Radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium or space. The particles or waves radiate (i.e., travel outward in all directions) from a source.

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Can the half-life of a free neutron be calculated or is it just empirical? [duplicate]

Everyone keeps telling me its just 10.3 minutes and no one knows how to get that number form theory. Any idea?
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Radiation: Inverse square law

Gamma radiation follows the inverse square law, I understand this as "double the distance, quarter the intensity" So if you have a gamma source, at the source (distance = 0), the Intensity is $I_0$, ...
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What exactly is the composition of radiation in interplanetary space?

The articles I found on radiation in the solar system mostly dealt with solar wind, I wonder about other types. Is there a breakdown that tells me, withhin an order of magnitude, at least what ...
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Decay of massless particles

We don't normally consider the possibility that massless particles could undergo radioactive decay. There are elementary arguments that make it sound implausible. (A bunch of the following is ...
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178 views

Why is signal bad in a tunnel?

Consider this: you are driving through a tunnel listening to your AM radio and a GPS, all of the sudden AM radio has nothing but statics and your GPS says "reconnecting - please hold". You say to ...
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21 views

Determine the number of grays absorbed by human emitted by Uranium 238

I want to count the estimated value of gamma radiation (in Grays) absorbed by human emitted by Uranium 238. Weight of it's ore is about 20 grams. The human weight is about 70 kilograms, he was about 5 ...
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41 views

Can you heat something in AL foil using IR?

Is it possible to heat up, let's say, a blob of mud, golf ball size, covered in AL foil, with IR? Also, how efficient would that be? Is there an IR wavelength that would get absorbed far better than ...
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45 views

Why is 0 $\nu \beta\beta$ decay often written with electron emission and not positron?

According to http://www.cobra-experiment.org/double_beta_decay/ I can see that double $\beta$+ decay is possible, but I often find neutrinoless double beta sources with the double $\beta$- decay ...
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Confusion about Length Contraction (ex in Muon decay)

I am a bit confused about the implications of length contractions; For example, in the muon decay problem, we assume that the distance between the muon and the earth is contracted only in the frame ...
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Do photons make the universe expand?

I have a problem understanding the ideas behind a basic assumption of cosmology. The Friedmann equations follow from Newtonian mechanics and conservation of Energy-momentum $(E_{kin}+E_{pot}=E_{tot})$ ...
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177 views

Can a free hydrogen atom constitute ionizing radiation?

Radiation is basically just particles flying around, right? Are free hydrogen atoms just typically not moving fast enough to be considered "radiation"?
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47 views

Problems with calculating Strontium-90 leakage due to Fukushima accident

Not long ago there was a spill of radioactive water at the Fukushima plants. Here are the data: $230 \times 10^6 \,\,\mathrm{Bq}$ of beta radiation are found in a liter of water. $t_{1/2} = 28.79 ...
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232 views

What does the exponential decay constant depend on?

We know the law of radioactivity: $$N=N_0e^{-\lambda t}$$ where $\lambda$ is the exponential decay constant. My question is: This constant depends of what?
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Definition of mass gap [duplicate]

Why do we say that a system with mass gap has correlation function which decays exponentially and one without a mass gap has a slower power law decay?
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41 views

$\beta^+$ decay question

I read that all baryons apart from the proton itself decay into protons (why though?) and that mesons do not decay into protons due to having less mass than protons. Thus it makes sense for the ...
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1answer
202 views

Calculating the Sun's emitted power in a wavelength range?

Is there an equation that describes the Sun's emitted power on the surface [in $\frac{W}{m^2}$] over a selected wavelength range (from $\lambda_1$ to $\lambda_2$) ? I am guessing this can be ...
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1answer
100 views

Calculating $\alpha$-Particles Detected During Rutherford Scattering (Cross Sections)

I am currently studying nuclear cross sections and this question considers the classic Rutherford scattering experiment. Here is a diagram of the experiment: The detector is at right-angles to the ...
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197 views

Why doesn't diamond glow when hot?

In an answer to this SE question, the respondent explains that heating a perfect diamond will not cause it to glow with thermal blackbody radiation. I don't quite follow his explanation. I think it ...
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101 views

Earth's and Moon's outgoing radiation

Does Earth or Moon emmit/reflect anyother form of radiation than IR into space? I am especially curious if they emmit/reflect UV radiation. And if they do, where could I find an irradiance spectrum ...
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Analogy for Rayleigh scattering

This morning's eclipse has me looking into Rayleigh scattering. I'm trying to think of a good analogy to explain it to somebody without getting too in-depth into electromagnetism and other subjects... ...
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Could airport security devices detect differences between printed and written documents?

If airport security scanners of any kind (xray, thermal, whatever else they use) looked at two items: A printed paper textbook The same printed paper textbook into which we have inserted a regular ...
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Why is an opaque body opaque?

When does a body qualify to be called an opaque body? Is it anybody which cannot let visible light through it or is there any other definition? And when and how does a body allow radiations through ...
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154 views

What is the connection between the non-reversibility of the decay of unstable nuclei (as Uranium, Plutonium) and the 2nd principle of thermodynamics?

The 2nd principle of the thermodynamics says that if a system (e.g. an ideal gas) is left undisturbed, its number of microscopic states only increases. This is a statement of irreversibility of the ...
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117 views

How does heat travel?

