Radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium or space. The particles or waves radiate (i.e., travel outward in all directions) from a source.

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Bismuth vs tungsten shielding

When shielding 1250-keV $^{60}$Co at a nuclear facility, are there instances in which a shield produced of a mixture of bismuth and silicon can provide higher/equal attenuation than a shield produced ...
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30 views

How do I calculate the energy produced in a beta decay reaction? [on hold]

How do I calculate the energy produced in this reaction: Masses of subatomic particles: proton=1.007276u neutron=1.008665u electron=0.000549u Don't know if these are also relevant: Rest mass ...
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1answer
30 views

Spontaneous radiative decay due to electric dipole radiation

In my textbook, we calculated the rate at which an electric dipole radiates energy to be $Pwr = \frac{1}{4\pi \epsilon_0}\frac{2}{3c^3}\left(\frac{d^2 p}{dt^2} \right)^2$ where p is the dipole ...
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1answer
2k views

Finding electric power generated using heat transfer

I'm working through an example I have been given to study. Suppose I have a 2m X 4m photovoltaic panel on my roof that is irradiated with a solar flux of $G_s = 700W/m^2$. Given: $\alpha_s = 0.83$ ...
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2k views

Modeling incoming solar radiation

I want to write a model for estimating incoming solar radiation for a specific latitude on earth but I am struggling to find an appropriate source which shows the required equations for doing so. ...
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1answer
48 views

What produces this 477 keV spectral line?

Question about a specific line on a gamma spectrum, here. Below is a background gamma spectrum observed by a Ge[li] detector. I've been able to identify all the lines with mostly certainty, apart ...
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20 views

Electric field radiation with moving charge and observation point

I've been working on Chapter 34 of the first volume of the Feynman Lectures on Physics http://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/I_34.html#Ch34-S1. In Fig. 34–3 (reproduced above) Prof. Feynman shows ...
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17 views

Gadolinium poisoning vs Holmium Poisoning [closed]

Question here on the poisoning used around neutron spallation sources (or reactors, or any neutron source). I use poisoning in the sense of absorbing neutrons to prevent their release into the outside ...
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1answer
25 views

Gamma spectrum: Question about cross sections

If I have a gamma spectrum and I suspect that I should have an isotope, Fe-59 for example, present in the environment, I will then look here: ...
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0answers
29 views

Atomic/nuclear physics question

I've got what's probably quite a basic question here but I can't get things clear in my head. If I have a cobalt isotope like Co-56, is it possible for this to undergo Neutron capture (becoming ...
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2answers
52 views

Earth's magnetic field shields us… from what threat?

This is a nice artistic picture of the magnet field of the earth, shielding us from the solar wind. (source) Wherever you look, it is stated that without our shield, life would not be possible on ...
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3answers
346 views

Fission of U-235 produces Cs-137 along with…?

Question about Nuclear fission in general, here. If I have the fission of U-235 and I know that one of the products is Cs-137, is there a way of figuring out the other product? Should there be ...
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145 views

Matter to energy conversion

Okay so I have a question, during a nuclear explosion or particle/antiparticle annihilation, matter is converted into energy. How do I determine if a from a explosion will come lets say a small ...
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1answer
109 views

What is the difference between zero background radiation and field background radiation in Nuclear Physics measurements?

Can someone please explain the difference between these two terms (Zero Background Radiation and Field Background Radiation) used in radiometric prospecting measurements?
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1answer
27 views

Nuclear decay of V-48

I have a question on the "decay" of Vanadium-48. The reason it's in inverted commas is because I'm not sure whether decay is the right word. Basically what I'm trying to work out is whether it's ...
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2answers
46 views

How gamma rays are produced? [closed]

Radio active materials emit alpha beta and gamma rays. My question is, what causes (at subatomic level) an atom to produce such a powerful gamma rays and Suppose if I bring a fluorescent bulbs nearby ...
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1answer
526 views

Do human bodies give off a consistent but unique radiation/electromagnetic/energy signature?

