# Tagged Questions

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### Current Status of the Monte Carlo Sign Problem

I've been reading about the Monte Carlo sign problem, and I am a little confused about its current status. Specifically, after reading this post When is the "minus sign problem" in quantum ...
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### What is the density operator for an isothermalโisobaric ensemble (T,p,N)?

In the microcanonical ensemble $(E,V,N)$, the density operator is $$\hat{\rho}=\frac{\delta(\hat{H}-E\,\hat{I})}{Tr(\delta(\hat{H}-E\,\hat{I}))}$$ Where $\hat{H}$ is the Hamiltonian of the system and ...
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### Diamagnetism of a degenerate electron gas for weak fields

In the book "Statistical Physics, Part I ($3^{{\rm rd}}$ edition)" by Landau and Lifshitz, at $\S59$ when he treats the diamagnetic part of the magnetisation of a degenerate electron gas for weak ...
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### Why is (von Neumann) entropy maximized for an ensemble in thermal equilibrium?

Consider a quantum system in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath. In determining the density operator of the system, the usual procedure is to maximize the von Neumann entropy subject to the ...
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### Chemical potential related with quantum and classical limit in ideal gas

For ideal gas we have chemical potential $\mu = \tau \ln \left(\frac{n}{n_Q}\right)$ where $n = N/V$ number density and $n_Q = \left(\frac{M\tau}{2\pi \hbar^2}\right)^{\frac{3}{2}}$ Note we call ...
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### Spin statistics

I have a very intrinsic question about quantum field theory and even more general, why in 3+1-dimensional spacetime, we have only two statistics for particles to obey? Therefore why we have only two ...
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### Irrelevance of parastatistics for space dimension > 2

Consider a system of $n$ undistinguishable particles moving in $d$-dimensional Euclidean space $E^d$. The configuration space is $M=((E^d)^n \setminus \Delta)/S_n$ where $\Delta$ is the diagonal (...
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### What causes Paulis Exclusion Principle?

Currently I'm taking an astrophysics class and has now come across electron degeneracy. As far as I understand, the reason why white dwarfs and such, does not collapse, is due to this, meaning that ...
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### Thermal fluctuations in metals

My professor said that the $k_BT$ displacement in the energy levels of the band electrons is due to the space-thermal displacement of the potential of the ion host. I think that this displacement is ...
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### What is parafermion in condensed matter physics?

Recently, parafermion becomes hot in condensed matter physics (1:Nature Communications, 4, 1348 (2013),[2]:Phys. Rev. X, 2, 041002 (2012), [3]:Phys. Rev. B, 86, 195126 (2012),[4]:Phys. Rev. B,87, ...
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### Statistical count

I am reading the book"Heat and Thermodynamics" by Mark Waldo Zemansky and Richard Dittman. In the chapter "Statistical Mechanics" it says if I have $N_{i}$ distinguishable particles in any of $g_{i}$ ...
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### Partition function for classical particle and quantum particle are the same?

Permutation for classical particle $$\Omega=\frac{N!}{\Pi n_i!}$$ By using Lagrange method of undetermined multiplier, we get $$n_i=Ae^{\frac{-E}{kT}}$$ Probability, $$p=\frac{n_i} {Z}$$ where we ...
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### How to deal with mean field method in antiferromagnetism?

There are lots of ways to apply the mean field method to deal with the Ising model whose ground state is a ferromagnetic state. Hence, it is easy to find the order parameter named magnetization to ...
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### Mutually unbiased bases

This question can be formulated in two ways. Let there be two $d$-dimensional orthonormal bases $B_{1}$ and $B_{2}$. I refer to the elements of $B_{1}$ by $\lvert\nu_{i}\rangle$ and to the elements of ...
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### Fermi-Dirac distribution derivation?

I am trying to derive the Fermi-Dirac statistics using density matrix formalism. I know that $$<A>= Tr \rho A.$$ So I started from <n(\epsilon_i)>= Tr \rho n(\epsilon_i)=\frac {1}{Z} ...