How does heat travel? I have two competing thoughts here!! Firstly some form of atomic/molecular process liberates a photon in the infrared region of the spectrum which is detected as heat by a ...
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1answer
127 views

Spectral irradiance units conversion

I have a table of data containing irradiance of light at different wavelengths. This is how it looks like for 300.5 nm: Wavelength, nm: 300.5 Wavelength, $\mu$m: 0.3005 W/m$^2$/$\mu$m: 403 ...
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38 views

Alpha Particles Moving Object

I'd like to apologize in advance because this may be a silly/obvious question, but could alpha particles theoretically move an object? My basic idea is that alpha particles could cause an object to ...
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Understanding the definition of SAR value?

I am confused over the meaning of SAR values and different standards in its definitions. While checking of website a mobile manufacturer company for a mobile phone, I found this statement The SAR ...
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129 views

The role of W bosons in the weak nuclear force and beta decay

I am a beginner Physics student and I am studying the weak nuclear force and how particle interactions work. Now, from my book and the Feynman diagram, I learned that a neutron can change into a ...
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Can Half Lives (hypothetically) be Measured by Wave-functions?

I understand that half-lives are measured over several days/months/years of observing a certain amount of an element and seeing how long it takes to decay a certain amount, but I'm curious as to ...
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160 views

Radiative transfer equation solution

The solution of the radiative transfer equation for spherical ionized blob : \begin{equation} \frac{dI_{\nu}}{ds} = j_{\nu}-\alpha I_{\nu} \end{equation} and solution is (Ref: ...
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94 views

Tesla Coils - Is there a risk that the discharge can create x-rays?

I've built a Tesla coil that stands about 3 ft tall and uses a spark gap as the interrupter for the primary circuit. Judging by the size of the streamers it's reaching at least a million volts. ...
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59 views

The influence of the antenna height

I am working on a model of a transmitter. The transmitter is attached to the wheel of the vehicle and thus constantly changes it's height. In other words capacitance between antenna and ground is ...
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148 views

Why does light fade from a room?

So basically in my toilet I have this really bright ceiling light, but when I turn it off it doesn't just instantly plunge me into darkness, but rather sort of fades out over a few seconds. It looks ...
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194 views

Jupiter radiation belt: where >MeV particles comes from?

When I read some discussion about exploration of Jupiter moons, or possibility of life there, a common argument is high dose of radiation in Jupiter's radiation belt (several orders of magnitude ...
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How do we 'watch ' atomic interactions?

I'm relatively new to objective physics and it's measuring and imaging abilities.. Specifically I don't know if we can 'watch' inter/or intra molecular exchanges like the photonic and electronic. I ...
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Gamma Spectrum: What is causing this behavior?

In my radiation detection lab we're identifying a unknown source, based on the gamma spectrum it's an activated gold foil. You can clearly see 4 peaks: 411.78 keV (Au-198), 675.93 keV (Au-198), 823.51 ...
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Would a matter-antimatter explosion cause fallout?

I know matter and antimatter annihilation release a lot of gamma rays which are considered ionizing radiation if I am not mistaken. But what if the explosion happened on the surface of the earth, ...
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322 views

Are there any radiation emitted from the cameras? [closed]

Do modern video cameras emit any kind of radiation? If so, what range of frequencies they have? I was wondering if we can detect any radiation so any help regarding detection will also be appreciated. ...
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Proton energy distribution after Si layer

I've been using SRIM to get an approximation of the energy distribution that a beam of monoenergetic incident ions will have after a thin layer of silicon. However, for my purposes it would be better ...
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What is the distribution of energy between the alpha, beta and gamma particles emitted in nuclear fallout per one RAD?

I have been trying to find a relation to be able to convert from RAD to REM. What I found is that I need to know the "quality factor" as some sources call it, which is the effect of different ionizing ...
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Will the background radiation get “dimmer”? If so when will it be “turned off” [duplicate]

This video http://youtu.be/_mZQ-5-KYHw talks about the background radiation which we can observe today. It's from the beginning of the universe and has traveled so long that the expansion of the ...
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Index of refraction appearing in the radiative transfer equation

In this publication the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) (eq. (7)) contains the following emission term: $$n_i^2\kappa_{d,i}L_{b,i}(\mathbf{r})$$ where $n_i$ is the refractive index of component ...
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How damaging is light? [closed]

On Surely You're Joking Mr Feynman, when talking about the Trinity test, the author states: the only thing that could really hurt your eyes (bright light can never hurt your eyes) is ultraviolet ...
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Use of fission products for electricity generation

Why can't we use fissions products for electricity production ? As far has I know fissions products from current nuclear power plants create enough 'waste' heat to boil water; and temperature ...
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Why aren't betavoltaics and alphavoltaics batteries widely used?

Betavoltaic batteries are devices which creates electricity from beta radiation of a radioactive material. Alphavoltaics operate similarly, using alpha radiation. The concept was invented roughly 50 ...
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“Radiative” particle decay?

This might be a very simple question, so sorry. I have encountered the expression "radiative particle decay" quite a few times now, and none of the sources ever explain what they mean by radiative: I ...
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2answers
86 views

Leakage of X-ray radiation

Suppose a sample of strontium-90 is stored in a lead container with lead walls. It is know that X-ray radiation may be detected outside the lead container. After some discussion with my peers, it ...
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Maximum electron momentum in $\beta^-$-decay

This should be easy, but I think I have a mind-block... For $\beta^-$-decay, what is the maximum possible momentum for the electron? The two equations I can use are conservation of energy and ...
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Radiation emission and absorption

Any object can emit and absorb radiation and the power of emission can be represented by the Stefan-Boltzmann law: $$P=A\epsilon\sigma T^4$$ In many texts the net power radiated is the difference ...