Is there any facet of the energy emitted by a human body that is consistent and unique - like a fingerprint, but a signal that could be detected by a remote device?
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16 views

Lens-Mirror systems and conservation of specific intensity

This came out of a discussion I started yesterday and a related discussion I found. I'll recap the problem quickly: Consider two blackbodies, with surface areas $A_1$ and $A_2$ and temperatures $T_1$ ...
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1answer
105 views

Model to convert radiation data from one tilted surface to a different one?

I have measuring data of global radiation on a tilted surface (a solar collector surface). Now I need to do 2 things: split the tilted global radiation into its diffuse and beam parts calculate ...
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1answer
39 views

Definition of Sievert (Sv) unit - is it whole body mass?

I'm wondering about the definition of the Sievert (Sv) unit. It is J/Kg but is that Kg the mass of the whole body or just of the exposed body part? For instance, when a table says that an x-ray of a ...
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1answer
41 views

Light is EM radiation or field [duplicate]

What is Difference between EM Radiation and EM Field. Are They all are different quantities or interrelated with each other. Do they both follow inverse square law.Is light EM radiation or Field
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33 views

What is the strongest material transparent to alpha radiation?

Is there a material which is transparent to alpha radiation while being able to hold up under atmospheric pressure on one side and ultra high vacuum on the other? Put simply, what material is thin ...
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2answers
12k views

What common materials can effectively block infrared radiation?

I have a plastic container and want to make sure that infrared radiation (specifically, in the 750-850 nanometer range) cannot pass through it. Would wrapping it in aluminum foil do the trick? If not, ...
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101 views

The logarithmic decay of WIFI

I have been told that Wi-Fi, LTE etc signal strength fall of as $$\propto \frac1{\log(r)}$$ where $r$ is the distance. I am wondering why this is. I better explain what I mean with this question. ...
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50 views

Why conductors don't scatter light?

Air molecules can be oscillated by E field and re-radiate EM waves in different directions. However, if light is shined to a conductor the E field oscillate the free charges but the effect is to ...
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1answer
238 views

Increasing the efficiency of solar cell systems

As far as I know, there are currently two main approaches to utilising solar radiation for maximum energy conversion to electricity. These are either direct conversion to electricity, using ...
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45 views

Current constraints on lightest neutrino mass?

This paper from 2005 claims that the mass of the lightest neutrino is unconstrained. (see p9) Oscillations are only able to constrain the differences in squares as far as I know, but perhaps ...
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37 views

How do we tell the CMB apart from other radiation?

Say I want to observe the CMB and the CMB only. I point my device (telescope in some frequency range) at the sky and start looking. How do I know it should be in the Microwave spectrum? How do I ...
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60 views

Explain Stefan-Boltzmann Law?

Can someone explain the Stefan-Boltzmann law in an easy-to-understand way?
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2answers
3k views

Tunneling of alpha particles

Consider this explanation of the alpha decay: It says The Coulomb barrier faced by an alpha particle with this energy is about 26 MeV, so by classical physics it cannot escape at all. ...
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133 views

In the Iranian nuclear deal, how can IAEA detect nuclear activity after 24 days?

This is a question related to current events, but I want to ask about the physics, which are not explained in any news article that I can find. Ernest Moniz and John Kerry wrote an op-ed in the ...
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36 views

Removing virtual surfaces in view factor calculations

I've managed to get myself into a quandary. I am looking at (radiation) view factors and I subdivided my system to make the math easier. Now I'm having a hard time figuring how to put the system back ...
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1answer
45 views

Why does the cloud chamber trails differ in length?

Why does the cloud chamber trails differ in length? Also, why does the cloud chamber trails branch into Y-shape?
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1answer
22 views

Is it normal for radiation levels to be elevated near a medical imaging lab?

I work in a general-purpose, commercial office building where the first floor is dedicated to an x-ray / imaging lab for medical diagnostics. The public lobby of this building is routinely ...
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1answer
58 views

What force decays an oscillating charge?

