I've heard always that quarks has fractional electric charge, How do we know that quarks has fractional electric charge? what is the process that gives quarks its fractional electric charge? Ok ...
How quarks electric charge directly have been measured when quarks never directly observed in isolation? (Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement.)
Quarks have the unusual characteristic of having a fractional electric charge. here there is a new model that suggests maybe an up Quark has no electric charge and infact down Quark has electric ...
What is the explanation between equality of proton and electron charges (up to a sign)? This is connected to the gauge invariance and renormalization of charge is connected to the renormalization of ...