The quark model postulates that the hadrons such as protons and neutrons have an inner structure; quarks.

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$SU(3)$ global gauge group

Referring to the quantum observables of quarks, is it true that the color $SU(3)$ unitary representation commutes with all observables? I am not referring here to the local $SU(3)$ gauge theory, I ...
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Charge structure of the neutron

David Griffiths’ book on elementary particles says that the neutron is positive at the center and edges, negative in between. (Introduction to Elementary Particles, Wiley, 1987, p. 21). But Wikipedia ...
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How are pions created?

I have listened to a lecture explaining the strong force which is actually nuclear force and colour force. And the pions are the force carrier of the nuclear force. And basically pions are created ...
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46 views

Lagrangian of Yukawa Interaction and Quark Mixing

I'm trying to understand the original of quark and lepton mass. Here's a paragraph from the book: "Massive neutrinos in physics and astrophysics" by R. N. Mohapatra and P. B. Pal : The gauge ...
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Why Do Glueballs Have Mass, When Individual Gluons Are Massless?

From Wikipedia Glueballs Glueballs are predicted by quantum chromodynamics to be massive, notwithstanding the fact that gluons themselves have zero rest mass in the Standard Model. Glueballs with ...
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44 views

Quantum flux tubes possible shapes

If given energy, can flux tubes be any shape as long as all quarks are connected and the amount of energy is insufficient to form a quark-antiquark pair, or will the shape of the flux tubes be a ...
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Formatting of quark fields

I try to follow the ISO 80000-2 norm when typesetting physics. This is more a typesetting question but I did not want to ask this at the TeX SE site since this only applies to physics and I am not ...
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38 views

Quark, antiquark pair doubts [closed]

When Quark, antiuquark pair is created by high energy photons, they glue togheter as mésons or another pair is created to combine they, totalizing four particles?
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Quarks and pai-production [duplicate]

When Quark, antiuquark pair is created by high energy photons, they glue togheter as mésons or another pair is created to combine they, totalizing four particles? Following QCD both quarks would glue ...
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31 views

Pair production of quarks

I was reading about pair-production of particles by photons, and in every place that I read, only the electron/positron production was said. So I had the following doubt, is it possible to have a ...
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Can a quark be changed to a different flavour?

For example, is it possible to change an up quark into a down quark or vice versa? If so, what is the practical process for doing such a thing? What is the theory behind it? For an example, lets say ...
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132 views

Does string theory explain the existence of 3 generations of quarks/leptons?

I am wondering whether string theory explains the existence of 3 families of quarks/leptons or not. I have a very limited understanding of string theory, as of now, and I have a mathematical ...
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75 views

What is the cause of the minor mass difference between the proton and the neutron?

As known, the proton is from two up and a single down quark, while the neutron is from a single up and two down quarks. The down quark is a little bit more massive and the up, and so the neutron is ...
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88 views

What makes neutron heavier than a proton? [duplicate]

The mass of proton is 1.672*10¯²7 kg while it is 1.675*10¯²7 kg. Both are made up of 3 quarks each. Then what makes proton lighter than a neutron?
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56 views

Is there scale invariance in the region of QCD aymptotic freedom?

It is said that in the deep inelastic scattering, scale invariance emerges. In the scattering of electrons off protons, this reflects the asymptotic freedom. Now I got a question. Normally, a system ...
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107 views

Can quarks have anti-colors? [closed]

What is the reason that the color properties we call red, green and blue have become tied to quarks, while what we call anti-red, anti-green and anti-blue has become tied to anti-quarks? Do note that ...
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131 views

Can coherent superpositions of a neutron and antineutron exist?

In my recent post I learned that electric charge is always conserved in contrast to strangeness quantum number, which limits the types of Hadrons that can be build. Furthermore, also different masses ...
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Derivation of Gell-Mann Okubo relation for mesons

In SU(3) quark model of hadronic structure one assumes that mass splitings between hadrons is due to difference between masses of $s$ quark and $u,d$. This is modeled by perturbation Hamiltonian $$ \...
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Valence sea quarks parton distribution functions

There's somethin from Thomson (Modern Particle Physics) that I am a little mythed by. Section 8.4.3, eq. 8.3 is given as $$ \frac{F^{\mathrm{en}}_2(x)}{F^{\mathrm{ep}}_2(x)}=\frac{4d_{V}(x)+u_{V}(x)+...
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How does quark color affect the identity of a hadron?

I've read about colors relating to quarks and hadrons and I know that they can change colors because of the exchange with gluons, but does changing color change the type of hadron? Does a proton ...
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Why does confinement apply only to quarks, and not to nucleons?

When energy is input in an attempt to break quark bonds one simply generates more quarks through hadronisation. The explanation my physics book gives for this is that "the strength of the strong ...
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66 views

What are quarks made out of? [duplicate]

I want to know what quarks are made out of for a project for my class. It has always confused on what quarks are.
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What's the minimum practical energy for top production at a hadron collider?

I'm curious about what the minimum energy needed to (practically) detect the top quark would be, in a hadron collider. Obviously it has to be greater than the strict minimum energy of 350 GeV due to ...
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Why is there no baryon isospin singlet with spin 3/2?

All of the baryons in the spin-1/2 octet except the $\Lambda$ isospin singlet have spin-3/2 excited states in the baryon decuplet. What is it that prevents the existence of a $\Lambda^{*}$ baryon with ...
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Is there a colour “magnetic” field?