Consider this scenario: We have a charge on a spring. As it oscillates, it loses energy to radiation. What force decays the oscillation? As far as I can see, the only forces in the scenario are ...
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271 views

Radioactive decay as pure radiation of neutrinos and antineutrinos?

Is it possible with radioactive decay as pure radiation of neutrinos and antineutrinos? From a theoretical point of view? I'm not asking for processes since I'm convinced there are no known processes ...
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73 views

If temperature is dependent on mass, how did the early universe have a temperature?

I am near the end of the book The First Three Minutes by Steven Weinberg. I am reading it in order to get a better picture of the early universe in the Big Bang model. But one thing I am having ...
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4answers
772 views

What isotope has the shortest half life?

Question: What isotope has the shortest half life?
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27 views

Can natural gamma radiation be induced by cosmic rays?

When cosmic-ray particles like muons or neutrons impinge the ground, they get slowed down, thermalized and captured. This process is most effective when water/rain/moisture is present. Furthermore, ...
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303 views

Remote EEG detection / reading

I recently noted that Philips, Accenture, and Emotive grouped together to create a proof of concept that would assist ALS patients to gain greater control of their lives through brain, voice, and eye ...
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170 views

Tritium decay is spontaneous even if the binding energy of tritium is higher than the binding energy of 3He. Why?

Given this nuclear reaction: $^3_1\mathrm H\to {}^3_2\mathrm{He}+e^-+\bar{\nu}$ and knowing the binding energies: $BE(^3_1\mathrm H)=8.48 \,\mathrm{MeV}$ $BE(^3_2\mathrm{He})=7.72 \,\mathrm{MeV}$ ...
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64 views

Radiation from home heaters [closed]

My understanding of radiation is energy being emitted from a source. So much radiation would come out of a home gas or oil heater to become dangerous. I'm assuming infrared radiation.
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8k views

2 ways to generate electromagnetic wave

According to Maxwell's equations, accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. According to Quantum physics, heating causes electromagnetic radiation too. These 2 radiations, are they ...
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1answer
5k views

What common materials absorb most infrared light?

I'm competing in a simple robotics competition where most of the participants use reflected infrared light to detect their opponent. I'd like to make my own robot as difficult to see as possible. What ...
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1answer
47 views

Kalb-Ramond action and topological string radiation

Let's have simple scalar $\Phi$ action involves spontaneously symmetry breaking in a form $$ \tag 1 S = \int d^{4}x\left( |\partial_{\mu}\psi|^{2} + \psi^{2}|\partial_{\mu}\theta |^{2} - ...
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120 views

How does radiation degrade mechanical parts and electronic devices?

I'm running out of places to look (lots of Googling, SE, [articles and books are too specific and never give a good overview]), and yet I am still unsure about how exactly radiation can degrade ...
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1answer
71 views

What's the idea behind Wu's experiment?

Madame Wu discovered the parity violation in beta-decays. To do so, she took some Co-60 nuclei, which decay via beta-decay in Ni-60 with emission of electron, antineutrino and 2 gamma rays. She ...
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4k views

Would wearing clothing that is black on the inside and white on the outside keep you cooler?

The Straight Dope ran an explanation of why nomads often wear black clothing - it absorbs heat better from the body. On the other hand, white clothing reflects sunlight better. Is it possible to get ...
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55 views

Why did scientists use a zinc-sulfide coated screen to detect the alpha, beta, and gamma radiation?

How does a zinc-sulfide coated screen work, and how does it manage to detect high-frequency radiation, electrons, and helium? Could it be possible that a delta ray managed to somehow slip past ...
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41 views

How to derive the Gamow factor in the simplest way?

I want to know how to derive the Gamow factor (how to solve the integral and which approximation I have to do) without the centrifugal correction. $$V(r) = V_N(r)+V_c(r). $$ The Gamow factor is ...