed]

Example of pendulum is inertial frame of reference or non inertial frame of reference? because if pendulum starts moving its continuously moves without changing there period of time but is changes its ...
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1answer
266 views

Two electron beams exert different forces on each other depending on frame of reference?

I am sure there is a simple explanation for my confusion, but I am a little puzzled: We are dealing with two parallel electron cannons that each produces a straight beam of electrons. They are placed ...
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2answers
904 views

Does inertia increase with speed?

I have heard that when the speed of the object increase, the mass of the object also increase. (Why does an object with higher speed gain more (relativistic) mass?) So inertia which is related to ...
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2answers
232 views

Local inertial coordinates

It is said that we can introduce local inertial coordinates for any timelike geodesic. But why only for timelike geodesics? What about null geodesics? Perhaps it has to do with invertibility or ...
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1answer
112 views

Lorentz invariance of the wave equation

I want to show that the 2-d wave equation is invariant under a boost, so, the starting point is the wave equation $$\frac{\partial^2\phi}{\partial x^2}=\frac{1}{c^2}\frac{\partial^2\phi}{\partial ...
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Einstein's Postulates: Simultaneity

Okay, I still don't get the solution (which I will lay out) to the following problem: Suppose that A', B', and C' are at rest in frame S', which moves with respect to S at speed v in the positive ...
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Angular Momentum of a rigid, extended object

Angular momentum of an object is a physical quantity that depends on the chosen point about which to calculate the angular momentum. It is often said that an object that has been thrown up in the air ...