Does the colour charge of quarks brings a "colour magnetic field" into existence? When the quark is moving you should expect that it results in the same kind of magnetic field as a moving electric ...
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36 views

Total Angular Momentum of Hadrons

Hadrons are made of 2 or 3 quarks. Quarks have spin 1/2, so Mesons can have spin S = 1 or spin S = 0, and Baryons can have spin S = 3/2 or spin S = 1/2. Is there orbital angular momentum of the quarks ...
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How far can we separate two bound quarks?

If we try to separate two quarks bound into a meson or a hadron, the energy in the gluon field eventually will be large enough to spawn a quark-antiquark pair. How far can we stretch that gluon ...
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Why is quark flavor just a SU(N) group?

In the standard model one has U(1) for electromagnetism, SU(2) for the weak sector and SU(3) for the color sector. One could say that in the quark part of the fermions, there are $$ \underbrace{6}_\...
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882 views

What do quarks look like?

I've heard everything from zero-dimensional points, to squares, and I would love to know what they really look like, or if they have any physical shape.
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Is there a reason why every meson and baryon has an integer electric charge? [duplicate]

Is there a reason why every meson and baryon has an integer electric charge? For example, why is there no meson existing of two up quarks, giving a charge of $\frac43$?
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130 views

On shell and off shell simultaneously?

I am considering the following one loop virtual correction in the DIS process: where I have a quark of momentum $p$ coming in, emitting a gluon before interacting with a photon of momentum $q$ to ...
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Assume that one of the generation of quarks is massless then cp violation is still there in quark sector?

If one of the generation of quarks(say up and down) is massless then cp-violation is still there in quark sector?
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A few questions on quarks, gluons and the strong force

I wanted to answer for myself some pretty fundamental questions pertaining to the strong interaction, color charge and quarks, but I'm sort of stumbling on a few. So I wanted to find the reason/...
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Assuming that one of the quark is massless,can we still observe CP violation in the quark sector?

If the mass of the one of the quarks (say the up quark) is taken to be zero, can we still observe CP violation in the quark sector?
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$e^+e^-\to q\bar{q}$: Reconstructing $q\bar{q}$ energy and momentum

Question In a real collider experiment e.g. LHC / LEP how can one reconstruct the energy and momentum of the resultant $q\bar{q}$ pair produced from the process $e^+e^-\to q\bar{q}$? Specifically, ...
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Possible implications of Tetraquark/Quark Quartet

Today on Nature's website appeared a news about the discovery of a quark quartet (formed from two quarks and two antiquarks). They say that this particle containing four quarks is confirmed. This is ...
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Do quark charges repel one another?

Positive electrical charges repel other positive charges, and negatives repel negatives. But does that happen for quarks, too? I never saw mention of it, but if so, that would mean the up quarks in a ...
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Why do particle physicists use the $h\rightarrow{\gamma\gamma}$ decay mode rather than $h\rightarrow{b\bar{b}}$?

Just wondering, the $h\rightarrow{\gamma\gamma}$ decay mode is often quoted as being most sensitive to measuring the mass of the Higgs particle, why isn't the $h\rightarrow{b\bar{b}}$ decay channel ...
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Raising and lowering operators for a composite isospin $SU(2)$ system

Consider pion states composed of $q \bar q$ pairs where $q \in \left\{u,d \right\}$ transforms under an $SU(2)$ isospin flavour symmetry. These bound states transform in the tensor product $R_1 \...
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Relationship between electrons (leptons) and quarks

I assert the following is true: Either: electrons are made up of (two) quarks Or: Quarks are made up of some kind of smaller particles, which also make up electrons. I think this must be the case ...
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Does gravity exist between quarks in a neutron?

Does gravity exist between quarks in a neutron? I mean, I've learned that gravity exists between objects that have mass/energy. But does this apply between quarks in a neutron?
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Standard-model flavor symmetry

If we consider the chiral Lagrangian after the spontaneous symmetry breaking, we have got fermion masses and Yukawa couplings to the physical Higgs boson. So it follows global symmetries in flavor ...
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How to build tetra-quark mesons symmetry group?

I was thinking about the issue while reviewing my group theory notes. One can construct mesons with a nonet as an octet and a singlet, $SU(3)\otimes SU(3) = 8\oplus \bar{1}$. In a same way but for $qq$...
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How would one go about drawing a Feynman diagram of color screening and anti-screening in QCD?

Title really explains this one. I'm not sure how to put together a diagram of the lowest order for colour screening and anti-screening in QCD. Seems to be a lack of diagrams for this in the literature!...
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Can quarks be considered real and elementary?

In our current theories all hadrons are made up of quarks and gluons. This view reduces considerably the big family of hadrons by providing a very logical structure in which all quantum properties ...
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Why do certain mesons not self-destruct? [duplicate]

As I understand it, particles and antoparticles annihilate one another. But some mesons (and pions?) consist of a quark and its antiquark. How can they exist without the two particles annihilating ...
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Parts of the Quark Wavefunction

Quarks are fermions meaning that they have an antisymmetric wavefunction. Under particle exchange the sign of the wavefunction. The wavefunction is made up of a few different parts $$ \psi_{Total} = \...
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Quarks falling in a black hole?

All I know about quarks is that they make up protons and neutrons and you can't really pull a quark pair apart, you just end up with 2 quark pairs because of all the energy you added becomes 2 new ...
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Why is the charmed eta meson its own antiparticle, but the neutral kaon is not?

I have a limited understanding of antiparticles, so this may be why I am unable to explain why certain mesons are their own antiparticles, while others are not. My understanding is that antiparticles ...
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Can a massless quark exist?

Is there any possible way to extract all the mass of a quark? Probably under extreme Gs or heat or pressure?